Article I

Article I.

Declaration of Rights

Section 1.      Natural rights.
Section 2.      Power inherent in people.
Section 3.      Religious freedom; sects equal; religious tests
                        prohibited; religious teachers.
Section 4.      Freedom of speech and publication; libel; truth
                        given in evidence; jury determines law and fact.
Section 5.      Unreasonable searches prohibited.
Section 6.      Rights of persons accused.
Section 6-A.  Discrimination against persons prohibited.
Section 7.      No person to answer to certain crimes but on
                        indictment; exceptions; juries.
Section 8.      No double jeopardy.
Section 9.      Sanguinary laws, excessive bail, cruel or
                        unusual punishments prohibited.
Section 10.    Bailable offenses; habeas corpus.
Section 11.    Attainder, ex post facto and contract-impairment
                       laws prohibited.
Section 12.    Treason; testimony of 2 witnesses.
Section 13.    Suspension of laws.
Section 14.    Corporal punishment under military law.
Section 15.    Right of petition.
Section 16.    To keep and bear arms.
Section 17.    Standing armies
Section 18.    Quartering of soldiers on citizens.
Section 19.    Right of redress for injuries.
Section 20.    Trial by jury.
Section 21.    Private property, when to be taken.
Section 22.    Taxes.
Section 23.    Title of nobility prohibited; tenure of offices.
Section 24.    Other rights not impaired.


Declaration of Rights.


Section 1.   Natural rights.  All people are born equally free
and independent, and have certain natural, inherent and
unalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and
defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and
protecting property, and of pursuing and obtaining safety and
happiness.

Section 2.   Power inherent in people.  All power is inherent
in the people; all free governments are founded in their authority
and instituted for their benefit; they have therefore an
unalienable and indefeasible right to institute government, and
to alter, reform, or totally change the same, when their safety
and happiness require it.

Section 3.   Religious freedom; sects equal; religious tests
prohibited; religious teachers.  All individuals have a natural
and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the
dictates of their own consciences, and no person shall be hurt,
molested or restrained in that person's liberty or estate for
worshipping God in the manner and season most agreeable to the
dictates of that person's own conscience, nor for that person's
religious professions or sentiments, provided that that person
does not disturb the public peace, nor obstruct others in their
religious worship; -- and all persons demeaning themselves
peaceably, as good members of the State, shall be equally under
the protection of the laws, and no subordination nor preference
of any one sect or denomination to another shall ever be
established by law, nor shall any religious test be required as
a qualification for any office or trust, under this State; and
all religious societies in this State, whether incorporate or
unincorporate, shall at all times have the exclusive right of
electing their public teachers, and contracting with them for
their support and maintenance.

Section 4.   Freedom of speech and publication; libel; truth
given in evidence; jury determines law and fact.  Every citizen
may freely speak, write and publish sentiments on any subject,
being responsible for the abuse of this liberty; no laws shall
be passed regulating or restraining the freedom of the press;
and in prosecutions for any publication respecting the official
conduct of people in public capacity, or the qualifications of
those who are candidates for the suffrages of the people, or
where the matter published is proper for public information,
the truth thereof may be given in evidence, and in all
indictments for libels, the jury, after having received the
direction of the court, shall have a right to determine, at
their discretion, the law and the fact.

Section 5.   Unreasonable searches prohibited.  The people
shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and
possessions from all unreasonable searches and seizures; and no
warrant to search any place, or seize any person or thing,
shall issue without a special designation of the place to be
searched, and the person or thing to be seized, nor without
probable cause -- supported by oath or affirmation.

Section 6.   Rights of persons accused.  In all criminal
prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by the
accused and counsel to the accused, or either, at the election
of the accused;

 To demand the nature and cause of the accusation, and have a
copy thereof;

To be confronted by the witnesses against the accused;

To have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in favor of
the accused;

To have a speedy, public and impartial trial, and, except in
trials by martial law or impeachment, by a jury of the
vicinity. The accused shall not be compelled to furnish or give
evidence against himself or herself, nor be deprived of life,
liberty, property or privileges, but by judgment of that
person's peers or the law of the land.

Section 6-A.  Discrimination against persons prohibited.  No
person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without
due process of law, nor be denied the equal protection of the
laws, nor be denied the enjoyment of that person's civil rights
or be discriminated against in the exercise thereof.

Section 7.   No person to answer to certain crimes but on
indictment; exceptions; juries.  No person shall be held to
answer for a capital or infamous crime, unless on a presentment
or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases of impeachment,
or in such cases of offenses, as are usually cognizable by a
justice of the peace, or in cases arising in the army or navy,
or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or
public danger.
The Legislature shall provide by law a suitable and impartial
mode of selecting juries, and their usual number and unanimity,
in indictments and convictions, shall be held indispensable.
Section 8.   No double jeopardy.  No person, for the same
offense, shall be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb.

Section 9.   Sanguinary laws, excessive bail, cruel or unusual
punishments prohibited.  Sanguinary laws shall not be passed;
all penalties and punishments shall be proportioned to the
offense; excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive
fines imposed, nor cruel nor unusual punishments inflicted.


Section 10.  Bailable offenses; habeas corpus.  No person
before conviction shall  be bailable for any of the crimes which now
are, or have been denominated capital  offenses since the
adoption of the Constitution, when the proof is evident or the
presumption great, whatever the punishment of the crimes may
be. And the privilege of  the writ of habeas corpus shall not
be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or  invasion
the public safety may require it.

Section 11.  Attainder, ex post facto and contract-impairment
laws prohibited.   The Legislature shall pass no bill of
attainder, ex post facto law, nor law impairing the  obligation
of contracts, and no attainder shall work corruption of blood
nor forfeiture of  estate.

Section 12.  Treason; testimony of 2 witnesses.  Treason
against this State shall  consist only in levying war against it,
adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and  comfort.  No
person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of
2 witnesses  to the same overt act, or confession in open
court.

Section 13.  Suspension of laws.  The laws shall not be
suspended but by the  Legislature or its authority.

Section 14.  Corporal punishment under military law.  No person
shall be subject  to corporal punishment under military law,
except such as are employed in the army or  navy, or in the
militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

Section 15.  Right of petition.  The people have a right at all
times in an orderly  and peaceable manner to assemble to
consult upon the common good, to give instructions  to their
representatives, and to request, of either department of the
government by  petition or remonstrance, redress of their
wrongs and grievances.

Section 16.  To keep and bear arms.  Every citizen has a right
to keep and bear  arms and this right shall never be questioned.

Section 17.  Standing armies.  No standing army shall be kept
up in time of peace  without the consent of the Legislature, and
the military shall, in all cases, and at all  times, be in
strict subordination to the civil power.

Section 18.  Quartering of soldiers on citizens.  No soldier
shall in time of peace  be quartered in any house without the
consent of the owner or occupant, nor in time of  war, but in a
manner to be prescribed by law.

Section 19.  Right of redress for injuries.  Every person, for
an injury inflicted on  the person or the person's reputation,
property or immunities, shall have remedy by due  course of
law; and right and justice shall be administered freely and without
sale,  completely and without denial, promptly and without
delay.

Section 20.  Trial by jury.  In all civil suits, and in all
controversies concerning  property, the parties shall have a
right to a trial by jury, except in cases where it has
heretofore been otherwise practiced; the party claiming the
right may be heard by himself  or herself and with counsel, or
either, at the election of the party.

Section 21.  Private property, when to be taken.  Private
property shall not be  taken for public uses without just
compensation; nor unless the public exigencies require  it.

Section 22.  Taxes.  No tax or duty shall be imposed without
the consent of the  people or of their representatives in the
Legislature.

Section 23.  Title of nobility prohibited; tenure of offices.
No title of nobility or  hereditary distinction, privilege, honor
or emolument, shall ever be granted or confirmed,  nor shall
any office be created, the appointment to which shall be for a
longer time than  during good behavior.

Section 24.  Other rights not impaired.  The enumeration of
certain rights shall  not impair nor deny others retained by
the people.