1996 US Code
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 95 - RACKETEERING
Sec. 1955 - Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses

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Metadata
Publication TitleUnited States Code, 1994 Edition, Supplement 2, Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 95 - RACKETEERING
Sec. 1955 - Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses
Containssection 1955
Date1996
Laws in Effect as of DateJanuary 6, 1997
Positive LawYes
Dispositionstandard
Source CreditAdded Pub. L. 91-452, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 937; amended Pub. L. 99-514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(N), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2148.
Statutes at Large References64 Stat. 1280
79 Stat. 1317
84 Stat. 937
100 Stat. 2095
108 Stat. 2148
110 Stat. 1482
Public Law ReferencesPublic Law 91-452, Public Law 99-514, Public Law 103-322, Public Law 104-169


§1955. Prohibition of illegal gambling businesses

(a) Whoever conducts, finances, manages, supervises, directs, or owns all or part of an illegal gambling business shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(b) As used in this section—

(1) “illegal gambling business” means a gambling business which—

(i) is a violation of the law of a State or political subdivision in which it is conducted;

(ii) involves five or more persons who conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of such business; and

(iii) has been or remains in substantially continuous operation for a period in excess of thirty days or has a gross revenue of ,000 in any single day.


(2) “gambling” includes but is not limited to pool-selling, bookmaking, maintaining slot machines, roulette wheels or dice tables, and conducting lotteries, policy, bolita or numbers games, or selling chances therein.

(3) “State” means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States.


(c) If five or more persons conduct, finance, manage, supervise, direct, or own all or part of a gambling business and such business operates for two or more successive days, then, for the purpose of obtaining warrants for arrests, interceptions, and other searches and seizures, probable cause that the business receives gross revenue in excess of ,000 in any single day shall be deemed to have been established.

(d) Any property, including money, used in violation of the provisions of this section may be seized and forfeited to the United States. All provisions of law relating to the seizures, summary, and judicial forfeiture procedures, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violation of the customs laws; the disposition of such vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from such sale; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred or alleged to have been incurred under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with such provisions. Such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person in respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property used or intended for use in violation of this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be designated for that purpose by the Attorney General.

(e) This section shall not apply to any bingo game, lottery, or similar game of chance conducted by an organization exempt from tax under paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if no part of the gross receipts derived from such activity inures to the benefits of any private shareholder, member, or employee of such organization except as compensation for actual expenses incurred by him in the conduct of such activity.

(Added Pub. L. 91–452, title VIII, §803(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 937; amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330016(1)(N), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2148.)

References in Text

The customs laws, referred to in subsec. (d), are classified generally to Title 19, Customs Duties.

Paragraph (3) of subsection (c) of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (e), is classified to section 501(c)(3) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322 substituted “fined under this title” for “fined not more than ,000”.

1986—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted “Internal Revenue Code of 1986” for “Internal Revenue Code of 1954”.

Transfer of Functions

Offices of collector of customs, comptroller of customs, surveyor of customs, and appraiser of merchandise in Bureau of Customs of Department of the Treasury to which appointments were required to be made by President with advice and consent of Senate ordered abolished, with such offices to be terminated not later than Dec. 31, 1966, by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1965, eff. May 25, 1965, 30 F.R. 7035, 79 Stat. 1317, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. Functions of offices eliminated were already vested in Secretary of the Treasury by Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950, eff. July 31, 1950, 15 F.R. 4935, 64 Stat. 1280, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.

National Gambling Impact Study Commission

Pub. L. 104–169, Aug. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 1482, provided that:

“SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

“This Act may be cited as the ‘National Gambling Impact Study Commission Act’.

“SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

“The Congress finds that—

“(1) the most recent Federal study of gambling in the United States was completed in 1976;

“(2) legalization of gambling has increased substantially over the past 20 years, and State, local, and Native American tribal governments have established gambling as a source of jobs and additional revenue;

“(3) the growth of various forms of gambling, including electronic gambling and gambling over the Internet, could affect interstate and international matters under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government;

“(4) questions have been raised regarding the social and economic impacts of gambling, and Federal, State, local, and Native American tribal governments lack recent, comprehensive information regarding those impacts; and

“(5) a Federal commission should be established to conduct a comprehensive study of the social and economic impacts of gambling in the United States.

“SEC. 3. NATIONAL GAMBLING IMPACT STUDY COMMISSION.

“(a) Establishment of Commission.—There is established a commission to be known as the National Gambling Impact Study Commission (hereinafter referred to in this Act as ‘the Commission’). The Commission shall—

“(1) be composed of 9 members appointed in accordance with subsection (b); and

“(2) conduct its business in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

“(b) Membership.—

“(1) In general.—The Commissioners shall be appointed for the life of the Commission as follows:

“(A) 3 shall be appointed by the President of the United States.

“(B) 3 shall be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

“(C) 3 shall be appointed by the Majority Leader of the Senate.

“(2) Persons eligible.—The members of the Commission shall be individuals who have knowledge or expertise, whether by experience or training, in matters to be studied by the Commission under section 4. The members may be from the public or private sector, and may include Federal, State, local, or Native American tribal officers or employees, members of academia, non-profit organizations, or industry, or other interested individuals.

“(3) Consultation required.—The President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Majority Leader of the Senate shall consult among themselves prior to the appointment of the members of the Commission in order to achieve, to the maximum extent possible, fair and equitable representation of various points of view with respect to the matters to be studied by the Commission under section 4.

“(4) Completion of appointments; vacancies.—The President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Majority Leader of the Senate shall conduct the consultation required under paragraph (3) and shall each make their respective appointments not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 3, 1996]. Any vacancy that occurs during the life of the Commission shall not affect the powers of the Commission, and shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment not later than 60 days after the vacancy occurs.

“(5) Operation of the commission.—

“(A) Chairmanship.—The President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Majority Leader of the Senate shall jointly designate one member as the Chairman of the Commission. In the event of a disagreement among the appointing authorities, the Chairman shall be determined by a majority vote of the appointing authorities. The determination of which member shall be Chairman shall be made not later than 15 days after the appointment of the last member of the Commission, but in no case later than 75 days after the date of enactment of this Act.

“(B) Meetings.—The Commission shall meet at the call of the Chairman. The initial meeting of the Commission shall be conducted not later than 30 days after the appointment of the last member of the Commission, or not later than 30 days after the date on which appropriated funds are available for the Commission, whichever is later.

“(C) Quorum; voting; rules.—A majority of the members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum to conduct business, but the Commission may establish a lesser quorum for conducting hearings scheduled by the Commission. Each member of the Commission shall have one vote, and the vote of each member shall be accorded the same weight. The Commission may establish by majority vote any other rules for the conduct of the Commission's business, if such rules are not inconsistent with this Act or other applicable law.

“SEC. 4. DUTIES OF THE COMMISSION.

“(a) Study.—

“(1) In general.—It shall be the duty of the Commission to conduct a comprehensive legal and factual study of the social and economic impacts of gambling in the United States on—

“(A) Federal, State, local, and Native American tribal governments; and

“(B) communities and social institutions generally, including individuals, families, and businesses within such communities and institutions.

“(2) Matters to be studied.—The matters studied by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall at a minimum include—

“(A) a review of existing Federal, State, local, and Native American tribal government policies and practices with respect to the legalization or prohibition of gambling, including a review of the costs of such policies and practices;

“(B) an assessment of the relationship between gambling and levels of crime, and of existing enforcement and regulatory practices that are intended to address any such relationship;

“(C) an assessment of pathological or problem gambling, including its impact on individuals, families, businesses, social institutions, and the economy;

“(D) an assessment of the impacts of gambling on individuals, families, businesses, social institutions, and the economy generally, including the role of advertising in promoting gambling and the impact of gambling on depressed economic areas;

“(E) an assessment of the extent to which gambling provides revenues to State, local, and Native American tribal governments, and the extent to which possible alternative revenue sources may exist for such governments; and

“(F) an assessment of the interstate and international effects of gambling by electronic means, including the use of interactive technologies and the Internet.

“(b) Report.—No later than 2 years after the date on which the Commission first meets, the Commission shall submit to the President, the Congress, State Governors, and Native American tribal governments a comprehensive report of the Commission's findings and conclusions, together with any recommendations of the Commission. Such report shall include a summary of the reports submitted to the Commission by the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations and National Research Council under section 7, as well as a summary of any other material relied on by the Commission in the preparation of its report.

“SEC. 5. POWERS OF THE COMMISSION.

“(a) Hearings.—

“(1) In general.—The Commission may hold such hearings, sit and act at such times and places, administer such oaths, take such testimony, and receive such evidence as the Commission considers advisable to carry out its duties under section 4.

“(2) Witness expenses.—Witnesses requested to appear before the Commission shall be paid the same fees as are paid to witnesses under section 1821 of title 28, United States Code. The per diem and mileage allowances for witnesses shall be paid from funds appropriated to the Commission.

“(b) Subpoenas.—

“(1) In general.—If a person fails to supply information requested by the Commission, the Commission may by majority vote require by subpoena the production of any written or recorded information, document, report, answer, record, account, paper, computer file, or other data or documentary evidence necessary to carry out its duties under section 4. The Commission shall transmit to the Attorney General a confidential, written notice at least 10 days in advance of the issuance of any such subpoena. A subpoena under this paragraph may require the production of materials from any place within the United States.

“(2) Interrogatories.—The Commission may, with respect only to information necessary to understand any materials obtained through a subpoena under paragraph (1), issue a subpoena requiring the person producing such materials to answer, either through a sworn deposition or through written answers provided under oath (at the election of the person upon whom the subpoena is served), to interrogatories from the Commission regarding such information. A complete recording or transcription shall be made of any deposition made under this paragraph.

“(3) Certification.—Each person who submits materials or information to the Commission pursuant to a subpoena issued under paragraph (1) or (2) shall certify to the Commission the authenticity and completeness of all materials or information submitted. The provisions of section 1001 of title 18, United States Code, shall apply to any false statements made with respect to the certification required under this paragraph.

“(4) Treatment of subpoenas.—Any subpoena issued by the Commission under paragraph (1) or (2) shall comply with the requirements for subpoenas issued by a United States district court under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure [28 App. U.S.C.].

“(5) Failure to obey a subpoena.—If a person refuses to obey a subpoena issued by the Commission under paragraph (1) or (2), the Commission may apply to a United States district court for an order requiring that person to comply with such subpoena. The application may be made within the judicial district in which that person is found, resides, or transacts business. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as civil contempt.

“(c) Information From Federal Agencies.—The Commission may secure directly from any Federal department or agency such information as the Commission considers necessary to carry out its duties under section 4. Upon the request of the Commission, the head of such department or agency may furnish such information to the Commission.

“(d) Information To Be Kept Confidential.—The Commission shall be considered an agency of the Federal Government for purposes of section 1905 of title 18, United States Code, and any individual employed by an individual, entity, or organization under contract to the Commission under section 7 shall be considered an employee of the Commission for the purposes of section 1905 of title 18, United States Code. Information obtained by the Commission, other than information available to the public, shall not be disclosed to any person in any manner, except—

“(1) to Commission employees or employees of any individual, entity, or organization under contract to the Commission under section 7 for the purpose of receiving, reviewing, or processing such information;

“(2) upon court order; or

“(3) when publicly released by the Commission in an aggregate or summary form that does not directly or indirectly disclose—

“(A) the identity of any person or business entity; or

“(B) any information which could not be released under section 1905 of title 18, United States Code.

“SEC. 6. COMMISSION PERSONNEL MATTERS.

“(a) Compensation of Members.—Each member of the Commission who is not an officer or employee of the Federal Government, or whose compensation is not precluded by a State, local, or Native American tribal government position, shall be compensated at a rate equal to the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for Level IV of the Executive Schedule under section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel time) during which such member is engaged in the performance of the duties of the Commission. All members of the Commission who are officers or employees of the United States shall serve without compensation in addition to that received for their services as officers or employees of the United States.

“(b) Travel Expenses.—The members of the Commission shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, at rates authorized for employees of agencies under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code, while away from their homes or regular places of business in the performance of service for the Commission.

“(c) Staff.—

“(1) In general.—The Chairman of the Commission may, without regard to the civil service laws and regulations, appoint and terminate an executive director and such other additional personnel as may be necessary to enable the Commission to perform its duties. The employment and termination of an executive director shall be subject to confirmation by a majority of the members of the Commission.

“(2) Compensation.—The executive director shall be compensated at a rate not to exceed the rate payable for Level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of title 5, United States Code. The Chairman may fix the compensation of other personnel without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code, relating to classification of positions and General Schedule pay rates, except that the rate of pay for such personnel may not exceed the rate payable for Level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

“(3) Detail of government employees.—Any Federal Government employee, with the approval of the head of the appropriate Federal agency, may be detailed to the Commission without reimbursement, and such detail shall be without interruption or loss of civil service status, benefits, or privilege.

“(d) Procurement of Temporary and Intermittent Services.—The Chairman of the Commission may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code, at rates for individuals not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate of basic pay prescribed for Level V of the Executive Schedule under section 5316 of such title.

“SEC. 7. CONTRACTS FOR RESEARCH.

“(a) Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.—

“(1) In general.—In carrying out its duties under section 4, the Commission shall contract with the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations for—

“(A) a thorough review and cataloging of all applicable Federal, State, local, and Native American tribal laws, regulations, and ordinances that pertain to gambling in the United States; and

“(B) assistance in conducting the studies required by the Commission under section 4(a), and in particular the review and assessments required in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (E) of paragraph (2) of such section.

“(2) Report required.—The contract entered into under paragraph (1) shall require that the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations submit a report to the Commission detailing the results of its efforts under the contract no later than 15 months after the date upon which the Commission first meets.

“(b) National Research Council.—

“(1) In general.—In carrying out its duties under section 4, the Commission shall contract with the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences for assistance in conducting the studies required by the Commission under section 4(a), and in particular the assessment required under subparagraph (C) of paragraph (2) of such section.

“(2) Report required.—The contract entered into under paragraph (1) shall require that the National Research Council submit a report to the Commission detailing the results of its efforts under the contract no later than 15 months after the date upon which the Commission first meets.

“(c) Other Organizations.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the ability of the Commission to enter into contracts with other entities or organizations for research necessary to carry out the Commission's duties under section 4.

“SEC. 8. DEFINITIONS.

“For the purposes of this Act:

“(1) Gambling.—The term ‘gambling’ means any legalized form of wagering or betting conducted in a casino, on a riverboat, on an Indian reservation, or at any other location under the jurisdiction of the United States. Such term includes any casino game, parimutuel betting, sports-related betting, lottery, pull-tab game, slot machine, any type of video gaming, computerized wagering or betting activities (including any such activity conducted over the Internet), and philanthropic or charitable gaming activities.

“(2) Native american tribal government.—The term ‘Native American tribal government’ means an Indian tribe, as defined under section 4(5) of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (25 U.S.C. 2703(5)).

“(3) State.—The term ‘State’ means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

“SEC. 9. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

“(a) In General.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission, the Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, and the National Academy of Sciences such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. Any sums appropriated shall remain available, without fiscal year limitation, until expended.

“(b) Limitation.—No payment may be made under section 6 or 7 of this Act except to the extent provided for in advance in an appropriation Act.

“SEC. 10. TERMINATION OF THE COMMISSION.

“The Commission shall terminate 60 days after the Commission submits the report required under section 4(b).”

Priority of State Laws

Enactment of this section as not indicating an intent on the part of the Congress to occupy the field in which this section operates to the exclusion of State of local law on the same subject matter, or to relieve any person of any obligation imposed by any State or local law, see section 811 of Pub. L. 91–452, set out as a Priority of State Laws note under section 1511 of this title.

Commission on Review of National Policy Toward Gambling

Sections 804–809 of Pub. L. 91–452 established Commission on Review of National Policy Toward Gambling, provided for its membership and compensation of members and staff, empowered Commission to subpoena witnesses and grant immunity, required Commission to make a study of gambling in United States and existing Federal, State, and local policy and practices with respect to prohibition and taxation of gambling activities and to make a final report of its findings and recommendations to President and to Congress within four years of its establishment, and provided for its termination sixty days after submission of final report.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1961, 2516 of this title; title 8 section 1101; title 26 section 6050I.

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