2001 US Code
Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 7 - SOCIAL SECURITY
SUBCHAPTER IV - GRANTS TO STATES FOR AID AND SERVICES TO NEEDY FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN AND FOR CHILD-WELFARE SERVICES
Part E - Federal Payments for Foster Care and Adoption Assistance
Sec. 675 - Definitions

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Publication TitleUnited States Code, 2000 Edition, Supplement 1, Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE
CHAPTER 7 - SOCIAL SECURITY
SUBCHAPTER IV - GRANTS TO STATES FOR AID AND SERVICES TO NEEDY FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN AND FOR CHILD-WELFARE SERVICES
Part E - Federal Payments for Foster Care and Adoption Assistance
Sec. 675 - Definitions
Containssection 675
Date2001
Laws in Effect as of DateJanuary 22, 2002
Positive LawNo
Dispositionstandard
Source CreditAug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §475, as added and amended Pub. L. 96-272, title I, §§101(a)(1), 102(a)(4), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 510, 514; Pub. L. 99-272, title XII, §§12305(b)(2), 12307(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 293, 296; Pub. L. 99-514, title XVII, §1711(c)(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2784; Pub. L. 100-203, title IX, §9133(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330-314; Pub. L. 100-647, title VIII, §8104(e), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3797; Pub. L. 101-239, title VIII, §8007(a), (b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2462; Pub. L. 103-432, title II, §§206(a), (b), 209(a), (b), 265(c), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4457, 4459, 4469; Pub. L. 105-89, title I, §§101(b), 102(2), 103(a), (b), 104, 107, title III, §302, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2117, 2118, 2120, 2121, 2128.
Statutes at Large References94 Stat. 510
100 Stat. 293, 2784
101 Stat. 1330-314
102 Stat. 3797
103 Stat. 2462
108 Stat. 4457
111 Stat. 2117
Public Law ReferencesPublic Law 96-272, Public Law 99-272, Public Law 99-514, Public Law 100-203, Public Law 100-647, Public Law 101-239, Public Law 103-432, Public Law 105-89


§675. Definitions

As used in this part or part B of this subchapter:

(1) The term “case plan” means a written document which includes at least the following:

(A) A description of the type of home or institution in which a child is to be placed, including a discussion of the safety and appropriateness of the placement and how the agency which is responsible for the child plans to carry out the voluntary placement agreement entered into or judicial determination made with respect to the child in accordance with section 672(a)(1) of this title.

(B) A plan for assuring that the child receives safe and proper care and that services are provided to the parents, child, and foster parents in order to improve the conditions in the parents’ home, facilitate return of the child to his own safe home or the permanent placement of the child, and address the needs of the child while in foster care, including a discussion of the appropriateness of the services that have been provided to the child under the plan.

(C) To the extent available and accessible, the health and education records of the child, including—

(i) the names and addresses of the child's health and educational providers;

(ii) the child's grade level performance;

(iii) the child's school record;

(iv) assurances that the child's placement in foster care takes into account proximity to the school in which the child is enrolled at the time of placement;

(v) a record of the child's immunizations;

(vi) the child's known medical problems;

(vii) the child's medications; and

(viii) any other relevant health and education information concerning the child determined to be appropriate by the State agency.


(D) Where appropriate, for a child age 16 or over, a written description of the programs and services which will help such child prepare for the transition from foster care to independent living.

(E) In the case of a child with respect to whom the permanency plan is adoption or placement in another permanent home, documentation of the steps the agency is taking to find an adoptive family or other permanent living arrangement for the child, to place the child with an adoptive family, a fit and willing relative, a legal guardian, or in another planned permanent living arrangement, and to finalize the adoption or legal guardianship. At a minimum, such documentation shall include child specific recruitment efforts such as the use of State, regional, and national adoption exchanges including electronic exchange systems.


(2) The term “parents” means biological or adoptive parents or legal guardians, as determined by applicable State law.

(3) The term “adoption assistance agreement” means a written agreement, binding on the parties to the agreement, between the State agency, other relevant agencies, and the prospective adoptive parents of a minor child which at a minimum (A) specifies the nature and amount of any payments, services, and assistance to be provided under such agreement, and (B) stipulates that the agreement shall remain in effect regardless of the State of which the adoptive parents are residents at any given time. The agreement shall contain provisions for the protection (under an interstate compact approved by the Secretary or otherwise) of the interests of the child in cases where the adoptive parents and child move to another State while the agreement is effective.

(4)(A) The term “foster care maintenance payments” means payments to cover the cost of (and the cost of providing) food, clothing, shelter, daily supervision, school supplies, a child's personal incidentals, liability insurance with respect to a child, and reasonable travel to the child's home for visitation. In the case of institutional care, such term shall include the reasonable costs of administration and operation of such institution as are necessarily required to provide the items described in the preceding sentence.

(B) In cases where—

(i) a child placed in a foster family home or child-care institution is the parent of a son or daughter who is in the same home or institution, and

(ii) payments described in subparagraph (A) are being made under this part with respect to such child,


the foster care maintenance payments made with respect to such child as otherwise determined under subparagraph (A) shall also include such amounts as may be necessary to cover the cost of the items described in that subparagraph with respect to such son or daughter.

(5) The term “case review system” means a procedure for assuring that—

(A) each child has a case plan designed to achieve placement in a safe setting that is the least restrictive (most family like) and most appropriate setting available and in close proximity to the parents’ home, consistent with the best interest and special needs of the child, which—

(i) if the child has been placed in a foster family home or child-care institution a substantial distance from the home of the parents of the child, or in a State different from the State in which such home is located, sets forth the reasons why such placement is in the best interests of the child, and

(ii) if the child has been placed in foster care outside the State in which the home of the parents of the child is located, requires that, periodically, but not less frequently than every 12 months, a caseworker on the staff of the State agency of the State in which the home of the parents of the child is located, or of the State in which the child has been placed, visit such child in such home or institution and submit a report on such visit to the State agency of the State in which the home of the parents of the child is located,


(B) the status of each child is reviewed periodically but no less frequently than once every six months by either a court or by administrative review (as defined in paragraph (6)) in order to determine the safety of the child, the continuing necessity for and appropriateness of the placement, the extent of compliance with the case plan, and the extent of progress which has been made toward alleviating or mitigating the causes necessitating placement in foster care, and to project a likely date by which the child may be returned to and safely maintained in the home or placed for adoption or legal guardianship,

(C) with respect to each such child, procedural safeguards will be applied, among other things, to assure each child in foster care under the supervision of the State of a permanency hearing to be held, in a family or juvenile court or another court (including a tribal court) of competent jurisdiction, or by an administrative body appointed or approved by the court, no later than 12 months after the date the child is considered to have entered foster care (as determined under subparagraph (F)) (and not less frequently than every 12 months thereafter during the continuation of foster care), which hearing shall determine the permanency plan for the child that includes whether, and if applicable when, the child will be returned to the parent, placed for adoption and the State will file a petition for termination of parental rights, or referred for legal guardianship, or (in cases where the State agency has documented to the State court a compelling reason for determining that it would not be in the best interests of the child to return home, be referred for termination of parental rights, or be placed for adoption, with a fit and willing relative, or with a legal guardian) placed in another planned permanent living arrangement and, in the case of a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii), whether the out-of-State placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child, and, in the case of a child who has attained age 16, the services needed to assist the child to make the transition from foster care to independent living; and procedural safeguards shall also be applied with respect to parental rights pertaining to the removal of the child from the home of his parents, to a change in the child's placement, and to any determination affecting visitation privileges of parents; 1

(D) a child's health and education record (as described in paragraph (1)(A)) is reviewed and updated, and supplied to the foster parent or foster care provider with whom the child is placed, at the time of each placement of the child in foster care; 1

(E) in the case of a child who has been in foster care under the responsibility of the State for 15 of the most recent 22 months, or, if a court of competent jurisdiction has determined a child to be an abandoned infant (as defined under State law) or has made a determination that the parent has committed murder of another child of the parent, committed voluntary manslaughter of another child of the parent, aided or abetted, attempted, conspired, or solicited to commit such a murder or such a voluntary manslaughter, or committed a felony assault that has resulted in serious bodily injury to the child or to another child of the parent, the State shall file a petition to terminate the parental rights of the child's parents (or, if such a petition has been filed by another party, seek to be joined as a party to the petition), and, concurrently, to identify, recruit, process, and approve a qualified family for an adoption, unless—

(i) at the option of the State, the child is being cared for by a relative;

(ii) a State agency has documented in the case plan (which shall be available for court review) a compelling reason for determining that filing such a petition would not be in the best interests of the child; or

(iii) the State has not provided to the family of the child, consistent with the time period in the State case plan, such services as the State deems necessary for the safe return of the child to the child's home, if reasonable efforts of the type described in section 671(a)(15)(B)(ii) of this title are required to be made with respect to the child; 1


(F) a child shall be considered to have entered foster care on the earlier of—

(i) the date of the first judicial finding that the child has been subjected to child abuse or neglect; or

(ii) the date that is 60 days after the date on which the child is removed from the home; 1 and


(G) the foster parents (if any) of a child and any preadoptive parent or relative providing care for the child are provided with notice of, and an opportunity to be heard in, any review or hearing to be held with respect to the child, except that this subparagraph shall not be construed to require that any foster parent, preadoptive parent, or relative providing care for the child be made a party to such a review or hearing solely on the basis of such notice and opportunity to be heard.


(6) The term “administrative review” means a review open to the participation of the parents of the child, conducted by a panel of appropriate persons at least one of whom is not responsible for the case management of, or the delivery of services to, either the child or the parents who are the subject of the review.

(7) The term “legal guardianship” means a judicially created relationship between child and caretaker which is intended to be permanent and self-sustaining as evidenced by the transfer to the caretaker of the following parental rights with respect to the child: protection, education, care and control of the person, custody of the person, and decisionmaking. The term “legal guardian” means the caretaker in such a relationship.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §475, as added and amended Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §§101(a)(1), 102(a)(4), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 510, 514; Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §§12305(b)(2), 12307(b), Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 293, 296; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVII, §1711(c)(6), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2784; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9133(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–314; Pub. L. 100–647, title VIII, §8104(e), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3797; Pub. L. 101–239, title VIII, §8007(a), (b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2462; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §§206(a), (b), 209(a), (b), 265(c), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4457, 4459, 4469; Pub. L. 105–89, title I, §§101(b), 102(2), 103(a), (b), 104, 107, title III, §302, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2117, 2118, 2120, 2121, 2128.)

References in Text

Part B of this subchapter, referred to in text, is classified to section 620 et seq. of this title.

Amendments

1997—Par. (1). Pub. L. 105–89, §107(1)(A), (B), struck out “the case plan must also include” before “a written description” in concluding provisions and redesignated those provisions as subpar. (D) of par. (1).

Par. (1)(A). Pub. L. 105–89, §102(2)(A)(i), inserted “safety and” before “appropriateness of the placement”.

Par. (1)(B). Pub. L. 105–89, §102(2)(A)(ii), inserted “safe and” after “child receives” and “safe” after “return of the child to his own”.

Par. (1)(D). Pub. L. 105–89, §107(1)(B), redesignated concluding provisions of par. (1) as subpar. (D) of par. (1) and realigned margins.

Par. (1)(E). Pub. L. 105–89, §107(2), added subpar. (E).

Par. (5)(A). Pub. L. 105–89, §102(2)(B)(i), inserted “a safe setting that is” after “placement in” in introductory provisions.

Par. (5)(B). Pub. L. 105–89, §102(2)(B)(ii), inserted “the safety of the child,” after “determine” and “and safely maintained in” before “the home or placed for adoption”.

Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 105–89, §302, substituted “permanency hearing” for “dispositional hearing” and “no later than 12 months after the date the child is considered to have entered foster care (as determined under subparagraph (F))” for “no later than eighteen months after the original placement”, and which directed the substitution of “permanency plan for the child that includes whether, and if applicable when, the child will be returned to the parent, placed for adoption and the State will file a petition for termination of parental rights, or referred for legal guardianship, or (in cases where the State agency has documented to the State court a compelling reason for determining that it would not be in the best interests of the child to return home, be referred for termination of parental rights, or be placed for adoption, with a fit and willing relative, or with a legal guardian) placed in another planned permanent living arrangement” for “future status of the child (including, but not limited to, whether the child should be returned to the parent, should be continued in foster care for a specified period, should be placed for adoption, or should (because of the child's special needs or circumstances) be continued in foster care on a permanent or long term basis)”, was executed by making the substitution for text which contained the words “long-term” rather than “long term” to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (5)(E). Pub. L. 105–89, §103(a), added subpar. (E).

Par. (5)(F). Pub. L. 105–89, §103(b), added subpar. (F).

Par. (5)(G). Pub. L. 105–89, §104, added subpar. (G).

Par. (7). Pub. L. 105–89, §101(b), added par. (7).

1994—Par. (5)(A). Pub. L. 103–432, §209(a), inserted “which—” after “needs of the child,” and added cls. (i) and (ii).

Pub. L. 103–432, §206(a), inserted “and most appropriate” after “(most family like)”.

Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 103–432, §209(b), inserted “and, in the case of a child described in subparagraph (A)(ii), whether the out-of-State placement continues to be appropriate and in the best interests of the child,” after “permanent or long-term basis)”.

Pub. L. 103–432, §206(b), substituted “(and not less frequently than every 12 months” for “(and periodically”.

Par. (5)(D). Pub. L. 103–432, §265(c), realigned margins.

1989—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–239, §8007(a), inserted “(A)” before “A description”, substituted “section 672(a)(1) of this title. (B) A plan” for “section 672(a)(1) of this title; and a plan”, realigned margins of subpars. (A) and (B), added subpar. (C), and set the last sentence flush with the left margin of par. (1).

Par. (5)(D). Pub. L. 101–239, §8007(b), added subpar. (D).

1988—Par. (5)(C). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted “and, in the case of a child who has attained age 16, the services needed to assist the child to make the transition from foster care to independent living” after “long-term basis)”.

1987—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–203 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1986—Par. (1). Pub. L. 99–272, §12307(b), inserted at end “Where appropriate, for a child age 16 or over, the case plan must also include a written description of the programs and services which will help such child prepare for the transition from foster care to independent living.”

Par. (3). Pub. L. 99–514 added cl. (A) and struck out former cl. (A) which read as follows: “specifies the amounts of any adoption assistance payments and any other services and assistance which are to be provided as part of such agreement, and”.

Pub. L. 99–272, §12305(b)(2), substituted in cl. (A) “any adoption assistance payments and any other services and assistance” for “the adoption assistance payments and any additional services and assistance”.

1980—Par. (1). Pub. L. 96–272, §102(a)(4), inserted reference to voluntary placement agreements.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–89 effective Nov. 19, 1997, except as otherwise provided, with delay permitted if State legislation is required, see section 501 of Pub. L. 105–89, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Section 206(c) of Pub. L. 103–432 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1995.”

Section 209(d) of Pub. L. 103–432 provided that: “The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 679 of this title] shall be effective with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1995.”

Amendment by section 265(c) of Pub. L. 103–432 effective as if included in the provision of Pub. L. 101–239 to which the amendment relates, at the time the provision became law, see section 265(d) of Pub. L. 103–432, set out as a note under section 673 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Section 8007(c) of Pub. L. 101–239 provided that: “The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall take effect on April 1, 1990.”

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective Oct. 1, 1988, see section 8104(g)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 677 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 effective Apr. 1, 1988, see section 9133(c) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 672 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable only with respect to expenditures made after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1711(d) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 670 of this title.

Amendment by section 12305(b)(2) of Pub. L. 99–272 applicable to medical assistance furnished in or after the first calendar quarter beginning more than 90 days after Apr. 7, 1986, see section 12305(c) of Pub. L. 99–272, set out as a note under section 673 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Section 101(a)(4)(A) of Pub. L. 96–272 provided that: “Clause (B) of the first sentence of section 475(3) of the Social Security Act [par. (3)(B) of this section] (as added by subsection (a) of this section) shall be effective with respect to adoption assistance agreements entered into on or after October 1, 1983.”

Amendment by section 102(a)(4) of Pub. L. 96–272 effective only with respect to expenditures made after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 102(c) of Pub. L. 96–272, as amended, set out as a note under section 672 of this title.

Construction

Section 103(d) of Pub. L. 105–89 provided that: “Nothing in this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] or in part E of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.), as amended by this Act, shall be construed as precluding State courts or State agencies from initiating the termination of parental rights for reasons other than, or for timelines earlier than, those specified in part E of title IV of such Act, when such actions are determined to be in the best interests of the child, including cases where the child has experienced multiple foster care placements of varying durations.”

Transition Rules; New and Current Foster Children

Section 103(c) of Pub. L. 105–89 provided that:

“(1) New foster children.—In the case of a child who enters foster care (within the meaning of section 475(5)(F) of the Social Security Act [par. (5)(F) of this section]) under the responsibility of a State after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 1997]—

“(A) if the State comes into compliance with the amendments made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section] before the child has been in such foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months, the State shall comply with section 475(5)(E) of the Social Security Act [par. (5)(E) of this section] with respect to the child when the child has been in such foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months; and

“(B) if the State comes into such compliance after the child has been in such foster care for 15 of the most recent 22 months, the State shall comply with such section 475(5)(E) with respect to the child not later than 3 months after the end of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after such date of enactment.

“(2) Current foster children.—In the case of children in foster care under the responsibility of the State on the date of the enactment of this Act, the State shall—

“(A) not later than 6 months after the end of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after such date of enactment, comply with section 475(5)(E) of the Social Security Act with respect to not less than 1/3 of such children as the State shall select, giving priority to children for whom the permanency plan (within the meaning of part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [this part]) is adoption and children who have been in foster care for the greatest length of time;

“(B) not later than 12 months after the end of such first regular session, comply with such section 475(5)(E) with respect to not less than 2/3 of such children as the State shall select; and

“(C) not later than 18 months after the end of such first regular session, comply with such section 475(5)(E) with respect to all of such children.

“(3) Treatment of 2-year legislative sessions.—For purposes of this subsection, in the case of a State that has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.

“(4) Requirements treated as state plan requirements.—For purposes of part E of title IV of the Social Security Act, the requirements of this subsection shall be treated as State plan requirements imposed by section 471(a) of such Act [section 671(a) of this title].”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 603, 622, 625, 626, 629a, 671, 672, 673, 677 of this title.

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

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