2019 Massachusetts General Laws
Part I - Administration of the Government
Title XXII - Corporations
Chapter 180 - Corporations for Charitable and Certain Other Purposes
Section 3 - Incorporators; Manner of Incorporation; Classes of Members; Personal Liability of Officers and Directors to Corporation
Section 3. One or more persons, of the age of eighteen years or more in the case of natural persons, may act as incorporators to form a corporation for any of the purposes mentioned in section four. The corporation shall be formed in the manner prescribed in and subject to section thirty of chapter sixty-nine, section two B of chapter one hundred and fifty-five and sections eleven, twelve and thirteen of chapter one hundred and fifty-six B, except that the corporation shall have no capital stock, the articles of organization shall omit references to stock and stockholders, the articles of organization shall specify the purposes for which the corporation is formed and the corporation may not assume a name that is misleading as to its corporate purposes.
A corporation may have one or more classes of members. If the corporation has one or more classes of members, the designation of such class or classes, the manner of election or appointment, the duration of membership and the qualification and rights, including voting rights, of the members of each class shall be set forth in the articles of organization or the by-laws. If a corporation does not have members, any action or vote required or permitted by this chapter to be taken by members of the corporation shall be taken by action or vote of the same percentage of the directors of the corporation.
The articles of organization, in addition, may state a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of officers and directors to the corporation or its members for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as an officer or director notwithstanding any provision of law imposing such liability; provided, however, that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of an officer or director (i) for any breach of the officer's or director's duty of loyalty to the corporation or its members, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, or (iii) for any transaction from which the officer or director derived an improper personal benefit. No provision adopted pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph shall eliminate or limit the liability of an officer or director for any act or omission occurring prior to the date upon which such provision becomes effective.