Market Street Bancshares, Inc. v. Federal Insurance Co., No. 18-3395 (7th Cir. 2020)Annotate this Case
Under a 2014 contract Federal Insurance agreed to defend and indemnify Peoples Bank, against “claims” made by third parties during the 2014-2017 policy period. At the time of the agreement, the bank was embroiled in a lawsuit that had been filed in 2003. During the damages phase of that lawsuit, in 2016, the plaintiffs argued that the bank owed damages based on a new theory. The bank requested that Federal defend against the argument and cover the bank’s corresponding losses. Federal refused, arguing that the damages argument was not a “claim” under the policy. The bank sued Federal.
The district court granted Federal judgment. The Seventh Circuit affirmed, rejecting the bank’s argument that because the damages argument was not based on the facts and legal theories presented in the 2003 complaint, the damages argument was a “claim” in itself. Under the policy, a “claim” taking the form of “a civil proceeding commenced by the service of a complaint” spans the entire civil action, not just the legal theories and factual allegations in the complaint that commenced the action. The damages argument was part of the civil action begun by the 2003 complaint and is not itself a “claim.”