(a) Authority to bring civil action; jurisdiction
Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any person may commence a civil action on his own behalf—
(1) against any person (including (i) the United States, and (ii) any other governmental instrumentality or agency to the extent permitted by the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution) who is alleged to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or to be in violation of (A) an emission standard or limitation under this chapter or (B) an order issued by the Administrator or a State with respect to such a standard or limitation,
(2) against the Administrator where there is alleged a failure of the Administrator to perform any act or duty under this chapter which is not discretionary with the Administrator, or
(3) against any person who proposes to construct or constructs any new or modified major emitting facility without a permit required under part C of subchapter I (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or part D of subchapter I (relating to nonattainment) or who is alleged to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or to be in violation of any condition of such permit.
The district courts shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such an emission standard or limitation, or such an order, or to order the Administrator to perform such act or duty, as the case may be, and to apply any appropriate civil penalties (except for actions under paragraph (2)). The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to compel (consistent with paragraph (2) of this subsection) agency action unreasonably delayed, except that an action to compel agency action referred to in section 7607(b) of this title which is unreasonably delayed may only be filed in a United States District Court within the circuit in which such action would be reviewable under section 7607(b) of this title. In any such action for unreasonable delay, notice to the entities referred to in subsection (b)(1)(A) of this section shall be provided 180 days before commencing such action.
No action may be commenced—
(1) under subsection (a)(1) of this section—
(A) prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of the violation (i) to the Administrator, (ii) to the State in which the violation occurs, and (iii) to any alleged violator of the standard, limitation, or order, or
(B) if the Administrator or State has commenced and is diligently prosecuting a civil action in a court of the United States or a State to require compliance with the standard, limitation, or order, but in any such action in a court of the United States any person may intervene as a matter of right.1
(2) under subsection (a)(2) of this section prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of such action to the Administrator,
except that such action may be brought immediately after such notification in the case of an action under this section respecting a violation of section 7412(i)(3)(A) or (f)(4) of this title or an order issued by the Administrator pursuant to section 7413(a) of this title. Notice under this subsection shall be given in such manner as the Administrator shall prescribe by regulation.
(c) Venue; intervention by Administrator; service of complaint; consent judgment
(1) Any action respecting a violation by a stationary source of an emission standard or limitation or an order respecting such standard or limitation may be brought only in the judicial district in which such source is located.
(2) In any action under this section, the Administrator, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right at any time in the proceeding. A judgment in an action under this section to which the United States is not a party shall not, however, have any binding effect upon the United States.
(3) Whenever any action is brought under this section the plaintiff shall serve a copy of the complaint on the Attorney General of the United States and on the Administrator. No consent judgment shall be entered in an action brought under this section in which the United States is not a party prior to 45 days following the receipt of a copy of the proposed consent judgment by the Attorney General and the Administrator during which time the Government may submit its comments on the proposed consent judgment to the court and parties or may intervene as a matter of right.
(d) Award of costs; security
The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party, whenever the court determines such award is appropriate. The court may, if a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought, require the filing of a bond or equivalent security in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.
(e) Nonrestriction of other rights
Nothing in this section shall restrict any right which any person (or class of persons) may have under any statute or common law to seek enforcement of any emission standard or limitation or to seek any other relief (including relief against the Administrator or a State agency). Nothing in this section or in any other law of the United States shall be construed to prohibit, exclude, or restrict any State, local, or interstate authority from—
(1) bringing any enforcement action or obtaining any judicial remedy or sanction in any State or local court, or
(2) bringing any administrative enforcement action or obtaining any administrative remedy or sanction in any State or local administrative agency, department or instrumentality,
against the United States, any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or any officer, agent, or employee thereof under State or local law respecting control and abatement of air pollution. For provisions requiring compliance by the United States, departments, agencies, instrumentalities, officers, agents, and employees in the same manner as nongovernmental entities, see section 7418 of this title.
(f) "Emission standard or limitation under this chapter" defined
For purposes of this section, the term "emission standard or limitation under this chapter" means—
(1) a schedule or timetable of compliance, emission limitation, standard of performance or emission standard,
(2) a control or prohibition respecting a motor vehicle fuel or fuel additive, or 2
(3) any condition or requirement of a permit under part C of subchapter I (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or part D of subchapter I (relating to nonattainment),,3 section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), any condition or requirement under an applicable implementation plan relating to transportation control measures, air quality maintenance plans, vehicle inspection and maintenance programs or vapor recovery requirements, section 7545(e) and (f) of this title (relating to fuels and fuel additives), section 7491 of this title (relating to visibility protection), any condition or requirement under subchapter VI (relating to ozone protection), or any requirement under section 7411 or 7412 of this title (without regard to whether such requirement is expressed as an emission standard or otherwise); 4 or
(4) any other standard, limitation, or schedule established under any permit issued pursuant to subchapter V or under any applicable State implementation plan approved by the Administrator, any permit term or condition, and any requirement to obtain a permit as a condition of operations.5
which is in effect under this chapter (including a requirement applicable by reason of section 7418 of this title) or under an applicable implementation plan.
(g) Penalty fund
(1) Penalties received under subsection (a) of this section shall be deposited in a special fund in the United States Treasury for licensing and other services. Amounts in such fund are authorized to be appropriated and shall remain available until expended, for use by the Administrator to finance air compliance and enforcement activities. The Administrator shall annually report to the Congress about the sums deposited into the fund, the sources thereof, and the actual and proposed uses thereof.
(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) the court in any action under this subsection 6 to apply civil penalties shall have discretion to order that such civil penalties, in lieu of being deposited in the fund referred to in paragraph (1), be used in beneficial mitigation projects which are consistent with this chapter and enhance the public health or the environment. The court shall obtain the view of the Administrator in exercising such discretion and selecting any such projects. The amount of any such payment in any such action shall not exceed $100,000.
(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §304, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1706; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §303(a)–(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 771, 772; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a) (77), (78), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 101–549, title III, §302(f), title VII, §707(a)–(g), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2574, 2682, 2683.)
REFERENCES IN TEXT
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (d), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.
Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–2 of this title.
A prior section 304 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 311 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7611 of this title.
1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(a), (f), in closing provisions, inserted before period at end ", and to apply any appropriate civil penalties (except for actions under paragraph (2))" and inserted sentences at end giving courts jurisdiction to compel agency action unreasonably delayed and requiring 180 days notice prior to commencement of action.
Subsec. (a)(1), (3). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(g), inserted "to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or" before "to be in violation".
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(f), substituted "section 7412(i)(3)(A) or (f)(4)" for "section 7412(c)(1)(B)" in closing provisions.
Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "In such action under this section, the Administrator, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right."
Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(d), added subsec. (c)(3).
Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(e), struck out "any condition or requirement of section 7413(d) of this title (relating to certain enforcement orders)" before ", section 7419 of this title", substituted "subchapter VI" for "part B of subchapter I", and substituted "; or" for period at end.
Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(e), which directed that par. (4) be added at end of subsec. (f), was executed by adding par. (4) after par. (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.
Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(b), added subsec. (g).
1977—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(77), inserted "or modified" after "new".
Pub. L. 95–95, §303(a), added subsec. (a)(3).
Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–95, §303(c), inserted provisions which prohibited any construction of this section or any other law of the United States which would prohibit, exclude, or restrict any State, local, or interstate authority from bringing any enforcement action or obtaining any judicial remedy or sanction in any State or local court against the United States or bringing any administrative enforcement action or obtaining any administrative remedy or sanction against the United States in any State or local administrative agency, department, or instrumentality under State or local law.
Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(78), inserted ", or" after "(relating to ozone protection)", substituted "any condition or requirement under an" for "requirements under an", and struck out "or" before "section 7491".
Pub. L. 95–95, §303(b), added par. (3).
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1990 AMENDMENT
Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §707(g), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2683, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect with respect to actions brought after the date 2 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990]."
EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1977 AMENDMENT
Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.
TERMINATION OF REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in subsec. (g)(1) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 6th item on page 165 of House Document No. 103–7.
PENDING ACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS
Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.
MODIFICATION OR RESCISSION OF RULES, REGULATIONS, ORDERS, DETERMINATIONS, CONTRACTS, CERTIFICATIONS, AUTHORIZATIONS, DELEGATIONS, AND OTHER ACTIONS
All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.