Article II of the US Constitution. Executive Department
The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows.
- Executive Department
Clause 2. Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
Clause 3. The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed: and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.
Clause 4. The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
- Electoral College
No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been Fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.
In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Office, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
Commander In Chief
- Development of the Concept
- Presidential Theory of the Commander-in-Chiefship in World War II—And Beyond
- The Cold War and After: Presidential Power To Use Troops Overseas Without Congressional Authorization
- The President as Commander of the Armed Forces
- Martial Law and Constitutional Limitations
- Presidential Advisers
- Pardons And Reprieves
He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Court of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
The Treaty Making Power
- President and Senate
- Treaties as Law of the Land
- Constitutional Limitations on the Treaty Power
- Interpretation and Termination of Treaties as International Compacts
- Indian Treaties
International Agreements Without Senate Approval
- Executive Agreements by Authorization of Congress
- Executive Agreements Authorized by Treaties
- Executive Agreements on the Sole Constitutional Authority of the President
- The Domestic Obligation of Executive Agreements
- State Laws Affecting Foreign Relations—Dormant Federal Power and Preemption
The Executive Establishment
- Appointments and Congressional Regulation of Offices
- Stages of Appointment Process
- The Removal Power
- The Presidential Aegis: Demands for Papers
The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.
He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information on the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.
- Legislative Role Of The President
The Conduct Of Foreign Relations
- The Right of Reception: Scope of the Power
- The Presidential Monopoly
- The Power of Recognition
- Congressional Implementation of Presidential Policies
- The Doctrine of Political Questions
The President As Law Enforcer
- Powers Derived From The “Take Care” Duty
- Impoundment of Appropriated Funds
- Power and Duty of the President in Relation to Subordinate Executive Officers
- The President as Law Interpreter
- Military Power in Law Enforcement: The Posse Comitatus
- Suspension of Habeas Corpus by the President
- Preventive Martial Law
- The President’s Duty in Cases of Domestic Violence in the States
- The President as Executor of the Law of Nations
- Protection Of American Rights Of Person And Property Abroad
- Presidential Action In The Domain Of Congress
- Presidential Immunity From Judical Direction
- Commissioning Officers
The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.