2011 Washington Code
Title 9A Washington criminal code
9A.82 Criminal profiteering act.
Unless the context requires the contrary, the definitions in this section apply throughout this chapter.
(1)(a) "Beneficial interest" means:
(i) The interest of a person as a beneficiary under a trust established under Title 11 RCW in which the trustee for the trust holds legal or record title to real property;
(ii) The interest of a person as a beneficiary under any other trust arrangement under which a trustee holds legal or record title to real property for the benefit of the beneficiary; or
(iii) The interest of a person under any other form of express fiduciary arrangement under which one person holds legal or record title to real property for the benefit of the other person.
(b) "Beneficial interest" does not include the interest of a stockholder in a corporation or the interest of a partner in a general partnership or limited partnership.
(c) A beneficial interest is considered to be located where the real property owned by the trustee is located.
(2) "Control" means the possession of a sufficient interest to permit substantial direction over the affairs of an enterprise.
(3) "Creditor" means a person making an extension of credit or a person claiming by, under, or through a person making an extension of credit.
(4) "Criminal profiteering" means any act, including any anticipatory or completed offense, committed for financial gain, that is chargeable or indictable under the laws of the state in which the act occurred and, if the act occurred in a state other than this state, would be chargeable or indictable under the laws of this state had the act occurred in this state and punishable as a felony and by imprisonment for more than one year, regardless of whether the act is charged or indicted, as any of the following:
(a) Murder, as defined in RCW 9A.32.030 and 9A.32.050;
(b) Robbery, as defined in RCW 9A.56.200 and 9A.56.210;
(c) Kidnapping, as defined in RCW 9A.40.020 and 9A.40.030;
(d) Forgery, as defined in RCW 9A.60.020 and 9A.60.030;
(e) Theft, as defined in RCW 9A.56.030, 9A.56.040, 9A.56.060, 9A.56.080, and 9A.56.083;
(f) Unlawful sale of subscription television services, as defined in RCW 9A.56.230;
(g) Theft of telecommunication services or unlawful manufacture of a telecommunication device, as defined in RCW 9A.56.262 and 9A.56.264;
(h) Child selling or child buying, as defined in RCW 9A.64.030;
(i) Bribery, as defined in RCW 9A.68.010, 9A.68.020, 9A.68.040, and 9A.68.050;
(j) Gambling, as defined in RCW 9.46.220 and 9.46.215 and 9.46.217;
(k) Extortion, as defined in RCW 9A.56.120 and 9A.56.130;
(l) Unlawful production of payment instruments, unlawful possession of payment instruments, unlawful possession of a personal identification device, unlawful possession of fictitious identification, or unlawful possession of instruments of financial fraud, as defined in RCW 9A.56.320;
(m) Extortionate extension of credit, as defined in RCW 9A.82.020;
(n) Advancing money for use in an extortionate extension of credit, as defined in RCW 9A.82.030;
(o) Collection of an extortionate extension of credit, as defined in RCW 9A.82.040;
(p) Collection of an unlawful debt, as defined in RCW 9A.82.045;
(q) Delivery or manufacture of controlled substances or possession with intent to deliver or manufacture controlled substances under chapter 69.50 RCW;
(r) Trafficking in stolen property, as defined in RCW 9A.82.050;
(s) Leading organized crime, as defined in RCW 9A.82.060;
(t) Money laundering, as defined in RCW 9A.83.020;
(u) Obstructing criminal investigations or prosecutions in violation of RCW 9A.72.090, 9A.72.100, 9A.72.110, 9A.72.120, 9A.72.130, 9A.76.070, or 9A.76.180;
(v) Fraud in the purchase or sale of securities, as defined in RCW 21.20.010;
(w) Promoting pornography, as defined in RCW 9.68.140;
(x) Sexual exploitation of children, as defined in RCW 9.68A.040, 9.68A.050, and 9.68A.060;
(y) Promoting prostitution, as defined in RCW 9A.88.070 and 9A.88.080;
(z) Arson, as defined in RCW 9A.48.020 and 9A.48.030;
(aa) Assault, as defined in RCW 9A.36.011 and 9A.36.021;
(bb) Assault of a child, as defined in RCW 9A.36.120 and 9A.36.130;
(cc) A pattern of equity skimming, as defined in RCW 61.34.020;
(dd) Commercial telephone solicitation in violation of RCW 19.158.040(1);
(ee) Trafficking in insurance claims, as defined in RCW 48.30A.015;
(ff) Unlawful practice of law, as defined in RCW 2.48.180;
(gg) Commercial bribery, as defined in RCW 9A.68.060;
(hh) Health care false claims, as defined in RCW 48.80.030;
(ii) Unlicensed practice of a profession or business, as defined in RCW 18.130.190(7);
(jj) Improperly obtaining financial information, as defined in RCW 9.35.010;
(kk) Identity theft, as defined in RCW 9.35.020;
(ll) Unlawful shipment of cigarettes in violation of *RCW 70.155.105(6) (a) or (b);
(mm) Unlawful shipment of cigarettes in violation of RCW 82.24.110(2);
(nn) Unauthorized sale or procurement of telephone records in violation of RCW 9.26A.140;
(oo) Theft with the intent to resell, as defined in RCW 9A.56.340;
(pp) Organized retail theft, as defined in RCW 9A.56.350; or
(qq) Mortgage fraud, as defined in RCW 19.144.080.
(5) "Dealer in property" means a person who buys and sells property as a business.
(6) "Debtor" means a person to whom an extension of credit is made or a person who guarantees the repayment of an extension of credit or in any manner undertakes to indemnify the creditor against loss resulting from the failure of a person to whom an extension is made to repay the same.
(7) "Documentary material" means any book, paper, document, writing, drawing, graph, chart, photograph, phonograph record, magnetic tape, computer printout, other data compilation from which information can be obtained or from which information can be translated into usable form, or other tangible item.
(8) "Enterprise" includes any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, business trust, or other profit or nonprofit legal entity, and includes any union, association, or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity, and both illicit and licit enterprises and governmental and nongovernmental entities.
(9) "Extortionate extension of credit" means an extension of credit with respect to which it is the understanding of the creditor and the debtor at the time the extension is made that delay in making repayment or failure to make repayment could result in the use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation, or property of any person.
(10) "Extortionate means" means the use, or an express or implicit threat of use, of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation, or property of any person.
(11) "Financial institution" means any bank, trust company, savings and loan association, savings bank, mutual savings bank, credit union, or loan company under the jurisdiction of the state or an agency of the United States.
(12) "Pattern of criminal profiteering activity" means engaging in at least three acts of criminal profiteering, one of which occurred after July 1, 1985, and the last of which occurred within five years, excluding any period of imprisonment, after the commission of the earliest act of criminal profiteering. In order to constitute a pattern, the three acts must have the same or similar intent, results, accomplices, principals, victims, or methods of commission, or be otherwise interrelated by distinguishing characteristics including a nexus to the same enterprise, and must not be isolated events. However, in any civil proceedings brought pursuant to RCW 9A.82.100 by any person other than the attorney general or county prosecuting attorney in which one or more acts of fraud in the purchase or sale of securities are asserted as acts of criminal profiteering activity, it is a condition to civil liability under RCW 9A.82.100 that the defendant has been convicted in a criminal proceeding of fraud in the purchase or sale of securities under RCW 21.20.400 or under the laws of another state or of the United States requiring the same elements of proof, but such conviction need not relate to any act or acts asserted as acts of criminal profiteering activity in such civil action under RCW 9A.82.100.
(13) "Real property" means any real property or interest in real property, including but not limited to a land sale contract, lease, or mortgage of real property.
(14) "Records" means any book, paper, writing, record, computer program, or other material.
(15) "Repayment of an extension of credit" means the repayment, satisfaction, or discharge in whole or in part of a debt or claim, acknowledged or disputed, valid or invalid, resulting from or in connection with that extension of credit.
(16) "Stolen property" means property that has been obtained by theft, robbery, or extortion.
(17) "To collect an extension of credit" means to induce in any way a person to make repayment thereof.
(18) "To extend credit" means to make or renew a loan or to enter into an agreement, tacit or express, whereby the repayment or satisfaction of a debt or claim, whether acknowledged or disputed, valid or invalid, and however arising, may or shall be deferred.
(19) "Traffic" means to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of stolen property to another person, or to buy, receive, possess, or obtain control of stolen property, with intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of the property to another person.
(20)(a) "Trustee" means:
(i) A person acting as a trustee under a trust established under Title 11 RCW in which the trustee holds legal or record title to real property;
(ii) A person who holds legal or record title to real property in which another person has a beneficial interest; or
(iii) A successor trustee to a person who is a trustee under (a)(i) or (ii) of this subsection.
(b) "Trustee" does not mean a person appointed or acting as:
(i) A personal representative under Title 11 RCW;
(ii) A trustee of any testamentary trust;
(iii) A trustee of any indenture of trust under which a bond is issued; or
(iv) A trustee under a deed of trust.
(21) "Unlawful debt" means any money or other thing of value constituting principal or interest of a debt that is legally unenforceable in the state in full or in part because the debt was incurred or contracted:
(a) In violation of any one of the following:
(i) Chapter 67.16 RCW relating to horse racing;
(ii) Chapter 9.46 RCW relating to gambling;
(b) In a gambling activity in violation of federal law; or
(c) In connection with the business of lending money or a thing of value at a rate that is at least twice the permitted rate under the applicable state or federal law relating to usury.
[2008 c 108 § 24. Prior: 2006 c 277 § 5; 2006 c 193 § 2; prior: 2003 c 119 § 6; 2003 c 113 § 3; 2003 c 53 § 85; prior: 2001 c 222 § 3; 2001 c 217 § 11; prior: 1999 c 143 § 40; prior: 1995 c 285 § 34; 1995 c 92 § 5; 1994 c 218 § 17; prior: 1992 c 210 § 6; 1992 c 145 § 13; 1989 c 20 § 17; 1988 c 33 § 5; 1986 c 78 § 1; 1985 c 455 § 2; 1984 c 270 § 1.]
*Reviser's note: RCW 70.155.105 was repealed by 2009 c 278 § 3.
Findings -- 2008 c 108: See RCW 19.144.005.
Intent -- Effective date -- 2003 c 53: See notes following RCW 2.48.180.
Purpose -- Effective date -- 2001 c 222: See notes following RCW 9A.82.001.
Captions not law -- 2001 c 217: See note following RCW 9.35.005.
Effective date -- 1995 c 285: See RCW 48.30A.900.
Effective date -- 1994 c 218: See note following RCW 9.46.010.
Severability -- Effective date -- 1989 c 20: See RCW 19.158.900 and 19.158.901.
Effective date -- 1988 c 33 § 5: "Section 5 of this act shall take effect July 1, 1988." [1988 c 33 § 8.]
Severability -- 1988 c 33: See RCW 61.34.900.
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