2021 US Code
Title 29 - Labor
Chapter 7 - Labor-Management Relations
Subchapter II - National Labor Relations
Sec. 169 - Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees

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Citation 29 U.S.C. § 169 (2021)
Section Name §169. Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees
Section Text

Any employee who is a member of and adheres to established and traditional tenets or teachings of a bona fide religion, body, or sect which has historically held conscientious objections to joining or financially supporting labor organizations shall not be required to join or financially support any labor organization as a condition of employment; except that such employee may be required in a contract between such employees' employer and a labor organization in lieu of periodic dues and initiation fees, to pay sums equal to such dues and initiation fees to a nonreligious, nonlabor organization charitable fund exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26, chosen by such employee from a list of at least three such funds, designated in such contract or if the contract fails to designate such funds, then to any such fund chosen by the employee. If such employee who holds conscientious objections pursuant to this section requests the labor organization to use the grievance-arbitration procedure on the employee's behalf, the labor organization is authorized to charge the employee for the reasonable cost of using such procedure.

Source Credit

(July 5, 1935, ch. 372, §19, as added Pub. L. 93–360, §3, July 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 397; amended Pub. L. 96–593, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3452.)


1980—Pub. L. 96–593 inserted reference to nonlabor organization and provisions respecting charges to employee for use of grievance-arbitration procedure, and struck out applicability of provisions to employees of health care institutions only.


Pub. L. 93–360, §4, July 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 397, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting this section and section 183 of this title and amending sections 152 and 158 of this title] shall become effective on the thirtieth day after its date of enactment [July 26, 1974]."

Publication Title United States Code, 2018 Edition, Supplement 3, Title 29 - LABOR
Category Bills and Statutes
Collection United States Code
SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5:
Contained Within Title 29 - LABOR
Sec. 169 - Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees
Contains section 169
Date 2021
Laws In Effect As Of Date January 3, 2022
Positive Law No
Disposition standard
Statutes at Large References 88 Stat. 397
94 Stat. 3452
Public Law References Public Law 93-360, Public Law 96-593
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