1994 US Code
Title 8 - ALIENS AND NATIONALITY
CHAPTER 11 - NATIONALITY
SUBCHAPTER II_2 - SUBCHAPTER II-IMMIGRATION
Part V - Deportation; Adjustment of Status
Sec. 1252b - Deportation procedures

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Publication TitleUnited States Code, 1994 Edition, Title 8 - ALIENS AND NATIONALITY
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 8 - ALIENS AND NATIONALITY
CHAPTER 11 - NATIONALITY
SUBCHAPTER II_2 - SUBCHAPTER II-IMMIGRATION
Part V - Deportation; Adjustment of Status
Sec. 1252b - Deportation procedures
Containssection 1252b
Date1994
Laws in Effect as of DateJanuary 4, 1995
Positive LawNo
Dispositionstandard
Source CreditJune 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 5, §242B, as added Nov. 29, 1990, Pub. L. 101-649, title V, §545(a), 104 Stat. 5061; amended Dec. 12, 1991, <!-- PDFPage:157 -->Pub. L. 102-232, title III, §306(c)(6), 105 Stat. 1753; Oct. 25, 1994, Pub. L. 103-416, title II, §219(i), 108 Stat. 4317.
Statutes at Large References104 Stat. 5061
105 Stat. 1753
108 Stat. 4317
Public Law ReferencesPublic Law 101-649, Public Law 102-232, Public Law 103-416


§1252b. Deportation procedures (a) Notices (1) Order to show cause

In deportation proceedings under section 1252 of this title, written notice (in this section referred to as an “order to show cause”) shall be given in person to the alien (or, if personal service is not practicable, such notice shall be given by certified mail to the alien or to the alien's counsel of record, if any) specifying the following:

(A) The nature of the proceedings against the alien.

(B) The legal authority under which the proceedings are conducted.

(C) The acts or conduct alleged to be in violation of law.

(D) The charges against the alien and the statutory provisions alleged to have been violated.

(E) The alien may be represented by counsel and the alien will be provided a list of counsel prepared under subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(F)(i) The requirement that the alien must immediately provide (or have provided) the Attorney General with a written record of an address and telephone number (if any) at which the alien may be contacted respecting proceedings under section 1252 of this title.

(ii) The requirement that the alien must provide the Attorney General immediately with a written record of any change of the alien's address or telephone number.

(iii) The consequences under subsection (c)(2) of this section of failure to provide address and telephone information pursuant to this subparagraph.

(2) Notice of time and place of proceedings

In deportation proceedings under section 1252 of this title—

(A) written notice shall be given in person to the alien (or, if personal service is not practicable, written notice shall be given by certified mail to the alien or to the alien's counsel of record, if any), in the order to show cause or otherwise, of—

(i) the time and place at which the proceedings will be held, and

(ii) the consequences under subsection (c) of this section of the failure, except under exceptional circumstances, to appear at such proceedings; and


(B) in the case of any change or postponement in the time and place of such proceedings, written notice shall be given in person to the alien (or, if personal service is not practicable, written notice shall be given by certified mail to the alien or to the alien's counsel of record, if any) of—

(i) the new time or place of the proceedings, and

(ii) the consequences under subsection (c) of this section of failing, except under exceptional circumstances, to attend such proceedings.


In the case of an alien not in detention, a written notice shall not be required under this paragraph if the alien has failed to provide the address required under subsection (a)(1)(F) of this section.

(3) Form of information

Each order to show cause or other notice under this subsection—

(A) shall be in English and Spanish, and

(B) shall specify that the alien may be represented by an attorney in deportation proceedings under section 1252 of this title and will be provided, in accordance with subsection (b)(1) of this section, a period of time in order to obtain counsel and a current list described in subsection (b)(2) of this section.

(4) Central address files

The Attorney General shall create a system to record and preserve on a timely basis notices of addresses and telephone numbers (and changes) provided under paragraph (1)(F).

(b) Securing of counsel (1) In general

In order that an alien be permitted the opportunity to secure counsel before the first hearing date in proceedings under section 1252 of this title, the hearing date shall not be scheduled earlier than 14 days after the service of the order to show cause, unless the alien requests in writing an earlier hearing date.

(2) Current lists of counsel

The Attorney General shall provide for lists (updated not less often than quarterly) of persons who have indicated their availability to represent pro bono aliens in proceedings under section 1252 of this title. Such lists shall be provided under subsection (a)(1)(E) of this section and otherwise made generally available.

(c) Consequences of failure to appear (1) In general

Any alien who, after written notice required under subsection (a)(2) of this section has been provided to the alien or the alien's counsel of record, does not attend a proceeding under section 1252 of this title, shall be ordered deported under section 1252(b)(1) of this title in absentia if the Service establishes by clear, unequivocal, and convincing evidence that the written notice was so provided and that the alien is deportable. The written notice by the Attorney General shall be considered sufficient for purposes of this paragraph if provided at the most recent address provided under subsection (a)(1)(F) of this section.

(2) No notice if failure to provide address information

No written notice shall be required under paragraph (1) if the alien has failed to provide the address required under subsection (a)(1)(F) of this section.

(3) Rescission of order

Such an order may be rescinded only—

(A) upon a motion to reopen filed within 180 days after the date of the order of deportation if the alien demonstrates that the failure to appear was because of exceptional circumstances (as defined in subsection (f)(2) of this section), or

(B) upon a motion to reopen filed at any time if the alien demonstrates that the alien did not receive notice in accordance with subsection (a)(2) of this section or the alien demonstrates that the alien was in Federal or State custody and did not appear through no fault of the alien.


The filing of the motion to reopen described in subparagraph (A) or (B) shall stay the deportation of the alien pending disposition of the motion.

(4) Effect on judicial review

Any petition for review under section 1105a of this title of an order entered in absentia under this subsection shall, notwithstanding such section, be filed not later than 60 days (or 30 days in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony) after the date of the final order of deportation and shall (except in cases described in section 1105a(a)(5) of this title) be confined to the issues of the validity of the notice provided to the alien, to the reasons for the alien's not attending the proceeding, and to whether or not clear, convincing, and unequivocal evidence of deportability has been established.

(d) Treatment of frivolous behavior

The Attorney General shall, by regulation—

(1) define in a proceeding before a special inquiry officer or before an appellate administrative body under this subchapter, frivolous behavior for which attorneys may be sanctioned,

(2) specify the circumstances under which an administrative appeal of a decision or ruling will be considered frivolous and will be summarily dismissed, and

(3) impose appropriate sanctions (which may include suspension and disbarment) in the case of frivolous behavior.


Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as limiting the authority of the Attorney General to take actions with respect to inappropriate behavior.

(e) Limitation on discretionary relief for failure to appear (1) At deportation proceedings

Any alien against whom a final order of deportation is entered in absentia under this section and who, at the time of the notice described in subsection (a)(2) of this section, was provided oral notice, either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands, of the time and place of the proceedings and of the consequences under this paragraph of failing, other than because of exceptional circumstances (as defined in subsection (f)(2) of this section) to attend a proceeding under section 1252 of this title, shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the date of the entry of the final order of deportation.

(2) Voluntary departure (A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), any alien allowed to depart voluntarily under section 1254(e)(1) of this title or who has agreed to depart voluntarily at his own expense under section 1252(b)(1) of this title who remains in the United States after the scheduled date of departure, other than because of exceptional circumstances, shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the scheduled date of departure or the date of unlawful reentry, respectively.

(B) Written and oral notice required

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to an alien allowed to depart voluntarily unless, before such departure, the Attorney General has provided written notice to the alien in English and Spanish and oral notice either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands of the consequences under subparagraph (A) of the alien's remaining in the United States after the scheduled date of departure, other than because of exceptional circumstances.

(3) Failure to appear under deportation order (A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), any alien against whom a final order of deportation is entered under this section and who fails, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to appear for deportation at the time and place ordered shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the date the alien was required to appear for deportation.

(B) Written and oral notice required

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to an alien against whom a deportation order is entered unless the Attorney General has provided, orally in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands and in the final order of deportation under this section of the consequences under subparagraph (A) of the alien's failure, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to appear for deportation at the time and place ordered.

(4) Failure to appear for asylum hearing (A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), any alien—

(i) whose period of authorized stay (if any) has expired through the passage of time,

(ii) who has filed an application for asylum, and

(iii) who fails, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to appear at the time and place specified for the asylum hearing,


shall not be eligible for relief described in paragraph (5) for a period of 5 years after the date of the asylum hearing.

(B) Written and oral notice required

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply in the case of an alien with respect to a failure to be present at a hearing unless—

(i) written notice in English and Spanish, and oral notice either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands, was provided to the alien of the time and place at which the asylum hearing will be held, and in the case of any change or postponement in such time or place, written notice in English and Spanish, and oral notice either in the alien's native language or in another language the alien understands, was provided to the alien of the new time or place of the hearing; and

(ii) notices under clause (i) specified the consequences under subparagraph (A) of failing, other than because of exceptional circumstances, to attend such hearing.

(5) Relief covered

The relief described in this paragraph is—

(A) voluntary departure under section 1252(b)(1) of this title,

(B) suspension of deportation or voluntary departure under section 1254 of this title, and

(C) adjustment or change of status under section 1255, 1258, or 1259 of this title.

(f) Definitions

In this section:

(1) The term “certified mail” means certified mail, return receipt requested.

(2) The term “exceptional circumstances” refers to exceptional circumstances (such as serious illness of the alien or death of an immediate relative of the alien, but not including less compelling circumstances) beyond the control of the alien.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title II, ch. 5, §242B, as added Nov. 29, 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, title V, §545(a), 104 Stat. 5061; amended Dec. 12, 1991, Pub. L. 102–232, title III, §306(c)(6), 105 Stat. 1753; Oct. 25, 1994, Pub. L. 103–416, title II, §219(i), 108 Stat. 4317.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–416 struck out comma after “convincing evidence that”.

1991—Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(A), struck out “, upon request,” after “represented by counsel and”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(C), inserted at end “In the case of an alien not in detention, a written notice shall not be required under this paragraph if the alien has failed to provide the address required under subsection (a)(1)(F) of this section.”

Subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(B), inserted “, except under exceptional circumstances,” after “failure”.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(D), inserted before period at end “, unless the alien requests in writing an earlier hearing date”.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(E), inserted “pro bono” after “to represent” and inserted at end “Such lists shall be provided under subsection (a)(1)(E) of this section and otherwise made generally available.”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(F)(i), (ii), struck out “except as provided in paragraph (2),” after “counsel of record,” and after “convincing evidence that,” and inserted at end “The written notice by the Attorney General shall be considered sufficient for purposes of this paragraph if provided at the most recent address provided under subsection (a)(1)(F) of this section.”

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(F)(iii), struck out at end “Such written notice shall be considered sufficient if provided at the most recent address provided under such subsection.”

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(G), inserted “(or 30 days in the case of an alien convicted of an aggravated felony)” after “60 days”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(H), substituted “the Attorney General” for “the Board” in last sentence.

Subsec. (e)(4)(B). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(I), inserted “a” after “with respect to”.

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 102–232, §306(c)(6)(J), redesignated subpars. (B) to (D) as (A) to (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: “relief under section 1182(c) of this title,”.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–416 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 219(dd) of Pub. L. 103–416, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–232 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–649, see section 310(1) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date

Section 545(g) of Pub. L. 101–649 provided that:

“(1) Notice-related provisions.—

“(A) Subsections (a), (b), (c), and (e)(1) of section 242B of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1252b(a), (b), (c) and (e)(1)] (as inserted by the amendment made by subsection (a)), and the amendment made by subsection (e) [amending section 1252 of this title], shall be effective on a date specified by the Attorney General in the certification described in subparagraph (B), which date may not be earlier than 6 months after the date of such certification.

“(B) The Attorney General shall certify to the Congress when the central address file system (described in section 242B(a)(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act) has been established.

“(C) The Comptroller General shall submit to Congress, within 3 months after the date of the Attorney General's certification under subparagraph (B), a report on the adequacy of such system.

“(2) Certain limits on discretionary relief; sanctions for frivolous behavior.—Subsections (d), (e)(2), and (e)(3) of section 242B of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as inserted by the amendment made by subsection (a)) shall be effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1990].

“(3) Limits on discretionary relief for failure to appear in asylum hearing.—Subsection (e)(4) of section 242B of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as inserted by the amendment made by subsection (a)) shall be effective on February 1, 1991.

“(4) Consolidation of relief in judicial review.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 1105a of this title] shall apply to final orders of deportation entered on or after January 1, 1991.”

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 1252, 1252a of this title.

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