2021 Georgia Code
Title 51 - Torts
Chapter 12 - Damages
Article 1 - General Provisions
§ 51-12-5.1. Punitive Damages

Universal Citation: GA Code § 51-12-5.1 (2021)
  1. As used in this Code section, the term "punitive damages" is synonymous with the terms "vindictive damages," "exemplary damages," and other descriptions of additional damages awarded because of aggravating circumstances in order to penalize, punish, or deter a defendant.
  2. Punitive damages may be awarded only in such tort actions in which it is proven by clear and convincing evidence that the defendant's actions showed willful misconduct, malice, fraud, wantonness, oppression, or that entire want of care which would raise the presumption of conscious indifference to consequences.
  3. Punitive damages shall be awarded not as compensation to a plaintiff but solely to punish, penalize, or deter a defendant.
    1. An award of punitive damages must be specifically prayed for in a complaint. In any case in which punitive damages are claimed, the trier of fact shall first resolve from the evidence produced at trial whether an award of punitive damages shall be made. This finding shall be made specially through an appropriate form of verdict, along with the other required findings.
    2. If it is found that punitive damages are to be awarded, the trial shall immediately be recommenced in order to receive such evidence as is relevant to a decision regarding what amount of damages will be sufficient to deter, penalize, or punish the defendant in light of the circumstances of the case. It shall then be the duty of the trier of fact to set the amount to be awarded according to subsection (e), (f), or (g) of this Code section, as applicable.
    1. In a tort case in which the cause of action arises from product liability, there shall be no limitation regarding the amount which may be awarded as punitive damages. Only one award of punitive damages may be recovered in a court in this state from a defendant for any act or omission if the cause of action arises from product liability, regardless of the number of causes of action which may arise from such act or omission.
    2. Seventy-five percent of any amounts awarded under this subsection as punitive damages, less a proportionate part of the costs of litigation, including reasonable attorney's fees, all as determined by the trial judge, shall be paid into the treasury of the state through the Office of the State Treasurer. Upon issuance of judgment in such a case, the state shall have all rights due a judgment creditor until such judgment is satisfied and shall stand on equal footing with the plaintiff of the original case in securing a recovery after payment to the plaintiff of damages awarded other than as punitive damages. A judgment debtor may remit the state's proportional share of punitive damages to the clerk of the court in which the judgment was rendered. It shall be the duty of the clerk to pay over such amounts to the Office of the State Treasurer within 60 days of receipt from the judgment debtor. This paragraph shall not be construed as making the state a party at interest and the sole right of the state is to the proceeds as provided in this paragraph.
  4. In a tort case in which the cause of action does not arise from product liability, if it is found that the defendant acted, or failed to act, with the specific intent to cause harm, or that the defendant acted or failed to act while under the influence of alcohol, drugs other than lawfully prescribed drugs administered in accordance with prescription, or any intentionally consumed glue, aerosol, or other toxic vapor to that degree that his or her judgment is substantially impaired, there shall be no limitation regarding the amount which may be awarded as punitive damages against an active tort-feasor but such damages shall not be the liability of any defendant other than an active tort-feasor.
  5. For any tort action not provided for by subsection (e) or (f) of this Code section in which the trier of fact has determined that punitive damages are to be awarded, the amount which may be awarded in the case shall be limited to a maximum of $250,000.00.
  6. This Code section shall apply only to causes of action arising on or after April 14, 1997.

(Code 1981, §51-12-5.1, enacted by Ga. L. 1987, p. 915, § 5; Ga. L. 1993, p. 1402, § 18; Ga. L. 1997, p. 837, § 1; Ga. L. 2010, p. 863, § 2/SB 296.)

Code Commission notes.

- Pursuant to Code Section 28-9-5, in 1997, in subsection (f), "tort-feasor" was substituted for "tortfeasor" in two places and "judgment" was substituted for "judgement" near the middle and "April 14, 1997" was substituted for "the effective date of this subsection" at the end of subsection (h).

Law reviews.

- For article, "Products Liability Law in Georgia Including Recent Developments," see 43 Mercer L. Rev. 27 (1991). For article, "The Case for Allowing Punitive Damages in Georgia Wrongful Death Actions: The Need to Remove an Unjust Anomaly in Georgia Law," see 45 Mercer L. Rev. 1 (1993). For article commenting on the 1997 amendment of this Code section, see 14 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 63 (1997). For annual survey article on tort law, see 50 Mercer L. Rev. 335 (1998). For annual survey article discussing tort law, see 51 Mercer L. Rev. 461 (1999). For article, "Premises Liability for Criminal Attacks: Same Crimes, New Law," see 5 Ga. St. B .J. 54 (1999). For article, "Insurance," see 53 Mercer L. Rev. 281 (2001). For annual survey of construction law, see 56 Mercer L. Rev. 109 (2004). For annual survey of law of torts, see 56 Mercer L. Rev. 433 (2004). For survey article on labor and employment law, see 60 Mercer L. Rev. 217 (2008). For survey article on tort law, see 60 Mercer L. Rev. 375 (2008). For annual survey on zoning and land use law, see 61 Mercer L. Rev. 427 (2009). For article, "Practice Point: Right of Publicity: A Practitioner's Enigma," see 17 J. Intell. Prop. L. 351 (2010). For article, "The Experiential Future of the Law," see 60 Emory L. J. 585 (2011). For article, "An Insurer's Duty to Settle: The Law in Georgia," see 22 Ga. St. Bar J. 19 (Aug. 2016). For article, "Do's and Don'ts When Handling a Product Liability Matter in Georgia," see 25 Ga. St. B.J. 17 (Aug. 2019). For note, "Mack Trucks, Inc. v. Conkle: The Georgia Supreme Court Tells the Legislature to Keep On Truckin' When Appropriating Punitive Damage Awards to the State Treasury," see 45 Mercer L. Rev. 1439 (1994). For comment, "Are Excessive Punitive Damages Unconstitutional in Georgia?: This Question and More in Colonial Pipeline Co. v. Brown," see 6 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 85 (1989). For comment, "Statutory Punitive Damage Caps and the Profit Motive: An Economic Perspective," see 40 Emory L.J. 303 (1991).



  • General Consideration
  • Purpose
  • Evidentiary Standard
  • Product Liability
  • Other Cases
  • Procedure


Am. Jur. 2d.

- 22 Am. Jur. 2d, Damages, §§ 556 et seq, 747 et seq.


- 25A C.J.S., Damages, § 221 et seq.


- Liability of successor corporation for punitive damages for injury caused by predecessor's product, 55 A.L.R.4th 166.

Credit life insurer's punitive damage liability for refusing payment, 55 A.L.R.4th 246.

Punitive damages: power of equity court to award, 58 A.L.R.4th 844.

Standard of proof as to conduct underlying punitive damage awards - modern status, 58 A.L.R.4th 878.

Measure and elements of damages for pollution of well or spring, 76 A.L.R.4th 629.

Punitive damages: relationship to defendant's wealth as factor in determining propriety of award, 87 A.L.R.4th 141.

Plaintiff's rights to punitive or multiple damages when cause of action renders both available, 2 A.L.R.5th 449.

Right to prejudgment interest on punitive or multiple damages awards, 9 A.L.R.5th 63.

Excessiveness or inadequacy of punitive damages awarded in personal injury or death cases, 12 A.L.R.5th 195.

Validity, construction, and application of statutes requiring that percentage of punitive damages awards be paid directly to state or court-administered fund, 16 A.L.R.5th 129.

Intoxication of automobile driver as basis for awarding punitive damages, 33 A.L.R.5th 303.

Allowance of punitive damages in medical malpractice action, 35 A.L.R.5th 145.

Availability and scope of punitive damages under state employment discrimination law, 81 A.L.R.5th 367.

Validity of state statutory cap on punitive damages, 103 A.L.R.5th 379.

Exemplary or punitive damages for pharmacist's wrongful conduct in preparing or dispensing medical prescription - Cases not under Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C.A. § 2072), 109 A.L.R.5th 397.

Monetary remedies under § 23 of Consumer Product Safety Act (15 USCS § 2072), 87 A.L.R. Fed. 587.

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