2015 US Code
Title 42 - The Public Health and Welfare (Sections 1 - 18445)
Chapter 126 - Equal Opportunity for Individuals With Disabilities (Sections 12101 - 12213)
Subchapter III - Public Accommodations and Services Operated by Private Entities (Sections 12181 - 12189)
Sec. 12181 - Definitions
|Publication Title||United States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 3, Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE|
|Category||Bills and Statutes|
|Collection||United States Code|
|SuDoc Class Number||Y 1.2/5:|
|Contained Within||Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE|
CHAPTER 126 - EQUAL OPPORTUNITY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES
SUBCHAPTER III - PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND SERVICES OPERATED BY PRIVATE ENTITIES
Sec. 12181 - Definitions
|Laws In Effect As Of Date||January 3, 2016|
|Source Credit||Pub. L. 101-336, title III, §301, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 353.|
|Statutes at Large References||82 Stat. 81|
104 Stat. 353, 327, 365
108 Stat. 1378
122 Stat. 4850
|Public and Private Laws||Public Law 90-284, Public Law 101-336, Public Law 103-272, Public Law 110-432|
As used in this subchapter:(1) Commerce
The term "commerce" means travel, trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication—
(A) among the several States;
(B) between any foreign country or any territory or possession and any State; or
(C) between points in the same State but through another State or foreign country.(2) Commercial facilities
The term "commercial facilities" means facilities—
(A) that are intended for nonresidential use; and
(B) whose operations will affect commerce.
Such term shall not include railroad locomotives, railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, railroad cars described in section 12162 of this title or covered under this subchapter, railroad rights-of-way, or facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 1 (42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.).(3) Demand responsive system
The term "demand responsive system" means any system of providing transportation of individuals by a vehicle, other than a system which is a fixed route system.(4) Fixed route system
The term "fixed route system" means a system of providing transportation of individuals (other than by aircraft) on which a vehicle is operated along a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule.(5) Over-the-road bus
The term "over-the-road bus" means a bus characterized by an elevated passenger deck located over a baggage compartment.(6) Private entity
The term "private entity" means any entity other than a public entity (as defined in section 12131(1) of this title).(7) Public accommodation
The following private entities are considered public accommodations for purposes of this subchapter, if the operations of such entities affect commerce—
(A) an inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for an establishment located within a building that contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that is actually occupied by the proprietor of such establishment as the residence of such proprietor;
(B) a restaurant, bar, or other establishment serving food or drink;
(C) a motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium, or other place of exhibition or entertainment;
(D) an auditorium, convention center, lecture hall, or other place of public gathering;
(E) a bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, shopping center, or other sales or rental establishment;
(F) a laundromat, dry-cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, pharmacy, insurance office, professional office of a health care provider, hospital, or other service establishment;
(G) a terminal, depot, or other station used for specified public transportation;
(H) a museum, library, gallery, or other place of public display or collection;
(I) a park, zoo, amusement park, or other place of recreation;
(J) a nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate, or postgraduate private school, or other place of education;
(K) a day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shelter, food bank, adoption agency, or other social service center establishment; and
(L) a gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course, or other place of exercise or recreation.(8) Rail and railroad
The terms "rail" and "railroad" have the meaning given the term "railroad" in section 20102(1) 1 of title 49.(9) Readily achievable
The term "readily achievable" means easily accomplishable and able to be carried out without much difficulty or expense. In determining whether an action is readily achievable, factors to be considered include—
(A) the nature and cost of the action needed under this chapter;
(B) the overall financial resources of the facility or facilities involved in the action; the number of persons employed at such facility; the effect on expenses and resources, or the impact otherwise of such action upon the operation of the facility;
(C) the overall financial resources of the covered entity; the overall size of the business of a covered entity with respect to the number of its employees; the number, type, and location of its facilities; and
(D) the type of operation or operations of the covered entity, including the composition, structure, and functions of the workforce of such entity; the geographic separateness, administrative or fiscal relationship of the facility or facilities in question to the covered entity.(10) Specified public transportation
The term "specified public transportation" means transportation by bus, rail, or any other conveyance (other than by aircraft) that provides the general public with general or special service (including charter service) on a regular and continuing basis.(11) Vehicle
The term "vehicle" does not include a rail passenger car, railroad locomotive, railroad freight car, railroad caboose, or a railroad car described in section 12162 of this title or covered under this subchapter.
(Pub. L. 101–336, title III, §301, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 353.)REFERENCES IN TEXT
The Fair Housing Act of 1968, referred to in par. (2), probably means the Fair Housing Act, title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, as amended, which is classified principally to subchapter I of chapter 45 (§3601 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.
Section 20102(1) of title 49, referred to in par. (8), was redesignated section 20102(2) and a new section 20102(1) was added by Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, §2(b)(1), (2), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4850.
This chapter, referred to in par. (9)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of this title and Tables.CODIFICATION
In par. (8), "section 20102(1) of title 49" substituted for "section 202(e) of the Federal Railroad Safety Act of 1970 (45 U.S.C. 431(e))" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.EFFECTIVE DATE
Pub. L. 101–336, title III, §310, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 365, provided that:
"(a) General Rule.—Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), this title [enacting this subchapter] shall become effective 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 26, 1990].
"(b) Civil Actions.—Except for any civil action brought for a violation of section 303 [section 12183 of this title], no civil action shall be brought for any act or omission described in section 302 [section 12182 of this title] which occurs—
"(1) during the first 6 months after the effective date, against businesses that employ 25 or fewer employees and have gross receipts of $1,000,000 or less; and
"(2) during the first year after the effective date, against businesses that employ 10 or fewer employees and have gross receipts of $500,000 or less.
"(c) Exception.—Sections 302(a) [section 12182(a) of this title] for purposes of section 302(b)(2)(B) and (C) only, 304(a) [section 12184(a) of this title] for purposes of section 304(b)(3) only, 304(b)(3), 305 [section 12185 of this title], and 306 [section 12186 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 26, 1990]."
1 See References in Text note below.
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