Virginia Constitution

ARTICLE I - Bill of Rights
Section 1. Equality and rights of men.
Section 2. People the source of power.
Section 3. Government instituted for common benefit.
Section 4. No exclusive emoluments or privileges; offices not to be hereditary.
Section 5. Separation of legislative, executive, and judicial departments; periodical elections.
Section 6. Free elections; consent of governed.
Section 7. Laws should not be suspended.
Section 8. Criminal prosecutions.
Section 9. Prohibition of excessive bail and fines, cruel and unusual punishment, suspension of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws.
Section 10. General warrants of search or seizure prohibited.
Section 11. Due process of law; obligation of contracts; taking of private property; prohibited discrimination; jury trial in civil cases.
Section 12. Freedom of speech and of the press; right peaceably to assemble, and to petition.
Section 13. Militia; standing armies; military subordinate to civil power.
Section 14. Government should be uniform.
Section 15. Qualities necessary to preservation of free government.
Section 16. Free exercise of religion; no establishment of religion.
Section 17. Construction of the Bill of Rights.

ARTICLE II - Franchise and Officers
Section 1. Qualifications of voters.
Section 2. Registration of voters.
Section 3. Method of voting.
Section 4. Powers and duties of General Assembly.
Section 5. Qualifications to hold elective office.
Section 6. Apportionment.
Section 7. Oath or affirmation.
Section 8. Electoral boards; registrars and officers of election.
Section 9. Privileges of voters during election.

ARTICLE III - Division of Powers
Section 1. Departments to be distinct.

ARTICLE IV - Legislature
Section 1. Legislative power.
Section 2. Senate.
Section 3. House of Delegates.
Section 4. Qualifications of senators and delegates.
Section 5. Compensation; election to civil office of profit.
Section 6. Legislative sessions.
Section 7. Organization of General Assembly.
Section 8. Quorum.
Section 9. Immunity of legislators..
Section 10. Journal of proceedings.
Section 11. Enactment of laws.
Section 12. Form of laws.
Section 13. Effective date of laws.
Section 14. Powers of General Assembly; limitations.
Section 15. General laws.
Section 16. Appropriations to religious or charitable bodies.
Section 17. Impeachment.
Section 18. Auditor of Public Accounts.

ARTICLE V - Executive
Section 1. Executive power; Governor's term of office.
Section 2. Election of Governor.
Section 3. Qualifications of Governor.
Section 4. Place of residence and compensation of Governor.
Section 5. Legislative responsibilities of Governor.
Section 6. Presentation of bills; powers of Governor; vetoes and amendments.
Section 7. Executive and administrative powers.
Section 8. Information from administrative officers.
Section 9. Administrative organization.
Section 10. Appointment and removal of administrative officers.
Section 11. Effect of refusal of General Assembly to confirm an appointment by the Governor.
Section 12. Executive clemency.
Section 13. Lieutenant Governor; election and qualifications.
Section 14. Duties and compensation of Lieutenant Governor.
Section 15. Attorney General.
Section 16. Succession to the office of Governor.
Section 17. Commissions and grants.

ARTICLE VI - Judiciary
Section 1. Judicial power; jurisdiction.
Section 2. Supreme Court.
Section 3. Selection of Chief Justice.
Section 4. Administration of the judicial system.
Section 5. Rules of practice and procedure.
Section 6. Opinions and judgments of the Supreme Court.
Section 7. Selection and qualification of judges.
Section 8. Additional judicial personnel.
Section 9. Commission; compensation; retirement.
Section 10. Disabled and unfit judges.
Section 11. Incompatible activities.
Section 12. Limitation; judicial appointment.

ARTICLE VII - Local Government
Section 1. Definitions.
Section 2. Organization and government.
Section 3. Powers.
Section 4. County and city officers.
Section 5. County, city, and town governing bodies.
Section 6. Multiple offices.
Section 7. Procedures.
Section 8. Consent to use public property.
Section 9. Sale of property and granting of franchises by cities and towns.
Section 10. Debt.

ARTICLE VIII - Education
Section 1. Public schools of high quality to be maintained.
Section 2. Standards of quality; State and local support of public schools.
Section 3. Compulsory education; free textbooks.
Section 4. Board of Education.
Section 5. Powers and duties of the Board of Education.
Section 6. Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Section 7. School boards.
Section 8. The Literary Fund.
Section 9. Other educational institutions.
Section 10. State appropriations prohibited to schools or institutions of learning not owned or exclusively controlled by the State or some subdivision thereof; exceptions to rule.
Section 11. Aid to nonpublic higher education.

ARTICLE IX - Corporations
Section 1. State Corporation Commission.
Section 2. Powers and duties of the Commission.
Section 3. Procedures of the Commission.
Section 4. Appeals from actions of the Commission.
Section 5. Foreign corporations.
Section 6. Corporations subject to general laws.
Section 7. Exclusions from term "corporation" or "company."

ARTICLE X - Taxation and Finance
Section 1. Taxable property; uniformity; classification and segregation.
Section 2. Assessments.
Section 3. Taxes or assessments upon abutting property owners.
Section 4. Property segregated for local taxation; exceptions.
Section 5. Franchise taxes; taxation of corporate stock.
Section 6. Exempt property.
Section 7. Collection and disposition of State revenues.
Section 8. Limit of tax or revenue.
Section 9. State debt.
Section 10. Lending of credit, stock subscriptions, and works of internal improvement.
Section 11. Governmental employees retirement system.

ARTICLE XI - Conservation
Section 1. Natural resources and historical sites of the Commonwealth.
Section 2. Conservation and development of natural resources and historical sites.
Section 3. Natural oyster beds.
Section 4. Right of the people to hunt, fish, and harvest game.

ARTICLE XII - Future Changes
Section 1. Amendments.
Section 2. Constitutional convention.

Section 1. Effective date of revised Constitution.
Section 2. Officers and elections.
Section 3. Laws, proceedings, and obligations unaffected.
Section 4. Qualifications of judges.
Section 5. First session of General Assembly following adoption of revised Constitution.
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