2018 Pennsylvania Consolidated Statutes
Title 20 - DECEDENTS, ESTATES AND FIDUCIARIES
Chapter 61 - Estates
Section 6114 - Rules of interpretation
(a) General rule.--Except as provided in subsection (b), in the absence of a contrary intent appearing therein, conveyances shall be construed, as to real and personal estate, in accordance with the following rules:
(1) Meaning of "heirs" and "next of kin," etc.; time of ascertaining class.--A conveyance of real or personal property, whether directly or in trust, to the conveyor's or another designated person's "heirs" or "next of kin" or "relatives" or "family" or to "the persons thereunto entitled under the intestate laws," or to persons described by words of similar import, shall mean those persons, including the spouse, who would take under the intestate laws if such conveyor or other designated person were to die intestate at the time when such class is to be ascertained, a resident of the Commonwealth, and owning the property so conveyed: Provided, That the share of a spouse other than the spouse of the conveyor, shall not include the allowance under the intestate laws. The time when such class is to be ascertained shall be when the conveyance to the class is to take effect in enjoyment.
(2) Time for ascertaining class.--In construing a conveyance to a class other than a class described in paragraph (1) of this section, the class shall be ascertained at the time the conveyance is to take effect in enjoyment, except that the issue then living of any member of the class who is then dead shall take per stirpes the share which their deceased ancestor would have taken if he had then been living.
(3) Meaning of "die without issue" and similar phrases.--In any conveyance of real or personal estate, the words "die without issue," "die without leaving issue," "have no issue," or other words importing either a want or failure of issue of any person in his lifetime or at the time of his death, or an indefinite failure of his issue, shall be construed to mean a want or failure of issue in his lifetime or at his death, and not an indefinite failure of his issue.
(4) Adopted children.--In construing a conveyance to a person or persons described by relationship to the conveyor or to another, any adopted person shall be considered the child of his adopting parent or parents, except that, in construing the conveyance of a conveyor who is not the adopting parent, an adopted person shall not be considered the child of his adopting parent or parents unless the adoption occurred during the adopted person's minority or reflected an earlier parent-child relationship that existed during the child's minority. An adopted person who is considered the child of his adopting parent or parents under this paragraph shall not be considered as continuing to be the child of his natural parents except in construing the conveyance of a natural kin, other than the natural parent, who has maintained a family relationship with the adopted person. If a natural parent shall have married the adopting parent, the adopted person shall also be considered the child of such natural parent.
(5) Persons born out of wedlock.--In construing a conveyance to a person or persons described by relationship to the conveyor or to another, a person born out of wedlock shall be considered the child of the natural mother and also of the natural father if the paternity of the natural father has been determined according to the provisions of section 2107 (relating to persons born out of wedlock).
(6) Inheritance tax.--The inheritance tax imposed by the Inheritance and Estate Tax Act of 1961 upon the conveyance of any estate, income or interest, for a term of years, for life, or for other limited period, shall be paid out of the principal of the property by which the estate, income or interest is supported.
(7) Employee benefits.--Benefits received by a trust under a Federally qualified profit sharing, pension or stock bonus plan shall not be available for the payment of obligations of the decedent or of his estate.
(8) Corporate fiduciaries.--Provisions authorizing or restricting investment in the securities or common trust funds of a corporate fiduciary or the exercise of voting rights in its securities shall also apply to the securities or common trust funds of any corporation which is an affiliate of the corporate fiduciary within the meaning of section 1504 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (Public Law 99-514, 26 U.S.C. § 1504).
(b) Exception.--This section does not apply to trusts under Chapter 77 (relating to trusts).
(July 9, 1976, P.L.551, No.135, eff. imd.; Nov. 26, 1978, P.L.1269, No.303, eff. imd.; Dec. 16, 1992, P.L.1163, No.152, eff. imd.; July 7, 2006, P.L.625, No.98, eff. 120 days)
References in Text. The act of June 15, 1961 (P.L.373, No.207), known as the Inheritance and Estate Tax Act of 1961, referred to in par. (6), was repealed by the act of December 13, 1982 (P.L.1086, No.255). The subject matter is now contained in Article XXI of the act of March 4, 1971 (P.L.6, No.2), known as the Tax Reform Code of 1971.