2016 US Code
Title 15 - Commerce and Trade
Chapter 2 - Federal Trade Commission; Promotion of Export Trade and Prevention of Unfair Methods of Competition
Subchapter I - Federal Trade Commission
Sec. 44 - Definitions

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Citation 15 U.S.C. § 44 (2016)
Section Name

§44. Definitions

Section Text

The words defined in this section shall have the following meaning when found in this subchapter, to wit:

"Commerce" means commerce among the several States or with foreign nations, or in any Territory of the United States or in the District of Columbia, or between any such Territory and another, or between any such Territory and any State or foreign nation, or between the District of Columbia and any State or Territory or foreign nation.

"Corporation" shall be deemed to include any company, trust, so-called Massachusetts trust, or association, incorporated or unincorporated, which is organized to carry on business for its own profit or that of its members, and has shares of capital or capital stock or certificates of interest, and any company, trust, so-called Massachusetts trust, or association, incorporated or unincorporated, without shares of capital or capital stock or certificates of interest, except partnerships, which is organized to carry on business for its own profit or that of its members.

"Documentary evidence" includes all documents, papers, correspondence, books of account, and financial and corporate records.

"Acts to regulate commerce" means subtitle IV of title 49 and the Communications Act of 1934 [47 U.S.C. 151 et seq.] and all Acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto.

"Antitrust Acts" means the Act entitled "An Act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies", approved July 2, 1890; also sections 73 to 76, inclusive, of an Act entitled "An Act to reduce taxation, to provide revenue for the Government, and for other purposes", approved August 27, 1894; also the Act entitled "An Act to amend sections 73 and 76 of the Act of August 27, 1894, entitled 'An Act to reduce taxation, to provide revenue for the Government, and for other purposes' ", approved February 12, 1913; and also the Act entitled "An Act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes", approved October 15, 1914.

"Banks" means the types of banks and other financial institutions referred to in section 57a(f)(2) of this title.

"Foreign law enforcement agency" means—

(1) any agency or judicial authority of a foreign government, including a foreign state, a political subdivision of a foreign state, or a multinational organization constituted by and comprised of foreign states, that is vested with law enforcement or investigative authority in civil, criminal, or administrative matters; and

(2) any multinational organization, to the extent that it is acting on behalf of an entity described in paragraph (1).

Source Credit

(Sept. 26, 1914, ch. 311, §4, 38 Stat. 719; Mar. 21, 1938, ch. 49, §2, 52 Stat. 111; Pub. L. 102–242, title II, §212(g)(1), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2302; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title IV, §14102(c)(2)(B), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1921; Pub. L. 109–455, §§2, 13, Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3372, 3382; Pub. L. 112–203, §1, Dec. 4, 2012, 126 Stat. 1484.)

Editorial Notes

Amendment of Section

For repeal of amendment by section 13 of Pub. L. 109–455, see Termination Date of 2006 Amendment note below.

REFERENCES IN TEXT

The Communications Act of 1934, referred to in text, is act June 19, 1934, ch. 652, 48 Stat. 1064, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 5 (§151 et seq.) of Title 47, Telecommunications. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 609 of Title 47 and Tables.

The Act entitled "An Act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful restraints and monopolies," approved July 2, 1890, referred to in the text, is known as the Sherman Act, and is classified to sections 1 to 7 of this title.

Sections 73 to 76, inclusive, of an Act entitled "An Act to reduce taxation, to provide revenue for the Government, and for other purposes", approved August 27, 1894, referred to in text, are known as the Wilson Tariff Act. Sections 73 to 76 are classified to sections 8 to 11 of this title.

Act February 12, 1913, is set out as amendments to sections 8 and 11 of this title.

The Act entitled "An Act to supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes", approved October 15, 1914, referred to in text, is the Clayton Act. For classification of the Act to the Code, see References in Text note set out under section 12 of this title.

CODIFICATION

"Subtitle IV of title 49" substituted in text for "the Act entitled 'An Act to regulate commerce', approved February 14, 1887, and all Acts amendatory thereof and supplementary thereto" on authority of Pub. L. 95–473, §3(b), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, the first section of which enacted subtitle IV of Title 49, Transportation.

AMENDMENTS

2012—Pub. L. 112–203, §1, amended Pub. L. 109–455, §13. See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006—Pub. L. 109–455, §2, which added par. defining "Foreign law enforcement agency", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–455, §13, as amended by Pub. L. 112–203, §1. See Termination Date of 2006 Amendment note below.

2002—Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "73 to 76" for "73 to 77" in par. defining "Antitrust Acts".

1991—Pub. L. 102–242 added par. defining "Banks".

1938—Act Mar. 21, 1938, amended section generally.

TERMINATION DATE OF 2006 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 109–455, §13, Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3382, as amended by Pub. L. 112–203, §1, Dec. 4, 2012, 126 Stat. 1484, provided that: "Effective September 30, 2020, this Act [enacting sections 57b–2a, 57b–2b, 57c–1, and 57c–2 of this title, amending this section, sections 45, 46, 56, 57b–2, and 58 of this title, and section 3412 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 58 of this title], and the amendments made by this Act, are repealed, and any provision of law amended by this Act shall be amended to read as if this Act had not been enacted into law."

EFFECTIVE DATE OF 2002 AMENDMENT

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–273 effective Nov. 2, 2002, and applicable only with respect to cases commenced on or after Nov. 2, 2002, see section 14103 of Pub. L. 107–273, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

PRESERVATION OF EXISTING AUTHORITY

Pub. L. 109–455, §12, Dec. 22, 2006, 120 Stat. 3382, provided that: "The authority provided by this Act [see Termination Date of 2006 Amendment note above], and by the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) and the Right to Financial Privacy Act [of 1978] (12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.), as such Acts are amended by this Act, is in addition to, and not in lieu of, any other authority vested in the Federal Trade Commission or any other officer of the United States."

[Section 12 of Pub. L. 109–455, set out above, repealed effective Sept. 30, 2020, see section 13 of Pub. L. 109–455, as amended by section 1 of Pub. L. 112–203, set out as a Termination Date of 2006 Amendment note above.]

Publication Title United States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 4, Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
Category Bills and Statutes
Collection United States Code
SuDoc Class Number Y 1.2/5:
Contained Within Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CHAPTER 2 - FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION; PROMOTION OF EXPORT TRADE AND PREVENTION OF UNFAIR METHODS OF COMPETITION
SUBCHAPTER I - FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION
Sec. 44 - Definitions
Contains section 44
Date 2016
Laws In Effect As Of Date January 6, 2017
Positive Law No
Disposition standard
Statutes at Large References 38 Stat. 719
48 Stat. 1064
52 Stat. 111
92 Stat. 1466
105 Stat. 2302
116 Stat. 1921
120 Stat. 3372, 3382
126 Stat. 1484
Public Law References Public Law 95-473, Public Law 102-242, Public Law 107-273, Public Law 109-455, Public Law 112-203
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