2015 US Code
Title 15 - Commerce and Trade (Sections 1 - 8405)
Chapter 2B - Securities Exchanges (Sections 78a - 78pp)
Sec. 78a - Short title

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Publication TitleUnited States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 3, Title 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 15 - COMMERCE AND TRADE
CHAPTER 2B - SECURITIES EXCHANGES
Sec. 78a - Short title
Containssection 78a
Date2015
Laws In Effect As Of DateJanuary 3, 2016
Positive LawNo
Dispositionstandard
Short Titles'Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act'."
'Investor Protection and Securities Reform Act of 2010'."
'Credit Rating Agency Reform Act of 2006'."
'Emergency Securities Response Act of 2004'."
'Corporate Fraud Accountability Act of 2002'."
'Investor and Capital Markets Fee Relief Act'."
'International Anti-Bribery and Fair Competition Act of 1998'."
'Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998'."
'National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996'."
'Capital Markets Efficiency Act of 1996'."
'Securities and Exchange Commission Authorization Act of 1996'."
'Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995'."
'Unlisted Trading Privileges Act of 1994'."
'Small Business Loan Securitization and Secondary Market Enhancement Act of 1994'."
'Government Securities Act Amendments of 1993'."
'Limited Partnership Rollup Reform Act of 1993'."
'Securities Acts Amendments of 1990'."
'Securities and Exchange Commission Authorization Act of 1990'."
'International Securities Enforcement Cooperation Act of 1990'."
'Shareholder Communications Improvement Act of 1990'."
'Market Reform Act of 1990'."
'Securities Enforcement Remedies and Penny Stock Reform Act of 1990'."
'Penny Stock Reform Act of 1990'."
'Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act of 1988'."
'Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Amendments of 1988'."
'Securities and Exchange Commission Authorization Act of 1987'."
'Government Securities Act of 1986'."
'Shareholder Communications Act of 1985'."
'Insider Trading Sanctions Act of 1984'."
'Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977'."
'Domestic and Foreign Investment Improved Disclosure Act of 1977'."
'Securities Acts Amendments of 1975'."
'Securities Acts Amendments of 1964'."
Unlisted Securities Trading Act.
Source CreditJune 6, 1934, ch. 404, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 881.
Statutes at Large References48 Stat. 881
49 Stat. 1375
78 Stat. 565
89 Stat. 97
91 Stat. 1494, 1498
98 Stat. 1264
99 Stat. 1737
100 Stat. 3208
101 Stat. 1249
102 Stat. 1415, 4677
104 Stat. 931, 951, 963, 2713, 2714, 2721
107 Stat. 2344, 2359
108 Stat. 2198, 4081
109 Stat. 737
110 Stat. 3416, 3417, 3441
112 Stat. 3227, 3302
115 Stat. 2390
116 Stat. 807
118 Stat. 3861
120 Stat. 1327
124 Stat. 1822
126 Stat. 306
Public and Private LawsPublic Law 88-467, Public Law 94-29, Public Law 95-213, Public Law 98-376, Public Law 99-222, Public Law 99-571, Public Law 100-181, Public Law 100-418, Public Law 100-704, Public Law 101-429, Public Law 101-432, Public Law 101-550, Public Law 103-202, Public Law 103-325, Public Law 103-389, Public Law 104-67, Public Law 104-290, Public Law 105-353, Public Law 105-366, Public Law 107-123, Public Law 107-204, Public Law 108-458, Public Law 109-291, Public Law 111-203, Public Law 112-106

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15 U.S.C. § 78a (2015)

§78a. Short title

This chapter may be cited as the "Securities Exchange Act of 1934."

(June 6, 1934, ch. 404, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 881.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "This Act" meaning the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, act June 6, 1934, ch. 404. The act was divided into two titles as follows: "Title I—Regulation of Securities Exchanges" and "Title II—Amendments to Securities Act of 1933." This section was section 1 of title I of the Act, which title, as amended, is set out as sections 78a to 78d–5, 78e to 78l, 78m, 78m–1, 78n to 78o, 78o–3, 78o–4, 78o–5 to 78o–7, 78o–10 to 78u–6, 78v to 78dd–1, 78ee to 78hh, 78mm, and 78pp of this title. Sections 78kk, 78ll, 78nn, and 78oo of this title, which were directed to be added at the end of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, have been treated in the Code as added to title I of the Act to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See Codification notes set out under those sections. Title II of the act amended or repealed sections 77b to 77e, 77j, 77k, 77m, 77o, and 77s, and added former sections 78ii and 78jj of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

SHORT TITLE OF 2012 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 112–106, §1, Apr. 5, 2012, 126 Stat. 306, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 77d–1 of this title, amending sections 77b, 77c, 77d, 77e to 77g, 77r, 78c, 78k–1, 78l, 78m, 78n, 78n–1, 78o, 78o–6, 7213, and 7262 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 77a, 77b, 77d, 77g, 77r, 78c, 78d, 78l, and 78o–6 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 78l of this title] may be cited as the 'Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act'."

SHORT TITLE OF 2010 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 111–203, title IX, §901, July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 1822, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Investor Protection and Securities Reform Act of 2010'."

SHORT TITLE OF 2006 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 109–291, §1, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1327, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 78o–7 of this title, amending sections 78c, 78o, 78q, 78u–2, 80a–2, 80a–9, 80b–2, and 80b–3 of this title, section 4519 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 1087–2 of Title 20, Education, and section 181 of Title 23, Highways, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 78o–7 of this title] may be cited as the 'Credit Rating Agency Reform Act of 2006'."

SHORT TITLE OF 2004 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7803(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3861, provided that: "This section [amending sections 78l and 78o–5 of this title] may be cited as the 'Emergency Securities Response Act of 2004'."

SHORT TITLE OF 2002 AMENDMENTS

Pub. L. 107–204, title XI, §1101, July 30, 2002, 116 Stat. 807, provided that: "This title [amending sections 77h–1, 78u–3, and 78ff of this title and sections 1512 and 1513 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 994 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure] may be cited as the 'Corporate Fraud Accountability Act of 2002'."

Pub. L. 107–123, §1, Jan. 16, 2002, 115 Stat. 2390, provided that: "This Act [enacting chapter 48 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, amending sections 77f, 77ggg, 78d, 78m, 78n, and 78ee of this title, sections 3132 and 5373 of Title 5, and section 1833b of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 78ee of this title and section 4802 of Title 5] may be cited as the 'Investor and Capital Markets Fee Relief Act'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1998 AMENDMENTS

Pub. L. 105–366, §1, Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3302, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 78dd–3 of this title, amending sections 78dd–1, 78dd–2, and 78ff of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 78dd–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'International Anti-Bribery and Fair Competition Act of 1998'."

Pub. L. 105–353, §1, Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3227, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 77b, 77k, 77m, 77p, 77r, 77v, 77z–1 to 77z–3, 77aa, 77ccc, 77ddd, 77mmm, 77sss, 78c, 78d, 78g, 78n, 78o, 78o–4, 78o–5, 78q, 78s, 78t, 78u–4, 78z, 78bb, 78ee, 78kk, 78ll, 80a–2, 80a–3, 80a–12, 80a–18, 80a–29, 80a–30, 80b–3, and 80b–18a of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 77p and 78u of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of 1998'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 104–290, §1(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3416, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 77z–3, 78mm, and 80b–3a of this title, amending sections 77b, 77c, 77f, 77r, 77ddd, 78c, 78d, 78g, 78h, 78o, 78q, 78bb, 78ee, 78kk, 80a–2, 80a–3, 80a–6, 80a–12, 80a–24, 80a–26, 80a–27, 80a–29, 80a–30, 80a–34, 80a–54, 80a–60, 80a–63, 80b–2, 80b–3, 80b–5, and 80b–18a of this title and section 1002 of Title 29, Labor, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 77e, 77r, 78b, 78n, 78o, 78ee, 80a–2, 80a–3, 80a–24, 80a–51, 80b–2, 80b–3a, 80b–10, and 80b–20 of this title, and section 1002 of Title 29] may be cited as the 'National Securities Markets Improvement Act of 1996'."

Pub. L. 104–290, title I, §101, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3417, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 77z–3 and 78mm of this title, amending sections 77b, 77r, 78c, 78g, 78h, 78o, 78q, 78bb, and 80a–2 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 77e and 77r of this title] may be cited as the 'Capital Markets Efficiency Act of 1996'."

Pub. L. 104–290, title IV, §401, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3441, provided that: "This title [amending sections 77f, 78d, 78ee, and 78kk of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 78ee of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities and Exchange Commission Authorization Act of 1996'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1995 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 104–67, §1(a), Dec. 22, 1995, 109 Stat. 737, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 77z–1, 77z–2, 78j–1, 78u–4, and 78u–5 of this title, amending sections 77k, 77l, 77t, 78o, 78t, 78u, and 78u–4 of this title and section 1964 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 77k, 77l, and 78j–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1994 AMENDMENTS

Pub. L. 103–389, §1, Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4081, provided that: "This Act [amending section 78l of this title] may be cited as the 'Unlisted Trading Privileges Act of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–325, title II, §201, Sept. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 2198, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§201–210) of title II of Pub. L. 103–325 enacting section 1835 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, amending sections 77r–1, 78c, 78g, 78h, and 78k of this title and sections 24, 1464, and 1757 of Title 12, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 78b of this title and section 3305 of Title 12] may be cited as the 'Small Business Loan Securitization and Secondary Market Enhancement Act of 1994'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1993 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 103–202, §1(a), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2344, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 3130 of Title 31, Money and Finance, amending sections 78c, 78f, 78n, 78o, 78o–3, 78o–5, 78s, and 78w of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 78f, 78n, and 78o–5 of this title, and section 3121 of Title 31] may be cited as the 'Government Securities Act Amendments of 1993'."

Pub. L. 103–202, title III, §301, Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2359, provided that: "This title [amending sections 78f, 78n, and 78o–3 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 78f and 78n of this title] may be cited as the 'Limited Partnership Rollup Reform Act of 1993'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1990 AMENDMENTS

Pub. L. 101–550, §1, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2713, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 77ccc to 77eee, 77iii to 77rrr, 77uuu, 77vvv, 78c, 78d, 78n, 78o, 78o–4, 78o–5, 78q–1, 78x, 78kk, 79z–5, 80a–2, 80a–9, 80a–44, 80a–45, 80b–2, 80b–3, 80b–10, and 80b–18 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 77aaa and 78n of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities Acts Amendments of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–550, title I, §101, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2713, provided that: "This title [amending sections 77uuu, 78d, 78kk, 79z–5, 80a–45, and 80b–18 of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities and Exchange Commission Authorization Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–550, title II, §201, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2714, provided that: "This title [amending sections 78c, 78d, 78o, 78o–4, 78o–5, 78q–1, 78x, 80a–2, 80a–9, 80a–44, 80b–2, 80b–3, and 80b–10 of this title] may be cited as the 'International Securities Enforcement Cooperation Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–550, title III, §301, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2721, provided that: "This title [amending section 78n of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 78n of this title] may be cited as the 'Shareholder Communications Improvement Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–432, §1, Oct. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 963, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1831l of Title 12, Banks and Banking, amending sections 78i, 78l, 78m, 78o–5, 78q, 78q–1, and 78y of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 78b and 78q–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Market Reform Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–429, §1(a), Oct. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 931, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 77h–1, 78q–2, 78u–2, and 78u–3 of this title, amending sections 77g, 77t, 78c, 78o, 78o–3, 78o–4, 78q–1, 78u, 78u–1, 78w, 78cc, 80a–9, 80a–41, 80b–3, 80b–9, and 80b–14 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 77g, 78o, and 78s of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities Enforcement Remedies and Penny Stock Reform Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–429, title V, §501, Oct. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 951, provided that: "This title [enacting section 78q–2 of this title, amending sections 77g, 78c, 78o, 78o–3, and 78cc of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 78o and 78s of this title] may be cited as the 'Penny Stock Reform Act of 1990'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1988 AMENDMENTS

Pub. L. 100–704, §1, Nov. 19, 1988, 102 Stat. 4677, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 78t–1, 78u–1, and 80b–4a of this title, amending sections 78c, 78o, 78u, 78ff, and 78kk of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 78b, 78o, and 78u–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–418, title V, §5001, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1415, provided that: "This part [part I (§§5001–5003) of subtitle A of title I of Pub. L. 100–418, amending sections 78m, 78dd–1, 78dd–2, and 78ff of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 78dd–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Amendments of 1988'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1987 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 100–181, §1, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1249, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 78d–1, 78d–2, and 78ll of this title, amending sections 77b, 77c, 77f, 77i, 77s, 77t, 77v, 77ccc, 78c, 78d, 78f, 78k–1, 78l, 78m, 78o, 78o–4, 78o–5, 78q, 78q–1, 78u, 78w, 78aa, 78bb, 78kk, 78lll, 79h, 79r, 79x, 79y, 79z–4, 80a–2, 80a–3, 80a–5, 80a–6, 80a–9, 80a–12, 80a–15, 80a–17, 80a–18, 80a–20, 80a–21, 80a–22, 80a–24, 80a–26, 80a–28, 80a–35, 80a–41, 80a–52, 80a–53, 80a–54, 80a–56, 80b–2, 80b–3, 80b–5, 80b–9, 80b–11, 80b–13, and 80b–14 of this title, and repealing sections 78d–1, 78d–2, and 78jj of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities and Exchange Commission Authorization Act of 1987'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1986 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 99–571, §1(a), Oct. 28, 1986, 100 Stat. 3208, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 78o–5 of this title and section 9110 of Title 31, Money and Finance, amending sections 78c, 78o, 78o–3, 78q, 78w, 78y, 80a–9, and 80b–3 of this title and section 3121 of Title 31, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 78o–5 of this title] may be cited as the 'Government Securities Act of 1986'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1985 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 99–222, §1, Dec. 28, 1985, 99 Stat. 1737, provided that: "This Act [amending section 78n of this title and enacting a provision set out as a note under section 78n of this title] may be cited as the 'Shareholder Communications Act of 1985'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1984 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 98–376, §1, Aug. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 1264, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 78c, 78o, 78t, 78u, and 78ff of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 78c of this title] may be cited as the 'Insider Trading Sanctions Act of 1984'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1977 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 95–213, title I, §101, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1494, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 78dd–1 and 78dd–2 of this title and amending sections 78m and 78ff of this title] may be cited as the 'Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977'."

Pub. L. 95–213, title II, §201, Dec. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 1498, provided that: "This title [amending sections 78m and 78o of this title] may be cited as the 'Domestic and Foreign Investment Improved Disclosure Act of 1977'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1975 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 94–29, §1, June 4, 1975, 89 Stat. 97, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 78k–1, 78o–4, 78q–1, and 78kk of this title, amending sections 77d, 77x, 77yyy, 78b, 78c, 78d–1, 78f, 78h, 78k, 78l, 78m, 78o, 78o–3, 78q, 78s, 78u, 78w, 78x, 78y, 78bb, 78ee, 78ff, 78iii, 79z–3, 80a–9, 80a–10, 80a–13, 80a–15, 80a–16, 80a–18, 80a–31, 80a–35, 80a–48, 80b–3, 80b–4, and 80b–17 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 78b and 78f of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities Acts Amendments of 1975'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1964 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 88–467, §1, Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 565, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 77d, 78c, 78l to 78o, 78o–3, 78p, 78t, 78w, and 78ff of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 78c of this title] may be cited as the 'Securities Acts Amendments of 1964'."

SHORT TITLE OF 1936 AMENDMENT

Act May 27, 1936, ch. 462, 49 Stat. 1375, enacting sections 78l–1, 78o–1, 78o–2, and 78hh–1 of this title, and amending sections 78l, 78o, 78q, 78r, 78t, 78u, 78w, and 78ff of this title, is popularly known as the Unlisted Securities Trading Act.

SEVERABILITY

Pub. L. 104–290, §3, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3417, provided: "If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note above], an amendment made by this Act, or the application of such provision or amendment to any person or circumstance is held to be unconstitutional, the remainder of this Act, the amendments made by this Act, and the application of the provisions of such to any person or circumstance shall not be affected thereby."

CONGRESSIONAL FINDINGS OF 1998 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 105–353, §2, Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3227, provided that: "The Congress finds that—

"(1) the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 [see Short Title of 1995 Amendment note above] sought to prevent abuses in private securities fraud lawsuits;

"(2) since enactment of that legislation, considerable evidence has been presented to Congress that a number of securities class action lawsuits have shifted from Federal to State courts;

"(3) this shift has prevented that Act from fully achieving its objectives;

"(4) State securities regulation is of continuing importance, together with Federal regulation of securities, to protect investors and promote strong financial markets; and

"(5) in order to prevent certain State private securities class action lawsuits alleging fraud from being used to frustrate the objectives of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, it is appropriate to enact national standards for securities class action lawsuits involving nationally traded securities, while preserving the appropriate enforcement powers of State securities regulators and not changing the current treatment of individual lawsuits."

PURPOSES OF 1996 AMENDMENT

Pub. L. 104–290, title IV, §402, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3441, provided: "The purposes of this title [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note above] are—

"(1) to authorize appropriations for the Commission for fiscal year 1997; and

"(2) to reduce over time the rates of fees charged under the Federal securities laws."

DEFINITIONS

Pub. L. 104–290, §2, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3417, provided: "For purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note above]—

"(1) the term 'Commission' means the Securities and Exchange Commission; and

"(2) the term 'State' has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 [15 U.S.C. 78c]."

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