2014 US Code
Title 18 - Crimes and Criminal Procedure (Sections 1 - 6005)
Part I - Crimes (Sections 1 - 2725)
Chapter 109 - Searches and Seizures (Sections 2231 - 2237)
Sec. 2231 - Assault or resistance

View Metadata
Metadata
Publication TitleUnited States Code, 2012 Edition, Supplement 2, Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 109 - SEARCHES AND SEIZURES
Sec. 2231 - Assault or resistance
Containssection 2231
Date2014
Laws In Effect As Of DateJanuary 5, 2015
Positive LawYes
Dispositionstandard
Source CreditJune 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), (L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.
Statutes at Large References35 Stat. 1100
40 Stat. 230, 231
48 Stat. 780
49 Stat. 1105, 1940
53 Stat. 1433
54 Stat. 391
62 Stat. 802
108 Stat. 2147
Public and Private LawsPublic Law 103-322

Download PDF


18 U.S.C. § 2231 (2014)
§2231. Assault or resistance

(a) Whoever forcibly assaults, resists, opposes, prevents, impedes, intimidates, or interferes with any person authorized to serve or execute search warrants or to make searches and seizures while engaged in the performance of his duties with regard thereto or on account of the performance of such duties, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both; and—

(b) Whoever, in committing any act in violation of this section, uses any deadly or dangerous weapon, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 802; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(K), (L), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147.)

HISTORICAL AND REVISION NOTES

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§121, 253, 254, 628 (Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §65, 35 Stat. 1100; June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XI, §18, 40 Stat. 230; May 18, 1934, ch. 299, §§1, 2, 48 Stat. 780, 781; Feb. 8, 1936, ch. 40, 49 Stat. 1105; June 26, 1936, ch. 830, title I, §3, 49 Stat. 1940; Reorg. Plan No. II, §4(f), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 Fed. Reg. 2731, 53 Stat. 1433; June 13, 1940, ch. 359, 54 Stat. 391).

Section consolidates section 628 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and the portion of section 121 of said title relating to resistance of persons authorized to make searches.

Punishment provided by section 121 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., was $2,000 fine and imprisonment for 1 year. Section 628 of said title was part of Espionage Act of June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §1, 40 Stat. 231, prescribing fine of not more than $1,000 and imprisonment not exceeding 2 years for resisting service, execution of search warrant, or assaulting an officer.

Section 253 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., enumerated United States marshals, deputies, and assistants, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents, and numerous other officers, the killing of whom is denounced as a Federal offense.

Section 254 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., denounced the assaulting of such officers and prescribed punishment therefor without regard to nature of duties involved or performed.

In other words sections 253 and 254 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were not limited to officers executing search warrants.

Officers enumerated in section 253 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., were substantially all those who serve or execute search warrants. Therefore, the language and punishment under section 254 of said title constitute basis of this revised section. No change in legislative intent is involved, as the amendments of sections 253 and 254 of said title are the latest enactments.

The provisions of section 121 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., relating to rescue of property from seizing officer or its destruction to prevent seizure, are incorporated in sections 2232 and 2233 of this title.

Minor changes were made in translation and phraseology.

AMENDMENTS

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(K), substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $5,000".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, §330016(1)(L), substituted "fined under this title" for "fined not more than $10,000".

Disclaimer: These codes may not be the most recent version. The United States Government Printing Office may have more current or accurate information. We make no warranties or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained on this site or the information linked to on the US site. Please check official sources.