1999 US Code
Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE
PART V - PROCEDURE
CHAPTER 111 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec. 1651 - Writs
|Publication Title||United States Code, 1994 Edition, Supplement 5, Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE|
|Category||Bills and Statutes|
|Collection||United States Code|
|SuDoc Class Number||Y 1.2/5:|
|Contained Within||Title 28 - JUDICIARY AND JUDICIAL PROCEDURE |
PART V - PROCEDURE
CHAPTER 111 - GENERAL PROVISIONS
Sec. 1651 - Writs
|Laws in Effect as of Date||January 23, 2000|
|Source Credit||June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 944; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §90, 63 Stat. 102.|
|Statutes at Large References||36 Stat. 1156 |
45 Stat. 54, 466
62 Stat. 944, 990
63 Stat. 102
(a) The Supreme Court and all courts established by Act of Congress may issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.
(b) An alternative writ or rule nisi may be issued by a justice or judge of a court which has jurisdiction.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 944; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §90, 63 Stat. 102.)Historical and Revision Notes 1948 Act
Based on title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §§342, 376, 377 (Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §§234, 261, 262, 36 Stat. 1156, 1162).
Section consolidates sections 342, 376, and 377 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with necessary changes in phraseology.
Such section 342 provided:
“The Supreme Court shall have power to issue writs of prohibition to the district courts, when proceeding as courts of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; and writs of mandamus, in cases warranted by the principles and usages of law, to any courts appointed under the authority of the United States, or to persons holding office under the authority of the United States, where a State, or an ambassador, or other public minister, or a consul, or vice consul is a party.”
Such section 376 provided:
“Writs of ne exeat may be granted by any justice of the Supreme Court, in cases where they might be granted by the Supreme Court; and by any district judge, in cases where they might be granted by the district court of which he is a judge. But no writ of ne exeat shall be granted unless a suit in equity is commenced, and satisfactory proof is made to the court or judge granting the same that the defendant designs quickly to depart from the United States.”
Such section 377 provided:
“The Supreme Court and the district courts shall have power to issue writs of scire facias. The Supreme Court, the circuit courts of appeals, and the district courts shall have power to issue all writs not specifically provided for by statute, which may be necessary for the exercise of their respective jurisdictions, and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.”
The special provisions of section 342 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with reference to writs of prohibition and mandamus, admiralty courts and other courts and officers of the United States were omitted as unnecessary in view of the revised section.
The revised section extends the power to issue writs in aid of jurisdiction, to all courts established by Act of Congress, thus making explicit the right to exercise powers implied from the creation of such courts.
The provisions of section 376 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., with respect to the powers of a justice or judge in issuing writs of ne exeat were changed and made the basis of subsection (b) of the revised section but the conditions and limitations on the writ of ne exeat were omitted as merely confirmatory of well-settled principles of law.
The provision in section 377 of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., authorizing issuance of writs of scire facias, was omitted in view of rule 81(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure abolishing such writ. The revised section is expressive of the construction recently placed upon such section by the Supreme Court in U.S. Alkali Export Assn. v. U.S., 65 S.Ct. 1120, 325 U.S. 196, 89 L.Ed. 1554, and De Beers Consol. Mines v. U.S., 65 S.Ct. 1130, 325 U.S. 212, 89 L.Ed. 1566.1949 Act
This section corrects a grammatical error in subsection (a) of section 1651 of title 28, U.S.C.Amendments
1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, inserted “and” after “jurisdictions”.Writ of Error
Act Jan. 31, 1928, ch. 14, §2, 45 Stat. 54, as amended Apr. 26, 1928, ch. 440, 45 Stat. 466; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §23, 62 Stat. 990, provided that: “All Acts of Congress referring to writs of error shall be construed as amended to the extent necessary to substitute appeal for writ of error.”Rules of the Supreme Court
Procedure on petition for an extraordinary writ, see rule 20, Appendix to this title.Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
Remedies for seizure of person and property, including arrest, attachment, garnishment, replevin, and sequestration, see rule 64, Appendix to this title.
Writs of coram nobis, coram vobis, audita querela, bills of review, and bills in the nature of bills of review abolished, see rule 60.
Writs of mandamus and scire facias abolished in district courts, see rule 81.Cross References
Mandamus; statutory provisions giving district courts jurisdiction to grant relief in the nature of writs of mandamus include—
Bridges over navigable waters, removal of, see sections 495 and 519 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.
Federal Communications Act and orders of Commission, enforcement of, see sections 11, 401, and 406 of Title 47, Telegraphs, Telephones, and Radiotelegraphs.
Federal Power Act, and orders thereunder, enforcement and prevention of violations, see sections 820 and 825m of Title 16, Conservation.
Federal Trade Commission Act, and orders thereunder, enforcement of, see section 49 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.
Interstate Commerce Act, enforcement of, see section 11703 of Title 49, Transportation.
National Railroad Adjustment Board, enforcement of orders, see section 153 of Title 45, Railroads.
Securities and Public Utilities Holding Companies Acts and orders of Securities and Exchange Commission, enforcement of, see sections 77t, 78u, and 79r of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.
Stockyards Act, adopting by reference section 49 of Title 15, see section 222 of Title 7, Agriculture.
Tariff Act and orders of Tariff Commission, enforcement of, see section 1333 of Title 19, Customs Duties.
Puerto Rico, power of supreme and district courts to grant mandamus, see section 872 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.Section Referred to in Other Sections
This section is referred to in sections 1407, 3202 of this title.
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