2018 US Code
Title 26 - Internal Revenue Code
Subtitle A - Income Taxes
Chapter 1 - Normal Taxes and Surtaxes
Subchapter G - Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders
Part II - Personal Holding Companies
Sec. 544 - Rules for determining stock ownership

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Citation 26 U.S.C. § 544 (2018)
Section Name §544. Rules for determining stock ownership
Section Text (a) Constructive ownership

For purposes of determining whether a corporation is a personal holding company, insofar as such determination is based on stock ownership under section 542(a)(2), section 543(a)(7), section 543(a)(6), or section 543(a)(4)—

(1) Stock not owned by individual

Stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust shall be considered as being owned proportionately by its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries.

(2) Family and partnership ownership

An individual shall be considered as owning the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his family or by or for his partner. For purposes of this paragraph, the family of an individual includes only his brothers and sisters (whether by the whole or half blood), spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants.

(3) Options

If any person has an option to acquire stock, such stock shall be considered as owned by such person. For purposes of this paragraph, an option to acquire such an option, and each one of a series of such options, shall be considered as an option to acquire such stock.

(4) Application of family-partnership and option rules

Paragraphs (2) and (3) shall be applied—

(A) for purposes of the stock ownership requirement provided in section 542(a)(2), if, but only if, the effect is to make the corporation a personal holding company;

(B) for purposes of section 543(a)(7) (relating to personal service contracts), of section 543(a)(6) (relating to use of property by shareholders), or of section 543(a)(4) (relating to copyright royalties), if, but only if, the effect is to make the amounts therein referred to includible under such paragraph as personal holding company income.

(5) Constructive ownership as actual ownership

Stock constructively owned by a person by reason of the application of paragraph (1) or (3), shall, for purposes of applying paragraph (1) or (2), be treated as actually owned by such person; but stock constructively owned by an individual by reason of the application of paragraph (2) shall not be treated as owned by him for purposes of again applying such paragraph in order to make another the constructive owner of such stock.

(6) Option rule in lieu of family and partnership rule

If stock may be considered as owned by an individual under either paragraph (2) or (3) it shall be considered as owned by him under paragraph (3).

(b) Convertible securities

Outstanding securities convertible into stock (whether or not convertible during the taxable year) shall be considered as outstanding stock—

(1) for purposes of the stock ownership requirement provided in section 542(a)(2), but only if the effect of the inclusion of all such securities is to make the corporation a personal holding company;

(2) for purposes of section 543(a)(7) (relating to personal service contracts), but only if the effect of the inclusion of all such securities is to make the amounts therein referred to includible under such paragraph as personal holding company income;

(3) for purposes of section 543(a)(6) (relating to the use of property by shareholders), but only if the effect of the inclusion of all such securities is to make the amounts therein referred to includible under such paragraph as personal holding company income; and

(4) for purposes of section 543(a)(4) (relating to copyright royalties), but only if the effect of the inclusion of all such securities is to make the amounts therein referred to includible under such paragraph as personal holding company income.


The requirement in paragraphs (1), (2), (3), and (4) that all convertible securities must be included if any are to be included shall be subject to the exception that, where some of the outstanding securities are convertible only after a later date than in the case of others, the class having the earlier conversion date may be included although the others are not included, but no convertible securities shall be included unless all outstanding securities having a prior conversion date are also included.

Source Credit

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 188; Pub. L. 86–435, §1(c), (d), Apr. 22, 1960, 74 Stat. 78; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §225(k)(3), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 93.)

Editorial Notes AMENDMENTS

1964—Pub. L. 88–272 substituted "section 543(a)(7)" for "section 543(a)(5)", and "section 543(a)(4)" for "section 543(a)(9)," wherever appearing.

1960—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 86–435, §1(c)(1), inserted reference to section 543(a)(9) in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 86–435, §1(c)(2), included reference to section 543(a)(9).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–435, §1(d), added par. (4), and inserted reference to par. (4) in last sentence.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1964 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 225(l)(1) of Pub. L. 88–272 set out as a note under section 316 of this title.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1960 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–435 applicable only with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1959, see section 2 of Pub. L. 86–435, set out as a note under section 543 of this title.

Publication Title United States Code, 2018 Edition, Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Category Bills and Statutes
Collection United States Code
SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5:
Contained Within Title 26 - INTERNAL REVENUE CODE
Subtitle A - Income Taxes
CHAPTER 1 - NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXES
Subchapter G - Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders
PART II - PERSONAL HOLDING COMPANIES
Sec. 544 - Rules for determining stock ownership
Contains section 544
Date 2018
Laws In Effect As Of Date January 14, 2019
Positive Law No
Disposition standard
Statutes at Large References 74 Stat. 78
78 Stat. 93
Public Law References Public Law 86-435, Public Law 88-272
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