2010 Pennsylvania Code
Title 75 - VEHICLES
Chapter 1 - General Provisions
102 - Definitions.

     § 102.  Definitions.
        Subject to additional definitions contained in subsequent
     provisions of this title which are applicable to specific
     provisions of this title, the following words and phrases when
     used in this title shall have, unless the context clearly
     indicates otherwise, the meanings given to them in this section:
        "Abandoned vehicle."
            (1)  A vehicle (other than a pedalcycle) shall be
        presumed to be abandoned under any of the following
        circumstances, but the presumption is rebuttable by a
        preponderance of the evidence:
                (i)  The vehicle is physically inoperable and is left
            unattended on a highway or other public property for more
            than 48 hours.
                (ii)  The vehicle has remained illegally on a highway
            or other public property for a period of more than 48
            hours.
                (iii)  The vehicle is left unattended on or along a
            highway or other public property for more than 48 hours
            and does not bear all of the following:
                    (A)  A valid registration plate.
                    (B)  A current certificate of inspection.
                    (C)  An ascertainable vehicle identification
                number.
                (iv)  The vehicle has remained on private property
            without the consent of the owner or person in control of
            the property for more than 24 hours.
            (2)  Vehicles and equipment used or to be used in
        construction or in the operation or maintenance of highways
        or public utility facilities, which are left in a manner
        which does not interfere with the normal movement of traffic,
        shall not be considered to be abandoned.
        "Active work zone."  The portion of a work zone where
     construction, maintenance or utility workers are located on the
     roadway, berm or shoulder.
        "Agent service."  A person that has been authorized by the
     Department of Transportation to act as a card agent, a full
     agent or an issuing agent.
        "Alley."  A street or highway intended to provide access to
     the rear or side of lots or buildings in urban districts and not
     intended for the purpose of through vehicular traffic.
        "Ambulance."  Any vehicle which is specifically designed,
     constructed or modified and equipped and is used or intended to
     be used and is maintained or operated for the purpose of
     providing emergency medical care to and transportation of human
     patients. The term includes advanced or basic life support
     vehicles that may or may not transport such patients.
        "Antique motor vehicle."  A motor vehicle, but not a
     reproduction thereof, manufactured more than 25 years prior to
     the current year which has been maintained in or restored to a
     condition which is substantially in conformance with
     manufacturer specifications.
        "Articulated bus."  A bus designed to transport passengers
     and on which passengers are authorized to be transported,
     consisting of two or more units or sections permanently
     assembled in tandem by flexible connections which permit
     passenger movement throughout the length of the bus.
        "Authorized vehicle."  A vehicle or type of vehicle, other
     than an emergency vehicle, for which special operating or
     equipment privileges are given by law or regulation of the
     department based on design and utility for work within a
     highway.
        "Automated red light enforcement system."  A vehicle sensor
     installed to work in conjunction with a traffic-control signal
     which automatically produces one or more recorded images of a
     vehicle at the time the vehicle is used or operated in a manner
     which is a violation under this title.
        "Blood delivery vehicle."  Any vehicle which is used or
     intended to be used and is maintained or operated for the
     purpose of transporting blood or blood products on an emergency
     basis.
        "Bus."
            (1)  A motor vehicle designed to transport 16 or more
        passengers, including the driver; or
            (2)  a motor vehicle, other than a taxicab or limousine,
        designed to transport not more than 15 passengers, including
        the driver, and used for the transportation of persons for
        compensation.
     The term does not include a vehicle used in a ridesharing
     arrangement, as defined in the act of December 14, 1982
     (P.L.1211, No.279), entitled "An act providing for ridesharing
     arrangements and providing that certain laws shall be
     inapplicable to ridesharing arrangements," or a school bus.
        "Business district."  The territory contiguous to and
     including a highway when within any 600 feet along the highway
     there are buildings in use for business or industrial purposes,
     including but not limited to hotels, banks, or office buildings,
     railroad stations and public buildings which occupy at least 300
     feet of frontage on one side or 300 feet collectively on both
     sides of the highway.
        "Cancel."  To void or terminate by formal action of the
     department any license, registration or privilege issued or
     granted by the department to which the individual is no longer
     entitled.
        "Chemical test or testing."  Analysis performed on a
     biological material, including but not limited to breath, blood
     or urine, to determine the identity or concentration or both of
     particular constituents such as alcohol or controlled
     substances. Test procedures may rely on one or more physical or
     chemical properties of the constituent and utilize instrumental
     or chemical analysis techniques to accomplish the determination.
        "Classic motor vehicle."  A motor vehicle, but not a
     reproduction thereof, manufactured at least 15 years prior to
     the current year which has been maintained in or restored to a
     condition which is substantially in conformity with manufacturer
     specifications and appearance. Any classic motor vehicle
     registered under section 1340 (relating to antique and classic
     plates) on the effective date of the amendment to this
     definition which fails to qualify as a classic motor vehicle
     pursuant to these provisions may retain such classic
     registration unless another type of registration is applied for
     and issued for the vehicle.
        "Collectible motor vehicle."  A reconstructed or modified
     motor vehicle substantially modified from the manufacturer's
     original specifications and appearance and maintained in a
     collectible condition as determined by the Department of
     Transportation.
        "Combination."  Two or more vehicles physically
     interconnected in tandem.
        "Commercial driver."  A person who is either a commercial
     driver license holder as defined in section 1603 (relating to
     definitions) or who is driving a commercial motor vehicle.
        "Commercial implement of husbandry."  An implement of
     husbandry that:
            (1)  Is a self-propelled vehicle.
            (2)  Is used commercially.
            (3)  Is operated or moved upon highways for not more than
        180 days in a calendar year.
     The term also includes any other vehicle determined by the
     department to be a commercial implement of husbandry.
        "Construction truck."  A three or four axle truck engaged in
     construction operations.
        "Containerized cargo."  Manifested international freight in a
     sealed, seagoing container.
        "Converter gear."  A trailer designed and used exclusively to
     tow a semitrailer by mounting the semitrailer on the fifth wheel
     of the converter gear. The term includes the terms "auxiliary
     axle" and "jeep dolly."
        "Court."  Includes (when exercising criminal or quasi-
     criminal jurisdiction pursuant to 42 Pa.C.S. § 1515 (relating to
     jurisdiction and venue) or concerning the receipt, storage,
     reproduction, electronic transmission and admissibility of
     documentation under section 1377 (relating to judicial review)
     or 1550 (relating to judicial review)) a district justice or
     issuing authority or the equivalent official from the Federal
     Government or another state.
        "Crosswalk."
            (1)  That part of a roadway at an intersection included
        within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks
        on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or,
        in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable
        roadway; and, in the absence of a sidewalk on one side of the
        roadway, that part of a roadway included within the extension
        of the lateral lines of the existing sidewalk.
            (2)  Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or
        elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by
        lines or other markings on the surface.
        "Dealer."  A person engaged in the business of buying,
     selling or exchanging vehicles.
        "Department."  The Department of Transportation of the
     Commonwealth.
        "District justice."  (Deleted by amendment).
        "Divided highway."  A highway divided into two or more
     roadways and so constructed as to impede vehicular traffic
     between the roadways by providing an intervening space, physical
     barrier or clearly indicated dividing section.
        "Driveaway-towaway operation."  Any operation in which any
     motor vehicle, trailer or semitrailer, singly or in combination,
     constitutes the commodity being transported, when one set or
     more of wheels of the vehicle are on the highway during the
     course of transportation, whether or not the vehicle furnished
     the motive power.
        "Driver."  A person who drives or is in actual physical
     control of a vehicle.
        "Driver's license."  A license or permit to drive a motor
     vehicle issued under this title.
        "Electric personal assistive mobility device" or "EPAMD." A
     self-balancing, two-nontandem-wheeled device designed to
     transport only one person with an electric propulsion system.
        "Electric vehicle."  A motor vehicle which operates solely by
     use of a battery or battery pack and which meets the applicable
     Federal motor vehicle safety standards. The term includes a
     motor vehicle which is powered mainly through the use of an
     electric battery or battery pack but which uses a flywheel that
     stores energy produced by the electric motor or through
     regenerative braking to assist in operation of the motor
     vehicle.
        "Emergency vehicle."  A fire department vehicle, police
     vehicle, sheriff vehicle, ambulance, blood delivery vehicle,
     human organ delivery vehicle, hazardous material response
     vehicle, armed forces emergency vehicle, one vehicle operated by
     a coroner or chief county medical examiner and one vehicle
     operated by a chief deputy coroner or deputy chief county
     medical examiner used for answering emergency calls, any vehicle
     owned and operated by the Philadelphia Parking Authority
     established in accordance with 53 Pa.C.S. Ch. 55 (relating to
     parking authorities) and used in the enforcement of 53 Pa.C.S.
     Ch. 57 (relating to taxicabs and limousines in first class
     cities), or any other vehicle designated by the State Police
     under section 6106 (relating to designation of emergency
     vehicles by Pennsylvania State Police), or a privately owned
     vehicle used in answering an emergency call when used by any of
     the following:
            (1)  A police chief and assistant chief.
            (2)  A fire chief, assistant chief and, when a fire
        company has three or more fire vehicles, a second or third
        assistant chief.
            (3)  A fire police captain and fire police lieutenant.
            (4)  An ambulance corps commander and assistant
        commander.
            (5)  A river rescue commander and assistant commander.
            (6)  A county emergency management coordinator.
            (7)  A fire marshal.
            (8)  A rescue service chief and assistant chief.
        "Engineering and traffic study."  An orderly examination or
     analysis of physical features and traffic conditions conducted
     in accordance with regulations of the department and conforming
     to generally accepted engineering standards and practices for
     the purpose of ascertaining the need or lack of need for a
     particular action by the department or local authorities.
        "Essential parts."  All major component parts of a vehicle of
     a type required to be registered under this title, the removal,
     alteration or substitution of which would tend to conceal the
     identity of the vehicle or substantially alter its appearance,
     model, type or mode of operation.
        "Established place of business."  The place actually occupied
     either continuously or at regular periods by a dealer,
     manufacturer or other vehicle-related business where the books
     and records are kept and a large share of the business is
     transacted.
        "Exhibit."  Surrender of a document into the temporary
     possession of a person for the purpose of examining the
     document.
        "Farm equipment."  A vehicle that is specifically designed
     and manufactured for and used exclusively in agriculture to
     plant, seed, cultivate, harvest or apply soil nutrients,
     fertilizers or chemicals. The term also includes any other
     vehicle determined by the department to be farm equipment.
        "Farm vehicle."  A truck or truck tractor determined by the
     Department of Transportation to be used exclusively for
     agricultural purposes.
        "Fire department vehicle."  A vehicle owned or leased by an
     organized paid or volunteer fire department.
        "Fleet owner."  A person, Federal, State or local government
     agency or authority owning or leasing 15 or more vehicles who or
     which provides servicing and repair of the vehicles.
        "Foreign vehicle."  A vehicle of a type required to be
     registered under this title brought into this Commonwealth from
     another state, territory or country other than in the ordinary
     course of business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and
     not registered in this Commonwealth.
        "Freeway."  A limited access highway to which the only means
     of ingress and egress is by interchange ramps.
        "Full trailer."  A trailer so constructed that no part of its
     weight rests upon the towing vehicle. A semitrailer attached to
     a towing vehicle by means of an auxiliary front axle or dolly
     shall be deemed to be a full trailer.
        "General rule."  A rule or order promulgated by the governing
     authority, as defined in 42 Pa.C.S. § 102 (relating to
     definitions), of the unified judicial system.
        "Gross combination weight rating (GCWR)."  The value
     specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a
     combination.
        "Gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)."  The value specified on
     the Federal weight certification label by the manufacturer as
     the loaded weight of a single vehicle.
        "Gross weight."  The combined weight of a vehicle or
     combination of vehicles and its load excluding the driver's
     weight.
        "Hazardous material."  Any explosive, blasting agent,
     flammable liquid, combustible liquid, flammable solid, flammable
     or nonflammable compressed gas, corrosive material, poison,
     poison gas, irritant, oxidizer, organic peroxide, radioactive
     material, etiologic agent, cryogenic liquid, hazardous waste,
     hazardous substance or other material which the department by
     procedure prescribed in Chapter 83 (relating to hazardous
     materials transportation) declares to be a hazardous material.
        "Hazardous material response vehicle."  A vehicle owned or
     leased by a hazardous material response team certified through
     the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency.
        "Highway."  The entire width between the boundary lines of
     every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to
     the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. The term
     includes a roadway open to the use of the public for vehicular
     travel on grounds of a college or university or public or
     private school or public or historical park.
        "House coach."  A vehicle with an enclosed area which is
     designed, constructed or equipped for use, either permanently or
     temporarily, as a dwelling place, living abode, sleeping place
     or camping accommodation. A house coach includes motor homes,
     slide-in cabins and sleeping units specifically designed for
     mounting on a pickup truck and sleeping cabins designed for use
     on trucks and truck tractors operated for heavy-duty, long-
     distance hauling.
        "House trailer."
            (1)  A trailer which is designed, constructed and
        equipped as a dwelling place, living abode or sleeping place
        (either permanently or temporarily) and is equipped for use
        as a conveyance on streets and highways.
            (2)  A trailer containing a chassis and exterior shell
        designed and constructed for use as a house trailer, as
        defined in paragraph (1), but which is used permanently or
        temporarily for advertising, sales, display or promotion of
        merchandise or services, or for any other commercial purpose
        except the transportation of property.
        "Human organ delivery vehicle."  Any vehicle which is used or
     intended to be used and is maintained or operated for the
     purpose of transporting human organs or human tissue on an
     emergency basis.
        "Hybrid electric vehicle."  An electric vehicle which allows
     power to be delivered to the drive wheels solely by a battery-
     powered electric motor but which also incorporates the use of a
     combustion engine to provide power to the battery and which
     meets the applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards. The
     primary source of power for the motor must be the electric
     battery or battery pack and not the combustion engine.
        "Implement of husbandry."  Farm equipment that meets all of
     the following criteria:
            (1)  Is equipped with pneumatic tires except if
        prohibited by religious beliefs.
            (2)  Is infrequently operated or moved upon highways.
            (3)  Is used in agriculture for any of the following
        purposes:
                (i)  performance of agriculture production or
            harvesting activities for the farmer's agricultural
            operations; or
                (ii)  transportation of agricultural products or
            agricultural supplies for the benefit of the farmer's
            agricultural operations.
     The term also includes earthmoving equipment and any other
     vehicle determined by the department to be an implement of
     husbandry.
        "Intersection."
            (1)  The area embraced within the prolongation or
        connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the
        lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which
        join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or
        the area within which vehicles traveling upon different
        highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict.
            (2)  Where a highway includes two roadways 30 feet or
        more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of the
        divided highway by an intersecting highway shall be regarded
        as a separate intersection. In the event the intersecting
        highway also includes two roadways 30 feet or more apart,
        then every crossing of two roadways of the highways shall be
        regarded as a separate intersection.
        "Interstate highway."  A freeway on the Dwight D. Eisenhower
     System of Interstate and Defense Highways.
        "Issuing authority."  A public official having the power and
     authority of a magisterial district judge.
        "Laned roadway."  A roadway which is divided into two or more
     clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic.
        "Learner's permit."  A permit issued for the purpose of
     learning to operate a motor vehicle.
        "Lienholder."  A person holding a security interest in a
     vehicle.
        "Limited access highway."  A highway in respect to which
     owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no
     legal right of access except at points and in the manner
     determined by the authority having jurisdiction over the
     highway.
        "Limousine."  A motor vehicle designed for carrying no more
     than nine passengers, exclusive of the driver, and used for the
     transportation of persons for compensation.
        "Local authorities."  County, municipal and other local
     boards or bodies having authority to enact laws relating to
     traffic. The term also includes airport authorities, except
     where those authorities are located within counties of the first
     class or counties of the second class.
        "Magisterial district judge."  Includes a judge of a
     community court, of the Pittsburgh Magistrates Court, and of the
     Traffic Court of Philadelphia when exercising the jurisdiction
     of a magisterial district judge under this title.
        "Major component parts."  Includes any of the following parts
     of a vehicle: engine, transmission, front-end assemblies or
     unibodies structure which may consist of headlight, grille,
     fenders, bumpers and hood; fenders; hood; any door; any bumper;
     pickup box or cargo box; airbags; computer assembly; radio or
     stereo components; or trunk lid, deck lid, tailgate or
     hatchback, whichever is present.
        "Manufactured construction unit."  A building manufactured in
     sections in a production plant, transported to a site and set on
     a foundation to form a complete commercial or institutional
     noncombustible building.
        "Manufacturer."  A person engaged in the business of
     constructing or assembling vehicles or motors or bodies of
     vehicles.
        "Manufacturer's shipping weight."  The weight of a vehicle
     including all installed options as delivered for retail sale by
     the final stage manufacturer and as indicated on the
     manufacturer's certificate of origin.
        "Mass transit vehicle."  A self-propelled or electrically
     propelled device designed for carrying 15 or more passengers
     exclusive of the driver, other than a taxicab, designed and used
     for the transportation of persons for compensation, including
     but not limited to subway cars, buses, trolleys and trackless
     trolleys but excluding railroad passenger cars.
        "Maxi-cube vehicle."  A combination. The truck may have
     either a detachable or permanently attached cargo box. The cargo
     box on the trailer shall be designed such that the truck may be
     loaded and unloaded through the trailer. Neither cargo box shall
     exceed 34 feet in length, and the overall length of the
     combination shall not exceed 65 feet.
        "Messenger service."  A person who, for a fee, advertises,
     offers or provides to the public the service of obtaining from
     the department vehicle titles, registrations, drivers' licenses
     and similar documents. A dealer who obtains documents only for
     purchasers of vehicles from the dealer is not a messenger
     service.
        "Mileage."  The actual distance that a vehicle has traveled.
        "Mobile home."  A trailer designed and used exclusively for
     living quarters or commercial purposes which exceeds the maximum
     size limitations prescribed by this title for operation on a
     highway and is only incidentally operated on a highway.
        "Modified vehicle."  A vehicle of a type required to be
     registered under this title materially altered by the addition,
     deletion, substitution or modification of the body, chassis or
     essential parts, new or used. The term does not include vehicles
     that have been repaired to the function and appearance of
     vehicles in their original condition or vehicles where final-
     stage or second-stage manufacturers provide a manufacturer
     statement of origin or a federally required certification label
     at the time of the original title and registration application.
        "Modular housing undercarriage."  A trailer which is used to
     transport a modular housing unit.
        "Modular housing unit."  A unit transported on a removable or
     nonremovable frame designed for residential purposes which is
     wholly or in substantial part fabricated, formed or assembled in
     manufacturing facilities for assembly and installation on the
     building site.
        "Motor carrier vehicle."
            (1)  A truck, truck tractor or combination having a gross
        vehicle weight rating, gross combination weight rating,
        registered gross weight, registered combination weight or
        actual gross weight of 17,001 pounds or more.
            (2)  A truck, truck tractor or combination engaged in
        interstate commerce and having a gross vehicle weight rating,
        gross combination weight rating, registered gross weight,
        registered combination weight or actual gross weight of
        10,001 pounds or more.
        "Motor home."  A motor vehicle designed or adapted for use as
     a mobile dwelling or office, except a motor vehicle equipped
     with a truck-camper.
        "Motor vehicle."  A vehicle which is self-propelled except an
     electric personal assistive mobility device or a vehicle which
     is propelled solely by human power.
        "Motorcycle."  A motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for
     the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than
     three wheels in contact with the ground.
        "Motor-driven cycle."  A motorcycle, including a motor
     scooter, with a motor which produces not to exceed five brake
     horsepower.
        "Motorized pedalcycle."  A motor-driven cycle equipped with
     operable pedals, a motor rated no more than 1.5 brake
     horsepower, a cylinder capacity not exceeding 50 cubic
     centimeters, an automatic transmission, and a maximum design
     speed of no more than 25 miles per hour or an electric motor-
     driven cycle equipped with operable pedals and an automatic
     transmission powered by an electric battery or battery pack-
     powered electric motor with a maximum design speed of no more
     than 25 miles per hour.
        "Multipurpose agricultural vehicle."  A motor vehicle which
     is 60 inches or less in width and 1,200 pounds or less in dry
     weight and which is used exclusively for agricultural operations
     and only incidentally operated or moved upon the highways.
        "Nondivisible."  Incapable of being divided into parts or
     dismembered without substantially damaging its usefulness or
     value.
        "Nonrepairable vehicle."  An abandoned vehicle under
     paragraph (1)(iii) of the definitions of "abandoned vehicle"
     which is incapable of safe operation for use on roadways or
     highways and which has no resale value except as a source of
     parts or scrap only, a salvage vehicle issued a nonrepairable or
     nonrebuildable vehicle document by another state or a vehicle
     which a salvor or vehicle salvage dealer designates as a source
     for parts or scrap or which the owner irreversibly designates as
     a source for parts or scrap. Such vehicles may not be issued a
     certificate of title or certificate of salvage.
        "Nonresident."  A person who is not a resident of this
     Commonwealth.
        "Number."  When used in the context of identification means a
     series of numerals or letters or both, with or without a prefix
     or suffix.
        "Numbered traffic route."  A highway which has been assigned
     an interstate, United States or Pennsylvania route number,
     consisting of three or fewer digits, to aid motorists in their
     travels.
        "Occupational limited license."  A license, issued under this
     title to a driver whose operating privileges have been
     suspended, to permit the operation of a motor vehicle under
     certain conditions, when necessary for the driver's occupation,
     work, trade or study.
        "Official traffic-control devices."  Signs, signals, markings
     and devices not inconsistent with this title placed or erected
     by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction,
     for the purpose of regulating, warning or guiding traffic.
        "Operating privilege."  The privilege to apply for and obtain
     a license to use as well as the privilege to use a vehicle on a
     highway as authorized in this title, but not a contract,
     property right or civil right.
        "Overtime parking."  The continuous parking of a vehicle for
     a period of time exceeding the maximum period established by
     law.
        "Owner."  A person, other than a lienholder, having the
     property right in or title to a vehicle. The term includes a
     person entitled to the use and possession of a vehicle subject
     to a security interest in another person, but excludes a lessee
     under a lease not intended as security.
        "Park" or "parking."
            (1)  When permitted, means the temporary storing of a
        vehicle, whether occupied or not, off the roadway.
            (2)  When prohibited, means the halting of a vehicle,
        whether occupied or not, except momentarily for the purpose
        of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading
        property or passengers.
        "Passenger car."  A motor vehicle, except a motorcycle,
     designed primarily for the transportation of persons and
     designed for carrying no more than 15 passengers, including the
     driver, and primarily used for the transportation of persons.
     The term includes motor vehicles which are designed with seats
     that may be readily removed and reinstalled, but does not
     include such vehicles if used primarily for the transportation
     of property.
        "Pedalcycle."  A vehicle propelled solely by human-powered
     pedals. The term does not mean a three-wheeled human-powered
     pedal-driven vehicle with a main driving wheel 20 inches in
     diameter or under and primarily designed for children six years
     of age or younger.
        "Pedestrian."  A natural person afoot.
        "Pennsylvania Turnpike."  The highway system owned and
     operated by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission.
        "Person."  A natural person, firm, copartnership, association
     or corporation.
        "Police officer."  A natural person authorized by law to make
     arrests for violations of law.
        "Private road or driveway."  A way or place in private
     ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those
     having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by
     other persons.
        "Railroad grade crossing."  One or more railroad tracks, but
     not streetcar tracks, which intersect or cross a highway at the
     same level or grade.
        "Railroad sign or signal."  A sign, signal or device erected
     by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and
     intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or
     the approach of a railroad train.
        "Recall."  To withdraw by formal action of the department for
     an indefinite period the operating privilege of a person for
     reasons of incompetency.
        "Reconstructed vehicle."  A vehicle, other than an antique or
     classic vehicle, for which a certificate of salvage was issued
     and is thereafter restored to operating condition to meet the
     vehicle equipment and inspection standards under Part IV
     (relating to vehicle characteristics).
        "Recorded image."  An image recorded by an automated red
     light enforcement system on a photograph, a digital image or any
     other image-capture technology.
        "Recovered theft vehicle."  A vehicle other than an antique
     or classic vehicle which was reported as stolen but subsequently
     recovered.
        "Recreational trailer."  A trailer designed or adapted and
     used exclusively for recreational purposes.
        "Registered gross weight."
            (1)  The maximum gross weight at which a vehicle or
        combination is registered in this Commonwealth to operate
        upon a highway, which shall include the weight at which a
        vehicle or combination is registered for operation in this
        Commonwealth under any system of proportional registration
        pursuant to Subchapter C of Chapter 61 (relating to
        reciprocity).
            (2)  For the purposes of Chapter 49 (relating to size,
        weight and load) and the definition of "motor carrier
        vehicle," if there is no registered gross weight as defined
        in paragraph (1), then the term shall mean the maximum gross
        weight at which a vehicle or combination registered in
        another state is registered or otherwise authorized to
        operate by such state.
        "Registration."  The authority for a vehicle to operate on a
     highway as evidenced by the issuance of an identifying card and
     plate or plates.
        "Residence district."  The territory contiguous to and
     including a highway not comprising a business district when the
     property on the highway for a distance of 300 feet or more is in
     the main improved with residences or residences and buildings in
     use for business.
        "Resident."  A person dwelling permanently or continuously
     for a period exceeding 60 consecutive days within this
     Commonwealth, except that a person who regularly dwells in two
     or more states shall declare residence to be in any one of the
     states.
        "Revoke."  To terminate by formal action of the department
     any license, registration or privilege issued or granted by the
     department. Following a period of revocation, the license,
     registration or privilege may not be restored except upon
     submission and acceptance of a new application.
        "Right-of-way."  The right of one vehicle or pedestrian to
     proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or
     pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction,
     speed and proximity as to give rise to danger or collision
     unless one grants precedence to the other.
        "Roadway."  That portion of a highway improved, designed or
     ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the sidewalk,
     berm or shoulder even though such sidewalk, berm or shoulder is
     used by pedalcycles. In the event a highway includes two or more
     separate roadways the term "roadway" refers to each roadway
     separately but not to all such roadways collectively.
        "Saddle-mount operation."  Any operation in which any truck
     or truck tractor tows one or more trucks or truck tractors, each
     connected by a saddle to the frame or fifth wheel of the vehicle
     in front of it. The saddle is a mechanism that connects the
     front axle of the towed vehicle to the frame or fifth wheel of
     the vehicle in front and functions like a fifth wheel kingpin
     connection.
        "Safety seat belt system."  Any strap, webbing or similar
     device designed to secure a person in a motor vehicle in order
     to mitigate the results of any accident, including buckles,
     fasteners and all installation hardware as specified by Federal
     Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 (49 C.F.R. § 571.209).
        "Safety zone."  The area or space officially set apart within
     a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians.
        "Salvage motor vehicle auction or pool operator."  A person
     who on his own behalf or as an agent for a third party engages
     in business for the purpose of offering for sale wrecked or
     salvage motor vehicles through an auction or private bid process
     to vehicle salvage dealers.
        "Salvage vehicle."  A vehicle which is inoperable or unable
     to meet the vehicle equipment and inspection standards under
     Part IV (relating to vehicle characteristics) to the extent that
     the cost of repairs would exceed the value of the repaired
     vehicle. The term does not include a vehicle which would qualify
     as an antique or classic vehicle except for its lack of
     restoration or maintenance.
        "Salvor."  A person engaged in the business of acquiring
     abandoned vehicles for the purpose of taking apart, recycling,
     selling, rebuilding or exchanging the vehicles or parts thereof.
        "School bus."  A motor vehicle which:
            (1)  is designed to carry 11 passengers or more,
        including the driver; and
            (2)  is used for the transportation of preprimary,
        primary or secondary school students to or from public,
        private or parochial schools or events related to such
        schools or school-related activities.
     The term does not include a motor vehicle used to transport
     preprimary, primary or secondary school students to or from
     public, private or parochial schools or events related to such
     schools or school-related activities, which is designed to carry
     11 to 15 passengers, including the driver, and which is
     registered in this Commonwealth as a bus prior to March 1, 1993,
     or a motor vehicle which is designed to carry 11 to 15
     passengers, including the driver, and which was titled to any
     public, private or parochial school on or before March 1, 1993,
     and which is registered to that public, private or parochial
     school in this Commonwealth as a bus prior to September 15,
     1993.
        "School vehicle."  A motor vehicle, except a motorcycle,
     designed for carrying no more than ten passengers, including the
     driver, and used for the transportation of preprimary, primary
     or secondary school students while registered by or under
     contract to a school district or private or parochial school.
     The term includes vehicles having chartered, group and party
     rights under the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission and used
     for the transportation of school children.
        "Scrap metal processor."  A person whose principal business
     is the operation of an establishment having facilities for
     processing iron, steel or nonferrous scrap metals, and whose
     principal product is scrap iron, scrap steel or nonferrous scrap
     for resale for remelting purposes only.
        "Second-stage manufacturer."  A person engaged in performing
     manufacturing operations on an incomplete vehicle produced by a
     manufacturer.
        "Secretary."  The Secretary of Transportation of the
     Commonwealth.
        "Secure power of attorney."  A document printed with security
     features containing all information required by Federal law and
     regulations which a transferor may use when a vehicle is
     transferred to authorize a transferee to disclose odometer
     mileage in lieu of the transferor completing the odometer
     information on a certificate of title in the event that the
     transferor's certificate of title is encumbered by a lienholder.
        "Security interest."  An interest in a vehicle reserved or
     created by agreement which secures payment or performance of an
     obligation. The term includes the interest of a lessor under a
     lease intended as security. A security interest is perfected
     when it is valid against third parties generally, subject only
     to specific statutory exceptions.
        "Semitrailer."  A trailer so constructed that some part of
     its weight rests upon or is carried by the towing vehicle.
        "Shall."  Indicates that an action is required or prohibited.
        "Should."  Indicates that an action is advisable but not
     required.
        "Sidewalk."  That portion of a street between curb lines, or
     the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines,
     intended for use by pedestrians.
        "Special mobile equipment."
            (1)  Vehicles not designed or used primarily for the
        transportation of persons or property, except for tools and
        parts necessary for the use and maintenance of the vehicle,
        and only incidentally operated or moved over a highway.
            (2)  Vehicles which have machinery permanently attached
        shall not carry a load, except for tools and parts necessary
        for the use and maintenance of the permanently attached
        machinery and are only incidentally operated or moved over a
        highway.
            (3)  Motor vehicles used primarily for road and bridge
        maintenance or repair which carry a load of asphalt emulsion
        or epoxy and aggregate material, that is applied as a
        finished product by the vehicle's equipment directly to a
        highway or trafficway for maintenance or repair of the road
        or bridge surface.
     The term includes, but is not limited to, ditch digging
     apparatus, well boring apparatus; earth moving and road
     construction and maintenance machinery, such as asphalt
     spreaders, bituminous mixers, bucket loaders, snowplows,
     ditchers, graders, patchers, finishing machines, road rollers,
     scarifiers, earth moving carryalls, scrapers, power shovels and
     drag lines; and self-propelled cranes and tractors, other than
     truck tractors. The term does not include house trailers; dump
     trucks; or truck-mounted transit mixers, cranes or shovels.
        "Specially constructed vehicle."  A vehicle not originally
     constructed under a distinctive name, make, model or type by a
     generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles.
        "Stand" or "standing."  When prohibited, means the halting of
     a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily for the
     purpose of and while actually engaged in receiving or
     discharging passengers.
        "State."  A state, territory or possession of the United
     States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto
     Rico or a province of Canada.
        "State designated highway."  A highway or bridge on the
     system of highways and bridges over which the department has
     assumed or has been legislatively given jurisdiction.
        "Status."  With respect to an abandoned vehicle, a
     determination by police and a salvor as to the condition or
     value of the abandoned vehicle. The determination shall be one
     of the following: vehicle with value, salvage vehicle or
     nonrepairable vehicle.
        "Stinger-steered automobile" or "boat transporter."  A truck
     tractor-semitrailer combination of a total length not greater
     than 75 feet exclusive of an overhang of not more than three
     feet on the front and four feet on the rear of the vehicle
     configured as a semitrailer combination wherein the fifth wheel
     is located on a drop frame located behind and below the rearmost
     axle of the power unit.
        "Stop" or "stopping."
            (1)  When required, means complete cessation from
        movement.
            (2)  When prohibited, means any halting even momentarily
        of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except when necessary
        to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with
        the directions of a police officer or traffic-control sign or
        signal.
        "Streetcar."  A car other than a railroad train for
     transporting persons or property and operated upon rails.
        "Street rod."  A motor vehicle, or a reproduction thereof,
     with a model year of 1948 or older which has been materially
     altered or modified by the removal, addition or substitution of
     essential parts and with a gross weight or registered gross
     weight of not more than 9,000 pounds.
        "Suspend."  To withdraw temporarily by formal action of the
     department any license, registration or privilege issued or
     granted by the department. Following a period of suspension, the
     department shall restore the license, registration or privilege.
        "Tandem axle."  Every axle located within eight feet of
     another axle.
        "Taxi."  A motor vehicle designed for carrying no more than
     eight passengers, exclusive of the driver, on a call and demand
     service, and used for the transportation of persons for
     compensation.
        "Terminal."  Any location where:
            (1)  freight either originates, terminates or is handled
        in the transportation process; or
            (2)  commercial motor carriers maintain operating
        facilities.
        "Theft vehicle."  A vehicle, other than an antique or classic
     vehicle, which was reported stolen.
        "Through highway."  A highway or portion of a highway on
     which vehicular traffic is given preferential right-of-way, and
     at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting
     highways is required by law to yield the right-of-way to
     vehicles on the through highway in obedience to a stop sign,
     yield sign or other official traffic-control device when the
     signs or devices are erected as provided in this title.
        "Tire width."  The linear distance between the exteriors of
     the sidewalls of an uninflated tire, excluding elevations due to
     labeling, decoration or protective sidebands.
        "Tow dolly."  A trailer designed and used exclusively to tow
     another vehicle by mounting its front or rear wheels on the tow
     dolly while the other wheels of the towed vehicle remain in
     contact with the ground.
        "Traffic."  Pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles,
     streetcars and other conveyances, whether singly or together,
     using any highway for purposes of travel.
        "Traffic-control signal."  A device, whether manually,
     electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is
     alternately directed to stop and permitted to proceed.
        "Trafficway."  The entire width between property lines or
     other boundary lines of every way or place of which any part is
     open to the public for purposes of vehicular travel as a matter
     of right or custom.
        "Trailer."  A vehicle designed to be towed by a motor
     vehicle.
        "Transfer."  To change ownership by purchase, gift or any
     other means.
        "Transferee."  A person to whom ownership of a motor vehicle
     is transferred, by purchase, gift or any means other than by the
     creation of a security interest, and any person who, as agent,
     signs an odometer disclosure statement for the transferee.
        "Transferor."  A person who transfers his ownership of a
     motor vehicle by sale, gift or any means other than by the
     creation of a security interest and any person who, as agent,
     signs an odometer disclosure statement for the transferor.
        "Truck."  A motor vehicle designed primarily for the
     transportation of property. The term includes motor vehicles
     designed with seats that may be readily removed and reinstalled
     if those vehicles are primarily used for the transportation of
     property.
        "Truck-camper."  A structure designed, used or maintained
     primarily to be loaded or affixed to a motor vehicle to provide
     a mobile dwelling, sleeping place, office or commercial space.
        "Truck tractor."  A motor vehicle designed and used primarily
     for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a
     load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load so
     drawn.
        "Urban district."  The territory contiguous to and including
     any street which is built up with structures devoted to
     business, industry or dwelling houses situated at intervals of
     less than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or
     more.
        "Urban mass transportation system."  A person holding a
     certificate of the Public Utility Commission or a municipality
     authority, port authority or transportation authority
     established under the laws of this Commonwealth that transports
     persons on schedule over fixed routes and derives over 80% of
     their intrastate scheduled revenue from scheduled operations
     within the county in which they have their principal place of
     business, or contiguous counties.
        "Utility trailer."  A trailer, except a recreational trailer,
     which does not have air brakes.
        "Valueless except for salvage."  (Deleted by amendment).
        "Vehicle."  Every device in, upon or by which any person or
     property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway,
     except devices used exclusively upon rails or tracks. The term
     does not include a self-propelled wheelchair or an electrical
     mobility device operated by and designed for the exclusive use
     of a person with a mobility-related disability.
        "Vehicle identification number" or "VIN."  A combination of
     numerals or letters or both which the manufacturer assigns to a
     vehicle for identification purposes, or, in the absence of a
     manufacturer-assigned number, which the department assigns to a
     vehicle for identification purposes.
        "Work zone."  The area of a highway where construction,
     maintenance or utility work activities are being conducted which
     is properly signed as a work zone in accordance with regulations
     of the Department of Transportation.
        "Wrecker."  A motor vehicle designed or constructed and used
     for the towing of abandoned or disabled vehicles.
        "Zero-emission vehicle."  A motor vehicle which produces no
     emissions of any criteria of pollutants under any operational
     mode and under any conditions and which meets the applicable
     Federal motor vehicle safety standards.
     (Apr. 28, 1978, P.L.202, No.53, eff. 60 days; June 6, 1979,
     P.L.39, No.12, eff. imd.; June 18, 1980, P.L.223, No.67, eff.
     imd.; June 18, 1980, P.L.229, No.68, eff. 60 days; Oct. 10,
     1980, P.L.791, No.147, eff. imd.; July 10, 1981, P.L.250, No.82,
     eff. imd.; Mar. 7, 1982, P.L.152, No.49, eff. imd.; June 23,
     1982, P.L.605, No.171, eff. imd.; Dec. 15, 1982, P.L.1268,
     No.289, eff. 30 days; July 7, 1983, P.L.32, No.19, eff. imd.;
     July 22, 1983, P.L.122, No.32, eff. imd.; Feb. 12, 1984, P.L.26,
     No.11, eff. Oct. 1, 1984; Feb. 12, 1984, P.L.53, No.12, eff.
     imd.; Apr. 3, 1984, P.L.181, No.33, eff. 60 days; June 30, 1984,
     P.L.473, No.99, eff. imd.; July 10, 1984, P.L.679, No.146, eff.
     60 days; June 19, 1985, P.L.49, No.20, eff. 60 days; July 11,
     1985, P.L.204, No.52, eff. 60 days; July 11, 1985, P.L.220,
     No.56, eff. 60 days; July 8, 1986, P.L.432, No.90, eff. 60 days;
     Nov. 23, 1987, P.L.399, No.82, eff. imd.; Feb. 2, 1990, P.L.2,
     No.2, eff. 60 days; Mar. 13, 1990, P.L.69, No.14, eff. imd.; May
     30, 1990, P.L.173, No.42; June 29, 1990, P.L.259, No.60, eff.
     imd.; Aug. 5, 1991, P.L.238, No.26, eff. imd.; Apr. 16, 1992,
     P.L.169, No.31, eff. 60 days; Dec. 14, 1992, P.L.870, No.139,
     eff. 60 days; Dec. 18, 1992, P.L.1411, No.174, eff. 60 days; May
     20, 1993, P.L.30, No.10; June 28, 1993, P.L.137, No.33, eff.
     July 1, 1993; July 2, 1993, P.L.408, No.58, eff. imd.; Feb. 10,
     1994, P.L.10, No.2, eff. imd.; Dec. 7, 1994, P.L.820, No.115,
     eff. 60 days; Dec. 28, 1994, P.L.1450, No.172, eff. 60 days;
     June 13, 1995, P.L.57, No.9, eff. 30 days; July 6, 1995,
     P.L.246, No.30, eff. 60 days; Dec. 15, 1995, P.L.655, No.72,
     eff. 60 days; Dec. 20, 1995, P.L.669, No.75, eff. 120 days; July
     11, 1996, P.L.660, No.115, eff. 60 days; Dec. 21, 1998,
     P.L.1126, No.151, eff. imd.; June 22, 2001, P.L.411, No.33, eff.
     60 days; June 25, 2001, P.L.701, No.68, eff. 60 days; June 26,
     2001, P.L.734, No.75, eff. 60 days; July 4, 2002, P.L.692,
     No.105, eff. 60 days; Oct. 4, 2002, P.L.845, No.123, eff. 60
     days; Dec. 9, 2002, P.L.1278, No.152; Dec. 23, 2002, P.L.1982,
     No.229; Nov. 30, 2004, P.L.1618, No.207, eff. 60 days; Nov. 30,
     2004, P.L.1667, No.211, eff. 60 days; Dec. 1, 2004, P.L.1767,
     No.228, eff. Jan. 1, 2007; July 5, 2005, P.L.100, No.37; July
     14, 2005, P.L.285, No.50, eff. 60 days; Dec. 18, 2007, P.L.436,
     No.67, eff. 60 days; Nov. 26, 2008, P.L.1658, No.133, eff. 60
     days; Aug. 18, 2009, P.L.308, No.37, eff. imd.)

        2009 Amendment.  Act 37 amended the def. of "emergency
     vehicle."
        2008 Amendment.  Act 133 amended the def. of "motor vehicle."
        2007 Amendment.  Act 67 amended the defs. of "automated red
     light enforcement system" and "recorded images."
        2005 Amendments.  Act 37 added the def. of "commercial
     driver" and Act 50 amended the def. of "emergency vehicle."
     Section 10(2) of Act 37 provided that Act 37 shall take effect
     90 days after publication of a notice in the Pennsylvania
     Bulletin. The notice was published July 16, 2005, at 35 Pa.B.
     4029.
        2004 Amendments.  Act 207 amended the def. of "issuing
     authority," added the def. of "magisterial district judge" and
     deleted the def. of "district justice," Act 211 amended the
     defs. of "multipurpose agricultural vehicle" and "special mobile
     equipment" and Act 228 amended the def. of "collectible motor
     vehicle." See sections 28 and 29 of Act 207 in the appendix to
     this title for special provisions relating to applicability and
     construction of law.
        2002 Amendments.  Act 105 amended the def. of "motor vehicle"
     and added the def. of "electric personal assistive mobility
     device" or "EPAMD," Act 123 added the defs. of "automated red
     light enforcement system," "house coach" and "recorded images,"
     Act 152 amended the defs. of "abandoned vehicle," "collectible
     motor vehicle," "essential parts," "reconstructed vehicle,"
     "recovered theft vehicle" and "vehicle identification number,"
     deleted the def. of "valueless except for salvage" and added the
     defs. of "agent service," "major component parts," "mileage,"
     "modified vehicle," "nonrepairable vehicle," "salvage vehicle,"
     "status" and "theft vehicle," effective immediately as to
     "nonrepairable vehicle," six months as to "agent service" and 60
     days as to the remainder of the section, and Act 229 amended the
     def. of "motor carrier vehicle" and added the defs. of "active
     work zone" and "work zone," effective immediately as to "active
     work zone" and "work zone" and six months as to "motor carrier
     vehicle." See section 21 of Act 229 in the appendix to this
     title for special provisions relating to promulgation of
     guidelines to implement Act 229.
        2001 Amendments.  Act 33 amended the defs. of "commercial
     implement of husbandry," "farm equipment" and "implement of
     husbandry," Act 68 added the defs. of "transfer," "transferee"
     and "transferor" and Act 75 amended the def. of "emergency
     vehicle" and added the defs. of "ambulance," "blood delivery
     vehicle," "fire department vehicle," "hazardous material
     response vehicle" and "human organ delivery vehicle."
        1998 Amendment.  Act 151 amended the defs. of "maxi-cube
     vehicle," "modular housing unit," "motorized pedalcycle,"
     "passenger car," "registered gross weight," "salvor," "special
     mobile equipment," "truck" and "vehicle" and added the defs. of
     "cancel," "manufactured construction unit" and "numbered traffic
     route."
        1996 Amendment.  Act 115 added the def. of "utility trailer."
        1995 Amendments.  Act 9 added the def. of "interstate
     highway," Act 30 added the def. of "second-stage manufacturer,"
     Act 72 amended the def. of "pedalcycle" and Act 75 amended the
     defs. of "classic motor vehicle" and "emergency vehicle" and
     added the def. of "collectible motor vehicle."
        1994 Amendments.  Act 2 amended the def. of "terminal" and
     added the defs. of "maxi-cube vehicle," "saddle-mount operation"
     and "stinger-steered automobile" or "boat transporter," Act 115
     added the def. of "secure power of attorney" and deleted the
     def. of "farm truck" and Act 172 added the def. of
     "containerized cargo."
        1993 Amendments.  Act 10 amended the defs. of "recovered
     theft vehicle" and "school bus," effective immediately, and
     amended the defs. of "commercial implement of husbandry" and
     "implement of husbandry" and added the def. of "farm vehicle,"
     all effective in 60 days, Act 33 amended the def. of "court" and
     Act 58 amended the defs. of "passenger car" and "school bus."
        1992 Amendments.  Act 31 amended the defs. of "emergency
     vehicle" and "valueless except for junk" and added the def. of
     "recovered theft vehicle," Act 139 added the defs. of "electric
     vehicle," "hybrid electric vehicle" and "zero-emission vehicle,"
     and Act 174 amended the def. of "school bus" and added the def.
     of "commercial implement of husbandry."
        1990 Amendments.  Act 2 added the def. of "salvage motor
     vehicle auction or pool operator," Act 14 amended the def. of
     "emergency vehicle," Act 42 amended the defs. of "bus,"
     "passenger car" and "school bus," added the defs. of
     "limousine," "occupational limited license" and "school
     vehicle," all effective November 1, 1990, and amended the def.
     of "classic motor vehicle," effective in 60 days, and Act 60
     amended the def. of "street rod."
        1987 Amendment.  Act 82 added the def. of "safety seat belt
     system."
        1986 Amendment.  Act 90 amended the def. of "gross weight."
        1985 Amendments.  Act 20 amended the def. of "bus,"
     retroactive to July 10, 1984, Act 52 amended the def. of
     "emergency vehicle" and Act 56 added the def. of "multipurpose
     agricultural vehicle."
        1984 Amendments.  Act 11 deleted the def. of "proof of
     insurance," Act 12 amended the def. of "local authorities," Act
     99 added the def. of "hazardous material" and Act 146 amended
     the defs. of "bus" and "motor-driven cycle."
        1983 Amendments.  Act 19 amended the def. of "registered
     gross weight" and added the defs. of "converter gear,"
     "terminal" and "tow dolly" and Act 32 amended the def. of
     "resident." See section 7 of Act 19 in the appendix to this
     title for special provisions relating to expiration of
     amendments by Act 19.
        1982 Amendments.  Act 49 amended the def. of "mobile home"
     and added the defs. of "modular housing undercarriage" and
     "modular housing unit," Act 171 amended the def. of "street rod"
     and Act 289 added the def. of "chemical test or testing."
        1980 Amendments.  Act 67 added the def. of "mass transit
     vehicle" and Act 147 added the defs. of "construction truck" and
     "tandem axle."
        1979 Amendment.  Act 12 added the def. of "articulated bus."
        1978 Amendment.  Act 53 amended the def. of "issuing
     authority" and added the defs. of "court," "district justice"
     and "general rule."
        Cross References.  Section 102 is referred to in sections
     2105, 3732, 3742.1, 7304.1, 7310 of this title; section 6202 of
     Title 27 (Environmental Resources); section 901 of Title 34
     (Game); section 3732 of Title 62 (Procurement); section 8102 of
     Title 74 (Transportation).

Disclaimer: These codes may not be the most recent version. Pennsylvania may have more current or accurate information. We make no warranties or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained on this site or the information linked to on the state site. Please check official sources.