2016 US Code
Title 42 - The Public Health and Welfare
Chapter 45 - Fair Housing
Subchapter II - Prevention of Intimidation
Sec. 3631 - Violations; penalties

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Citation 42 U.S.C. § 3631 (2016)
Section Name

§3631. Violations; penalties

Section Text

Whoever, whether or not acting under color of law, by force or threat of force willfully injuries, intimidates or interferes with, or attempts to injure, intimidate or interfere with—

(a) any person because of his race, color, religion, sex, handicap (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), familial status (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), or national origin and because he is or has been selling, purchasing, renting, financing, occupying, or contracting or negotiating for the sale, purchase, rental, financing or occupation of any dwelling, or applying for or participating in any service, organization, or facility relating to the business of selling or renting dwellings; or

(b) any person because he is or has been, or in order to intimidate such person or any other person or any class of persons from—

(1) participating, without discrimination on account of race, color, religion, sex, handicap (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), familial status (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), or national origin, in any of the activities, services, organizations or facilities described in subsection (a) of this section; or

(2) affording another person or class of persons opportunity or protection so to participate; or


(c) any citizen because he is or has been, or in order to discourage such citizen or any other citizen from lawfully aiding or encouraging other persons to participate, without discrimination on account of race, color, religion, sex, handicap (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), familial status (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), or national origin, in any of the activities, services, organizations or facilities described in subsection (a) of this section, or participating lawfully in speech or peaceful assembly opposing any denial of the opportunity to so participate—


shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under title 18 or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both.

Source Credit

(Pub. L. 90–284, title IX, §901, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 89; Pub. L. 93–383, title VIII, §808(b)(4), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 100–430, §9, Sept. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 1635; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320103(e), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2110; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §604(b)(15), (27), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3507, 3508.)

Editorial Notes

AMENDMENTS

1996—Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(27), substituted "under title 18" for "under this title" wherever appearing in closing provisions.

Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(15), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 103–322, §320103(e). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Pub. L. 103–322, §320103(e)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(15), which directed amendment in the caption by striking "bodily injury; death;", could not be executed because the words "bodily injury; death;" do not appear in the section catchline in the original.

Pub. L. 103–322, §320103(e)(2)–(7), as amended by Pub. L. 104–294, §604(b)(15), in concluding provisions, substituted "under this title" for "not more than $1,000," before "or imprisoned not more than one year", inserted "from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire" after "bodily injury results", substituted "under this title" for "not more than $10,000," before "or imprisoned not more than ten years", inserted "from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill," after "death results", substituted "fined under this title or imprisoned" for "subject to imprisonment" before "for any term of years", and inserted ", or both" before period at end.

1988—Cls. (a), (b)(1), (c). Pub. L. 100–430 inserted ", handicap (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title), familial status (as such term is defined in section 3602 of this title)," after "sex".

1974—Pub. L. 93–383 inserted ", sex" after "religion" wherever appearing in cls. (a), (b)(1), and (c).

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104–294, set out as a note under section 13 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1988 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–430 effective on 180th day beginning after Sept. 13, 1988, see section 13(a) of Pub. L. 100–430, set out as a note under section 3601 of this title.

FEDERALLY PROTECTED ACTIVITIES; PENALTIES

Penalties for violations respecting federally protected activities not applicable to and not affecting activities under fair housing provisions of subchapter I of this chapter, see section 101(b) of Pub. L. 90–284, set out as a note under section 245 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

 

Publication Title United States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 4, Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
Category Bills and Statutes
Collection United States Code
SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5:
Contained Within Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 45 - FAIR HOUSING
SUBCHAPTER II - PREVENTION OF INTIMIDATION
Sec. 3631 - Violations; penalties
Contains section 3631
Date 2016
Laws In Effect As Of Date January 6, 2017
Positive Law No
Disposition standard
Statutes at Large References 82 Stat. 89
88 Stat. 729
102 Stat. 1635
108 Stat. 2110
110 Stat. 3507
Public Law References Public Law 90-284, Public Law 93-383, Public Law 100-430, Public Law 103-322, Public Law 104-294
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