2017 Wisconsin Statutes & Annotations
Chapter 938. Juvenile justice code.
938.45 Orders applicable to adults.
938.45 Orders applicable to adults.
(1) Orders when adult contributed to condition of juvenile.
(a) If in the hearing of a case of a juvenile alleged to be delinquent under s. 938.12 or in need of protection or services under s. 938.13 it appears that any person 17 years of age or older has been guilty of contributing to, encouraging, or tending to cause by any act or omission, such condition of the juvenile, the court may make orders with respect to the conduct of that person in his or her relationship to the juvenile, including orders relating to determining the ability of the person to provide for the maintenance or care of the juvenile and directing when, how, and where funds for the maintenance or care shall be paid.
(b) An act or failure to act contributes to a condition of a juvenile as described in s. 938.12 or 938.13, even if the juvenile is not found to come within the provisions of s. 938.12 or 938.13, if the natural and probable consequences of that act or failure to act would be to cause the juvenile to come within the provisions of s. 938.12 or 938.13.
(1m) Orders imposing conditions on juvenile's parent, guardian, or legal custodian.
(a) In a proceeding in which a juvenile has been adjudicated delinquent or has been found to be in need of protection or services under s. 938.13, the court may order the juvenile's parent, guardian, or legal custodian to comply with any conditions determined by the court to be necessary for the juvenile's welfare. An order may include participation in mental health treatment, anger management, individual or family counseling or parent training and education, and a requirement for a reasonable contribution, based on ability to pay, toward the cost of those services.
(b) A court may not order inpatient treatment under par. (a) for a juvenile's parent, guardian or legal custodian. All inpatient treatment commitments or admissions must be conducted in accordance with ch. 51.
(1r) Order for parent to pay restitution or forfeiture.
(a) In a proceeding in which a juvenile is found to have committed a delinquent act or a civil law or ordinance violation that has resulted in damage to the property of another, or in actual physical injury to another excluding pain and suffering, the court may order a parent who has custody, as defined in s. 895.035 (1), of the juvenile to make reasonable restitution for the damage or injury. Except for recovery for retail theft under s. 943.51, the maximum amount of any restitution ordered for damage or injury resulting from any one act of a juvenile or from the same act committed by 2 or more juveniles in the custody of the same parent may not exceed $5,000. The order shall include a finding that the parent is financially able to pay the amount ordered and may allow up to the date of expiration of the order for the payment. Any recovery under this paragraph shall be reduced by the amount recovered as restitution for the same act under s. 938.34 (5) or 938.343 (4).
(b) In a proceeding in which the court has determined under s. 938.34 (8) or 938.343 (2) that the imposition of a forfeiture would be in the best interest of the juvenile and in aid of rehabilitation, the court may order a parent who has custody, as defined in s. 895.035 (1), of the juvenile to pay the forfeiture. The amount of any forfeiture ordered may not exceed $5,000. The order shall include a finding that the parent is financially able to pay the amount ordered and shall allow up to 12 months after the date of the order for the payment. Any recovery under this paragraph shall be reduced by the amount recovered as a forfeiture for the same act under s. 938.34 (8) or 938.343 (2).
(2) Right to hearing on orders. No order under sub. (1) (a), (1m) (a), or (1r) (a) or (b) may be entered until the person who is the subject of the contemplated order is given an opportunity to be heard on the order. The court shall cause notice of the time, place, and purpose of the hearing to be served on the person personally at least 10 days before the date of hearing. The procedure in these cases shall, as far as practicable, be the same as in other cases in the court. At the hearing the person may be represented by counsel and may produce and cross-examine witnesses. A person who fails to comply with an order issued by a court under sub. (1) (a), (1m) (a), or (1r) (a) or (b) may be proceeded against for contempt of court. If the person's conduct involves a crime, the person may be proceeded against under the criminal law.
(3) Prosecution of adult contributing to delinquency of juvenile. If it appears at a court hearing that any person 17 years of age or older has violated s. 948.40, the court shall refer the record to the district attorney. This subsection does not prohibit prosecution of violations of s. 948.40 without the prior reference by the court to the district attorney.
The plain meaning of “person" in sub. (1) refers to natural persons. Consequently, a school district is not capable of contributing to the delinquency of a minor under this statute. Accordingly, the circuit court erred as a matter of law when it relied on this provision to obtain authority over a school district. Madison Metropolitan School District v. Circuit Court for Dane County, 2011 WI 72, 336 Wis. 2d 95, 800 N.W.2d 442, 09-2845.
Municipal courts have statutory authority to order parents of a juvenile to pay a forfeiture imposed on their child for violating a nontraffic municipal ordinance. OAG 4-00.