2014 US Code
Title 18 - Crimes and Criminal Procedure (Sections 1 - 6005)
Part I - Crimes (Sections 1 - 2725)
Chapter 90 - Protection of Trade Secrets (Sections 1831 - 1839)
Sec. 1831 - Economic espionage

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Publication TitleUnited States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 2, Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 90 - PROTECTION OF TRADE SECRETS
Sec. 1831 - Economic espionage
Containssection 1831
Date2014
Laws In Effect As Of DateJanuary 5, 2015
Positive LawYes
Dispositionstandard
Source CreditAdded Pub. L. 104-294, title I, §101(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3488; amended Pub. L. 112-269, §2, Jan. 14, 2013, 126 Stat. 2442.
Statutes at Large References110 Stat. 3488
126 Stat. 2442
Public and Private LawsPublic Law 104-294, Public Law 112-269

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18 U.S.C. § 1831 (2014)

§1831. Economic espionage

(a) In General.—Whoever, intending or knowing that the offense will benefit any foreign government, foreign instrumentality, or foreign agent, knowingly—

(1) steals, or without authorization appropriates, takes, carries away, or conceals, or by fraud, artifice, or deception obtains a trade secret;

(2) without authorization copies, duplicates, sketches, draws, photographs, downloads, uploads, alters, destroys, photocopies, replicates, transmits, delivers, sends, mails, communicates, or conveys a trade secret;

(3) receives, buys, or possesses a trade secret, knowing the same to have been stolen or appropriated, obtained, or converted without authorization;

(4) attempts to commit any offense described in any of paragraphs (1) through (3); or

(5) conspires with one or more other persons to commit any offense described in any of paragraphs (1) through (3), and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy,


shall, except as provided in subsection (b), be fined not more than $5,000,000 or imprisoned not more than 15 years, or both.

(b) Organizations.—Any organization that commits any offense described in subsection (a) shall be fined not more than the greater of $10,000,000 or 3 times the value of the stolen trade secret to the organization, including expenses for research and design and other costs of reproducing the trade secret that the organization has thereby avoided.

(Added Pub. L. 104–294, title I, §101(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3488; amended Pub. L. 112–269, §2, Jan. 14, 2013, 126 Stat. 2442.)

AMENDMENTS

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–269, §2(a), substituted "not more than $5,000,000" for "not more than $500,000" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–269, §2(b), substituted "not more than the greater of $10,000,000 or 3 times the value of the stolen trade secret to the organization, including expenses for research and design and other costs of reproducing the trade secret that the organization has thereby avoided" for "not more than $10,000,000".

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