1994 US Code
Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 47 - FRAUD AND FALSE STATEMENTS
Sec. 1030 - Fraud and related activity in connection with computers

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Metadata
Publication TitleUnited States Code, 1994 Edition, Title 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
CategoryBills and Statutes
CollectionUnited States Code
SuDoc Class NumberY 1.2/5:
Contained WithinTitle 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PART I - CRIMES
CHAPTER 47 - FRAUD AND FALSE STATEMENTS
Sec. 1030 - Fraud and related activity in connection with computers
Containssection 1030
Date1994
Laws in Effect as of DateJanuary 4, 1995
Positive LawYes
Dispositionstandard
Source CreditAdded Pub. L. 98-473, title II, §2102(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2190; amended Pub. L. 99-474, §2, Oct. 16, 1986, 100 Stat. 1213; Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, §7065, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4404; Pub. L. 101-73, title IX, §962(a)(5), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 101-647, title XII, §1205(e), title XXV, §2597(j), title XXXV, §3533, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4831, 4910, 4925; Pub. L. 103-322, title XXIX, §290001(b)-(f), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2097-2099.
Statutes at Large References84 Stat. 1127
85 Stat. 583
98 Stat. 2190
100 Stat. 1213
102 Stat. 4404
103 Stat. 502
104 Stat. 4831
105 Stat. 2281
108 Stat. 2097-2099
Public Law ReferencesPublic Law 90-321, Public Law 91-508, Public Law 92-181, Public Law 98-473, Public Law 99-474, Public Law 100-690, Public Law 101-73, Public Law 101-647, Public Law 102-242, Public Law 103-322


§1030. Fraud and related activity in connection with computers

(a) Whoever—

(1) knowingly accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access, and by means of such conduct obtains information that has been determined by the United States Government pursuant to an Executive order or statute to require protection against unauthorized disclosure for reasons of national defense or foreign relations, or any restricted data, as defined in paragraph y. of section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, with the intent or reason to believe that such information so obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation;

(2) intentionally accesses a computer without authorization or exceeds authorized access, and thereby obtains information contained in a financial record of a financial institution, or of a card issuer as defined in section 1602(n) of title 15, or contained in a file of a consumer reporting agency on a consumer, as such terms are defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act (15 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.);

(3) intentionally, without authorization to access any computer of a department or agency of the United States, accesses such a computer of that department or agency that is exclusively for the use of the Government of the United States or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, is used by or for the Government of the United States and such conduct adversely affects the use of the Government's operation of such computer;

(4) knowingly and with intent to defraud, accesses a Federal interest computer without authorization, or exceeds authorized access, and by means of such conduct furthers the intended fraud and obtains anything of value, unless the object of the fraud and the thing obtained consists only of the use of the computer;

(5)(A) through means of a computer used in interstate commerce or communications, knowingly causes the transmission of a program, information, code, or command to a computer or computer system if—

(i) the person causing the transmission intends that such transmission will—

(I) damage, or cause damage to, a computer, computer system, network, information, data, or program; or

(II) withhold or deny, or cause the withholding or denial, of the use of a computer, computer services, system or network, information, data or program; and


(ii) the transmission of the harmful component of the program, information, code, or command—

(I) occurred without the authorization of the persons or entities who own or are responsible for the computer system receiving the program, information, code, or command; and

(II)(aa) causes loss or damage to one or more other persons of value aggregating ,000 or more during any 1-year period; or

(bb) modifies or impairs, or potentially modifies or impairs, the medical examination, medical diagnosis, medical treatment, or medical care of one or more individuals; or


(B) through means of a computer used in interstate commerce or communication, knowingly causes the transmission of a program, information, code, or command to a computer or computer system—

(i) with reckless disregard of a substantial and unjustifiable risk that the transmission will—

(I) damage, or cause damage to, a computer, computer system, network, information, data or program; or

(II) withhold or deny or cause the withholding or denial of the use of a computer, computer services, system, network, information, data or program; and


(ii) if the transmission of the harmful component of the program, information, code, or command—

(I) occurred without the authorization of the persons or entities who own or are responsible for the computer system receiving the program, information, code, or command; and

(II)(aa) causes loss or damage to one or more other persons of a value aggregating ,000 or more during any 1-year period; or

(bb) modifies or impairs, or potentially modifies or impairs, the medical examination, medical diagnosis, medical treatment, or medical care of one or more individuals; 1


(6) knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics (as defined in section 1029) in any password or similar information through which a computer may be accessed without authorization, if—

(A) such trafficking affects interstate or foreign commerce; or

(B) such computer is used by or for the Government of the United States;


shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(b) Whoever attempts to commit an offense under subsection (a) of this section shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.

(c) The punishment for an offense under subsection (a) or (b) of this section is—

(1)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(1) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and 2

(2)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(2), (a)(3) or (a)(6) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph;

(3)(A) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4) or (a)(5)(A) of this section which does not occur after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(B) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(4) or (a)(5) of this section which occurs after a conviction for another offense under such subsection, or an attempt to commit an offense punishable under this subparagraph; and

(4) a fine under this title or imprisonment for not more than 1 year, or both, in the case of an offense under subsection (a)(5)(B).


(d) The United States Secret Service shall, in addition to any other agency having such authority, have the authority to investigate offenses under this section. Such authority of the United States Secret Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General.

(e) As used in this section—

(1) the term “computer” means an electronic, magnetic, optical, electrochemical, or other high speed data processing device performing logical, arithmetic, or storage functions, and includes any data storage facility or communications facility directly related to or operating in conjunction with such device, but such term does not include an automated typewriter or typesetter, a portable hand held calculator, or other similar device;

(2) the term “Federal interest computer” means a computer—

(A) exclusively for the use of a financial institution or the United States Government, or, in the case of a computer not exclusively for such use, used by or for a financial institution or the United States Government and the conduct constituting the offense affects the use of the financial institution's operation or the Government's operation of such computer; or

(B) which is one of two or more computers used in committing the offense, not all of which are located in the same State;


(3) the term “State” includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any other commonwealth, possession or territory of the United States;

(4) the term “financial institution” means—

(A) an institution, with deposits insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation;

(B) the Federal Reserve or a member of the Federal Reserve including any Federal Reserve Bank;

(C) a credit union with accounts insured by the National Credit Union Administration;

(D) a member of the Federal home loan bank system and any home loan bank;

(E) any institution of the Farm Credit System under the Farm Credit Act of 1971;

(F) a broker-dealer registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to section 15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934;

(G) the Securities Investor Protection Corporation;

(H) a branch or agency of a foreign bank (as such terms are defined in paragraphs (1) and (3) of section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978); and

(I) an organization operating under section 25 or section 25(a) 3 of the Federal Reserve Act.4


(5) the term “financial record” means information derived from any record held by a financial institution pertaining to a customer's relationship with the financial institution;

(6) the term “exceeds authorized access” means to access a computer with authorization and to use such access to obtain or alter information in the computer that the accesser is not entitled so to obtain or alter; and

(7) the term “department of the United States” means the legislative or judicial branch of the Government or one of the executive departments enumerated in section 101 of title 5.


(f) This section does not prohibit any lawfully authorized investigative, protective, or intelligence activity of a law enforcement agency of the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State, or of an intelligence agency of the United States.

(g) Any person who suffers damage or loss by reason of a violation of the 5 section, other than a violation of subsection (a)(5)(B), may maintain a civil action against the violator to obtain compensatory damages and injunctive relief or other equitable relief. Damages for violations of any subsection other than subsection (a)(5)(A)(ii)(II)(bb) or (a)(5)(B)(ii)(II)(bb) are limited to economic damages. No action may be brought under this subsection unless such action is begun within 2 years of the date of the act complained of or the date of the discovery of the damage.

(h) The Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury shall report to the Congress annually, during the first 3 years following the date of the enactment of this subsection, concerning investigations and prosecutions under section 1030(a)(5) of title 18, United States Code.

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §2102(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2190; amended Pub. L. 99–474, §2, Oct. 16, 1986, 100 Stat. 1213; Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7065, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4404; Pub. L. 101–73, title IX, §962(a)(5), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1205(e), title XXV, §2597(j), title XXXV, §3533, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4831, 4910, 4925; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXIX, §290001(b)–(f), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2097–2099.)

References in Text

Section 11 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is classified to section 2014 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The Fair Credit Reporting Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is title VI of Pub. L. 90–321, as added by Pub. L. 91–508, title VI, §601, Oct. 26, 1970, 84 Stat. 1127, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1681 et seq.) of chapter 41 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 15 and Tables.

The Farm Credit Act of 1971, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(E), is Pub. L. 92–181, Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 583, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 23 (§2001 et seq.) of Title 12, Banks and Banking. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2001 of Title 12 and Tables.

Section 15 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(F), is classified to section 78o of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Section 1(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(H), is classified to section 3101 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(4)(I), is classified to subchapter I (§601 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 12. Section 25(a) of the Federal Reserve Act, which is classified to subchapter II (§611 et seq.) of chapter 6 of Title 12, was renumbered section 25A of that act by Pub. L. 102–242, title I, §142(e)(2), Dec. 19, 1991, 105 Stat. 2281.

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (h), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 103–322, which was approved Sept. 13, 1994.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–322, §290001(f), inserted “adversely” before “affects the use of the Government's”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 103–322, §290001(b), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “intentionally accesses a Federal interest computer without authorization, and by means of one or more instances of such conduct alters, damages, or destroys information in any such Federal interest computer, or prevents authorized use of any such computer or information, and thereby—

“(A) causes loss to one or more others of a value aggregating ,000 or more during any one year period; or

“(B) modifies or impairs, or potentially modifies or impairs, the medical examination, medical diagnosis, medical treatment, or medical care of one or more individuals; or”.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 103–322, §290001(c)(2), inserted “(A)” after “(a)(5)”.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–322, §290001(c)(1), (3), (4), added par. (4).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–322, §290001(d), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–322, §290001(e), added subsec. (h).

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–647, §3533, substituted “paragraph y” for “paragraph r”.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 101–647, §1205(e), inserted “commonwealth,” before “possession or territory of the United States”.

Subsec. (e)(4)(G). Pub. L. 101–647, §2597(j)(2), which directed substitution of a semicolon for a period at end of subpar. (G), could not be executed because it ended with a semicolon.

Subsec. (e)(4)(H), (I). Pub. L. 101–647, §2597(j), added subpars. (H) and (I).

1989—Subsec. (e)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(a)(5)(A), substituted “an institution,” for “a bank”.

Subsec. (e)(4)(C) to (H). Pub. L. 101–73, §962(a)(5)(B), (C), redesignated subpars. (D) to (H) as (C) to (G), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: “an institution with accounts insured by the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation;”.

1988—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted a comma after “financial institution” and struck out the comma that followed a comma after “title 15”.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(b)(2), struck out last sentence which read as follows: “It is not an offense under paragraph (2) or (3) of this subsection in the case of a person having accessed a computer with authorization and using the opportunity such access provides for purposes to which such access does not extend, if the using of such opportunity consists only of the use of the computer.”

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(c), substituted “or exceeds authorized access” for “, or having accessed a computer with authorization, uses the opportunity such access provides for purposes to which such authorization does not extend”.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(a), (c), substituted “intentionally” for “knowingly”, substituted “or exceeds authorized access” for “, or having accessed a computer with authorization, uses the opportunity such access provides for purposes to which such authorization does not extend”, struck out “as such terms are defined in the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3401 et seq.),” after “financial institution,”, inserted “or of a card issuer as defined in section 1602(n) of title 15,” and struck out “or” appearing at end.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(b)(1), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: “knowingly accesses a computer without authorization, or having accessed a computer with authorization, uses the opportunity such access provides for purposes to which such authorization does not extend, and by means of such conduct knowingly uses, modifies, destroys, or discloses information in, or prevents authorized use of, such computer, if such computer is operated for or on behalf of the Government of the United States and such conduct affects such operation;”.

Subsec. (a)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(d), added pars. (4) to (6).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(e), struck out par. (1) designation and par. (2) which provided a penalty for persons conspiring to commit an offense under subsec. (a).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(f)(9), substituted “(b)” for “(b)(1)” in introductory text.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(f)(1), substituted “under this title” for “of not more than the greater of ,000 or twice the value obtained by the offense”.

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(f)(2), substituted “under this title” for “of not more than the greater of 0,000 or twice the value obtained by the offense”.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(f)(3), (4), substituted “under this title” for “of not more than the greater of ,000 or twice the value obtained or loss created by the offense” and inserted reference to subsec. (a)(6).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(f)(3), (5)–(7), substituted “under this title” for “of not more than the greater of ,000 or twice the value obtained or loss created by the offense”, “not more than” for “not than”, inserted reference to subsec. (a)(6), and substituted “; and” for the period at end of subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(f)(8), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(g), substituted a dash for the comma after “As used in this section”, realigned remaining portion of subsection, inserted “(1)” before “the term”, substituted a semicolon for the period at the end, and added pars. (2) to (7).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–474, §2(h), added subsec. (f).

Reports to Congress

Section 2103 of Pub. L. 98–473 directed Attorney General to report to Congress annually, during first three years following Oct. 12, 1984, concerning prosecutions under this section.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

This section is referred to in sections 981, 982, 2256, 3239 of this title; title 31 section 9703.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by “or”.

2 So in original. The word “and” probably should not appear.

3 See References in Text note below.

4 So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

5 So in original. Probably should be “this”.

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