2016 US Code
Title 46 - Shipping
Subtitle V - Merchant Marine
Part E - Control of Merchant Marine Capabilities
Chapter 561 - Restrictions on Transfers
Sec. 56101 - Approval required to transfer vessel to noncitizen

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Citation 46 U.S.C. § 56101 (2016)
Section Name §56101. Approval required to transfer vessel to noncitizen
Section Text

(a) Restrictions.—

(1) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, section 12119 of this title, or section 611 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, a person may not, without the approval of the Secretary of Transportation—

(A) sell, lease, charter, deliver, or in any other manner transfer, or agree to sell, lease, charter, deliver, or in any other manner transfer, to a person not a citizen of the United States, an interest in or control of—

(i) a documented vessel owned by a citizen of the United States; or

(ii) a vessel last documented under the laws of the United States; or


(B) place under foreign registry, or operate under the authority of a foreign country, a documented vessel or a vessel last documented under the laws of the United States.


(2) Exceptions.—Paragraph (1)(A) does not apply to a vessel that has been operated only for pleasure or only as a fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, or fish tender vessel (as defined in section 2101 of this title).


(b) Approval Before Documentation.—To promote financing with respect to a vessel to be documented under chapter 121 of this title, the Secretary may grant approval under subsection (a) before the vessel is documented.

(c) Exceptions.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, or any contract with the Secretary made under this subtitle or that Act, a person may place a vessel under foreign registry without the approval of the Secretary if—

(1)(A) the Secretary, in conjunction with the Secretary of Defense, determines that at least one replacement vessel of equal or greater military capability and of a capacity that is equivalent or greater, as measured by deadweight tons, gross tons, or container equivalent units, as appropriate, is documented under chapter 121 of this title by the owner of the vessel placed under foreign registry; and

(B) the replacement vessel is not more than 10 years old on the date of that documentation; or

(2) an operating agreement covering the vessel under chapter 531 of this title has expired.


(d) Status of Prohibited Transaction.—A charter, sale, or transfer of a vessel, or of an interest in or control of a vessel, in violation of this section is void.

(e) Penalties.—

(1) Criminal penalty.—A person that knowingly sells, charters, or transfers a vessel, or an interest in or control of a vessel, in violation of this section shall be fined under title 18, imprisoned for not more than 5 years, or both.

(2) Civil penalty.—A person that sells, charters, or transfers a vessel, or an interest in or control of a vessel, in violation of this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for each violation.

(3) Forfeiture.—A documented vessel may be seized by and forfeited to the Government if, in violation of this section, a person—

(A) knowingly sells, charters, or transfers the vessel or an interest in or control of the vessel; or

(B) places the vessel under foreign registry or operates the vessel under the authority of a foreign country.

Source Credit

(Pub. L. 109–304, §8(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1651.)

Editorial Notes
Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
56101(a) 46 App.:808(c). Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §9(c), (d), 39 Stat. 730; July 15, 1918, ch. 152, §3, 40 Stat. 900; June 5, 1920, ch. 250, §18, 41 Stat. 994; Exec. Order No. 6166, §12, eff. June 10, 1933; June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §204, title IX, §904, 49 Stat. 1987, 2016; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §42, 52 Stat. 964; Pub. L. 89–346, §1, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1305; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(26), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 155; Pub. L. 100–710, title I, §104(b)(3), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4750; Pub. L. 101–225, title III, §304(a), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1924; Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, [§]1113(c), (e), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3970, 3971; Pub. L. 107–295, title II, §205(d), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2096.
  46 App.:808a. Pub. L. 98–454, title III, §302, Oct. 5, 1984, 98 Stat. 1734.
56101(b) 46 App.:808(f) Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §9(f), as added Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, §1136(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3987; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3532(a)(1), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1817.
56101(c) 46 App.:808(e) Sept. 7, 1916, ch. 451, §9(e), as added Pub. L. 104–239, §6, Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3132; Pub. L. 108–136, title XXXV, §3532(a)(2), Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1817.
56101(d) 46 App.:808(d)(1).
56101(e) 46 App.:808(d)(2)–(4).

In subsection (a), the text of 46 App. U.S.C. 808a is omitted as unnecessary. In paragraph (1), the words "owned by a citizen of the United States" are omitted as unnecessary because ownership by a citizen is a requirement for documentation. See section 12103 as revised by the bill.

In subsection (c), before paragraph (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this subtitle, the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, or any contract with the Secretary made under this subtitle or that Act" are substituted for "Notwithstanding subsection (c)(2) of this section, the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 [46 App. U.S.C. 1101 et seq.], or any contract entered into with the Secretary of Transportation under that Act" because the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, is restated principally in this subtitle, but other provisions of that Act are being neither restated nor repealed.

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Merchant Marine Act, 1936, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (c), is act June 29, 1936, ch. 858, 49 Stat. 1985, which was classified principally to chapter 27 (§1101 et seq.) of the former Appendix to this title. The Act, with the exception of title V, most of title VI, and sections 301, 801, 802, 809(a), and 909 thereof, was repealed and restated, mainly in this subtitle, by Pub. L. 109–304, §§8, 19, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1555, 1710. Title V and sections 301 and 909 of the Act are set out as notes under section 53101 of this title. Those portions of title VI not repealed by Pub. L. 109–304 and sections 802 and 809(a) of the Act were repealed by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(a), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58. Section 801 of the Act was transferred to section 57522 of this title by Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §313(c)(1)(A), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 58. For complete classification of the Act to the Code, see Tables. For disposition of sections of the former Appendix to Title 46, see Disposition Table preceding section 101 of this title.

Publication Title United States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 4, Title 46 - SHIPPING
Category Bills and Statutes
Collection United States Code
SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5:
Contained Within Title 46 - SHIPPING
Subtitle V - Merchant Marine
Part E - Control of Merchant Marine Capabilities
CHAPTER 561 - RESTRICTIONS ON TRANSFERS
Sec. 56101 - Approval required to transfer vessel to noncitizen
Contains section 56101
Date 2016
Laws In Effect As Of Date January 6, 2017
Positive Law Yes
Disposition standard
Statutes at Large References 39 Stat. 730
40 Stat. 900
41 Stat. 994
49 Stat. 1985, 1987
52 Stat. 964
79 Stat. 1305
95 Stat. 155
98 Stat. 1734
102 Stat. 4750
103 Stat. 1924
110 Stat. 3132, 3970, 3987
116 Stat. 2096
117 Stat. 1817
120 Stat. 1651, 1555
130 Stat. 58
Public Law References Public Law 89-346, Public Law 97-31, Public Law 98-454, Public Law 100-710, Public Law 101-225, Public Law 104-239, Public Law 104-324, Public Law 107-295, Public Law 108-136, Public Law 109-304, Public Law 114-120
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