2011 US Code
Title 29 - Labor
Chapter 7 - LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS (§§ 141 - 197)
Subchapter II - NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS (§§ 151 - 169)
Section 169 - Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees

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Publication TitleUnited States Code, 2006 Edition, Supplement 5, Title 29 - LABOR
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 29 - LABOR
Sec. 169 - Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees
Containssection 169
Laws in Effect as of DateJanuary 3, 2012
Positive LawNo
Source CreditJuly 5, 1935, ch. 372, §19, as added Pub. L. 93-360, §3, July 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 397; amended Pub. L. 96-593, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3452.
Statutes at Large References88 Stat. 397
94 Stat. 3452
Public Law ReferencesPublic Law 93-360, Public Law 96-593

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29 USC § 169 (2011)

§169. Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees

Any employee who is a member of and adheres to established and traditional tenets or teachings of a bona fide religion, body, or sect which has historically held conscientious objections to joining or financially supporting labor organizations shall not be required to join or financially support any labor organization as a condition of employment; except that such employee may be required in a contract between such employees’ employer and a labor organization in lieu of periodic dues and initiation fees, to pay sums equal to such dues and initiation fees to a nonreligious, nonlabor organization charitable fund exempt from taxation under section 501(c)(3) of title 26, chosen by such employee from a list of at least three such funds, designated in such contract or if the contract fails to designate such funds, then to any such fund chosen by the employee. If such employee who holds conscientious objections pursuant to this section requests the labor organization to use the grievance-arbitration procedure on the employee's behalf, the labor organization is authorized to charge the employee for the reasonable cost of using such procedure.

(July 5, 1935, ch. 372, §19, as added Pub. L. 93–360, §3, July 26, 1974, 88 Stat. 397; amended Pub. L. 96–593, Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3452.)


1980—Pub. L. 96–593 inserted reference to nonlabor organization and provisions respecting charges to employee for use of grievance-arbitration procedure, and struck out applicability of provisions to employees of health care institutions only.

Effective Date

Section 4 of Pub. L. 93–360 provided that: “The amendments made by this Act [enacting this section and section 183 of this title and amending sections 152 and 158 of this title] shall become effective on the thirtieth day after its date of enactment [July 26, 1974].”

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