Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution -- Rights Guaranteed: Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process, and Equal Protection
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
- The Fourteenth Amendment And States’ Rights
- Citizens Of The United States
- Privileges Or Immunities
Due Process Of Law
- The Rise and Fall of Economic Substantive Due Process: Overview
- Regulation of Labor Conditions
- Regulation of Business Enterprises: Price Controls
- Regulation of Public Utilities and Common Carriers
- Regulation of Businesses, Corporations, Professions, and Trades
- Protection of State Resources
- Ownership of Real Property: Rights and Limitations
- Health, Safety, and Morals
- Vested and Remedial Rights
- State Control over Local Units of Government
- Taxing Power
- Jurisdiction to Tax
- Procedure in Taxation
- Eminent Domain
- Fundamental Rights (Noneconomic Substantive Due Process)
Procedural Due Process Civil
- The Procedure That Is Due Process
- Power of the States to Regulate Procedure
- Procedural Due Process—criminal Generally: The Principle of Fundamental Fairness
The Elements of Due Process
- Initiation of the Prosecution.
- Clarity in Criminal Statutes: The Void-for-Vagueness Doctrine.
- Criminal Identification Process.
- Fair Trial.
- Prosecutorial Misconduct.
- Proof, Burden of Proof, and Presumptions.
- The Problem of the Incompetent or Insane Defendant.
- Guilty Pleas.
- Corrective Process: Appeals and Other Remedies.
- Rights of Prisoners.
- Probation and Parole.
- The Problem of the Juvenile Offender.
- The Problem of Civil Commitment.
- Equal Protection Of The Laws
Traditional Equal Protection: Economic Regulation and related exercises of the police power
- Police Power Regulation
- Other Business and Employment Relations
Equal Protection And Race
- Capital Punishment
- Other Areas of Discrimination
- “Affirmative Action”: Remedial Use of Racial Classifications
The New Equal Protection
- Classifications Meriting Close Scrutiny
- Fundamental Interests: The Political Process
- The Right to Travel
- Marriage and Familial Relations
- Sexual Orientation
- Poverty and Fundamental Interests: The Intersection of Due Process and Equal Protection
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
No Person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But congress may by a vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.