2021 New York Laws
VAT - Vehicle and Traffic
Title 2 - Department of Motor Vehicles; Commissioner
Article 2-B - Adjudication of Parking Infractions
235*2 - Jurisdiction.

* §  235.  Jurisdiction. 1. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision
of any general, special or local  law  or  administrative  code  to  the
contrary,  in  any  city  which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to
establish  an  administrative  tribunal:  (a)  to  hear  and   determine
complaints  of  traffic  infractions  constituting  parking, standing or
stopping violations, or (b) to adjudicate the liability  of  owners  for
violations  of  subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this
chapter imposed pursuant to a local law or ordinance  imposing  monetary
liability  on  the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof
to comply with traffic-control indications through the installation  and
operation  of traffic-control signal photo violation-monitoring systems,
in accordance with article  twenty-four  of  this  chapter,  or  (c)  to
adjudicate  the  liability  of owners for violations of subdivision (b),
(c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty  of  this  chapter
imposed  pursuant to a demonstration program imposing monetary liability
on the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof  to  comply
with  such  posted  maximum  speed  limits  through the installation and
operation of photo speed violation  monitoring  systems,  in  accordance
with  article thirty of this chapter, or (d) to adjudicate the liability
of owners for violations of bus lane restrictions as defined by  article
twenty-four  of  this  chapter  imposed  pursuant to a bus rapid transit
program imposing monetary liability  on  the  owner  of  a  vehicle  for
failure of an operator thereof to comply with such bus lane restrictions
through  the  installation  and  operation of bus lane photo devices, in
accordance  with  article  twenty-four  of  this  chapter,  or  (e)   to
adjudicate  the  liability  of  owners for violations of toll collection
regulations imposed by certain public authorities pursuant  to  the  law
authorizing  such public authorities to impose monetary liability on the
owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator  thereof  to  comply  with
toll  collection  regulations  of  such  public  authorities through the
installation and operation of photo-monitoring  systems,  in  accordance
with  the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of
the  public  authorities  law  and  sections  sixteen-a,  sixteen-b  and
sixteen-c  of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen
hundred fifty,  or  (f)  to  adjudicate  the  liability  of  owners  for
violations  of  section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter when
meeting a school bus marked and equipped  as  provided  in  subdivisions
twenty  and  twenty-one-c  of section three hundred seventy-five of this
chapter imposed pursuant to a local law or ordinance  imposing  monetary
liability  on  the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof
to comply with school bus red visual signals  through  the  installation
and  operation  of  school  bus  photo  violation monitoring systems, in
accordance with article twenty-nine of this chapter, such  tribunal  and
the  rules  and  regulations  pertaining thereto shall be constituted in
substantial conformance with the following sections.
  2. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general,  special
or  local  law  or  administrative code to the contrary, any city with a
population in excess of one hundred thousand persons  according  to  the
nineteen  hundred eighty United States census hereinafter referred to as
a city shall provide notice of parking violations and of the  imposition
of additional penalties whenever the person who is liable therefor fails
to  respond to the parking ticket in the manner designated thereon. Such
notice  shall  be  in  substantial  conformance   with   the   following
provisions:
  a.  Notice.  (1)  Whenever  a  city issues a notice of violation for a
parking violation, it shall  be  served  in  the  manner  prescribed  by
subdivision two of section two hundred thirty-eight of this article.

(2) Whenever a person has been issued a notice of violation for a parking violation and has not responded in the manner described in the notice, a city shall give the owner a second notice of the violation by regular first class mail: (i) within forty days of issuance of the first notice of violation for a parking violation where the vehicle is a vehicle registered in this state; or (ii) within forty days of the receipt by such city of the name and address of the owner of the vehicle where the vehicle is a vehicle registered in any other state. Such second notice shall include, but not be limited to, the following information:

(A) that the owner has a period of twenty days from issuance of the second notice in which to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation;

(B) that failure to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation may result in the suspension and non-renewal of the owner's registration;

(C) that failure to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation may subject the owner to additional penalties as provided in paragraph b of this subdivision;

(D) that failure to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation shall subject the owner to a default judgment as provided in paragraph c of this subdivision and the additional penalties imposed upon parking violations pursuant to paragraph b of this subdivision; and

(E) that submission of a plea of guilty to the parking violation makes the owner liable for payment of the stated fine and additional penalties imposed pursuant to paragraph b of this subdivision and the mandatory surcharge of fifteen dollars imposed upon parking violations pursuant to section eighteen hundred nine-a of this chapter. b. Additional penalties. (1) For the purposes of this paragraph, each locality shall determine an initial response date of not less than eight days nor more than thirty days, after which time a penalty may be imposed. The liability for such initial penalty shall commence on the date following the initial response date.

(2) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation by the initial response date may result in the liability for a penalty in an amount of the fine indicated on the notice of violation for a parking violation; where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision, the following schedule of additional penalties may apply:

(A) failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation by the initial response date may result in the liability for an additional penalty not to exceed ten dollars or, if the first penalty assessed by a city does not exceed five dollars, such city may assess an additional penalty within thirty-one to seventy-five days not to exceed ten dollars; and

(B) where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within seventy-five days may result in the liability, commencing on the seventy-sixth day, for an additional penalty not to exceed twenty dollars.

(3) Where the additional penalty schedule set forth in subparagraph two of this paragraph, as interpreted in 9 New York Code of Rules and Regulations Part 6180, has not been implemented by a city and is not in effect in such city on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply. For the purposes of this subdivision, the provisions of this paragraph shall not be considered to have been implemented and in effect unless the penalty schedule contained herein shall have been applied to parking violations issued in such city on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three. b-1. Alternate additional penalty schedule. In any city in which the schedule of penalties contained in subparagraph two of paragraph b of this subdivision, as interpreted in 9 New York Code of Rules and Regulations Part 6180, has not been implemented and was not in effect on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three, the provisions of this paragraph shall only apply upon enactment of a local law containing the penalty schedule provided in this paragraph prior to March 28, 1993. Following the enactment of such a local law, such city may elect to impose the additional penalties set forth in subparagraphs one and two of this paragraph for failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation in accordance with this paragraph. In the event that no such local law was enacted prior to March 28, 1993, the alternate additional penalty schedule set forth in paragraph b-2 of this subdivision shall apply.

(1) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within thirty days shall result in liability, commencing on the thirty-first day, for an additional penalty in an amount not to exceed ten dollars, indicated on the notice of violation for a parking violation; where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within forty-five days may result in liability, commencing on the forty-sixth day, for the penalty prescribed above for failure to respond within thirty days and an additional penalty not to exceed twenty dollars; and where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within seventy-five days may result in liability, commencing on the seventy-sixth day, for the penalties prescribed above for failure to respond within thirty days and for failure to respond within forty-five days and an additional penalty not to exceed thirty dollars.

(2) Notwithstanding the foregoing schedule of alternative additional penalties, if an owner makes a plea or appears within twenty days after issuance of a second notice of violation in accordance with paragraph a of this subdivision, or prior to such mailing, such additional penalty shall not exceed ten dollars. b-2. Alternate additional penalty schedule. In any city in which the schedule of penalties contained in paragraph b of this subdivision, as interpreted in 9 New York Code of Rules and Regulations Part 6180, has not been implemented and was not in effect on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three and which has not enacted a local law pursuant to paragraph b-1 of this subdivision prior to March 28, 1993, the following alternate additional penalty schedule shall apply:

(1) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within eight days may result in the liability, commencing on the ninth day, for an additional penalty in an amount not to exceed five dollars;

(2) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within thirty days may result in the liability, commencing on the thirty-first day, for the penalty prescribed above for failure to respond within eight days and an additional penalty not to exceed ten dollars or, if the first penalty assessed by the city does not exceed five dollars, such city may assess an additional penalty within thirty-one to seventy-five days not to exceed ten dollars;

(3) Where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within seventy-five days may result in the liability, commencing on the seventy-sixth day, for the penalties prescribed above for failure to respond within eight days and for failure to respond within thirty days and an additional penalty not to exceed twenty dollars; and

(4) Notwithstanding the foregoing schedule of alternate penalties, if an owner makes a plea or appears within twenty days after issuance of a second notice of violation in accordance with paragraph a of this subdivision, or prior to such mailing, such additional penalty shall not exceed five dollars. c. Default judgment. Where a city has given notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision, failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within ninety days shall be deemed an admission of liability and shall subject the owner to a default judgment being entered thereon in an amount not greater than the amount of the original fine and accrued penalties plus any applicable surcharges. Such default shall be reported to the department which department shall cause a suspension and non-renewal of the owner's registration pursuant to the provisions of subdivision four-c of section five hundred ten of this chapter. 3. Nothing set forth in this article shall be construed to authorize the imposition of monetary liability on the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof to comply with any provision of law, rule or regulation through the installation and operation of a photo enforcement device or system, except as otherwise explicitly authorized by article twenty-four, twenty-nine or thirty of this chapter, by section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law, or by sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, nor be construed to grant any municipality the authority to establish by local law, ordinance, order, rule, regulation, resolution or any other means, an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions or jurisdiction to adjudicate any liability set forth in subdivision one of this section. * NB There are 2 § 235's

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