2020 New York Laws
VAT - Vehicle and Traffic
Title 2 - Department of Motor Vehicles; Commissioner
Article 2-B - Adjudication of Parking Infractions
235 - Jurisdiction.

Universal Citation: NY Veh & Traf L § 235 (2020)
* § 235. Jurisdiction.    ** 1.   Notwithstanding   any   inconsistent
provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to
the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to
establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of
traffic  infractions  constituting   parking,   standing   or   stopping
violations,  or  to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of
subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred  eleven  of  this  chapter  in
accordance  with  section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter, or to
adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d)  of
section  eleven  hundred  eleven  of  this  chapter  in  accordance with
sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as  added  by  sections
sixteen  of  chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand
nine, or to  adjudicate  the  liability  of  owners  for  violations  of
subdivision  (d)  of  section  eleven  hundred eleven of this chapter in
accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter,  or  to
adjudicate  the  liability  of  owners  for violations of section eleven
hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with  section  eleven
hundred  seventy-four-a  of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability
of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of  section  eleven  hundred
eleven  of  this  chapter  in  accordance  with  section  eleven hundred
eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of  owners  for
violations   of  toll  collection  regulations  as  defined  in  and  in
accordance with the provisions of  section  two  thousand  nine  hundred
eighty-five  of  the  public  authorities  law  and  sections sixteen-a,
sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven  hundred  seventy-four  of  the
laws  of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate liability of owners in
accordance with section eleven hundred  eleven-c  of  this  chapter  for
violations  of bus lane restrictions as defined in subdivision (b), (c),
(d), (f) or (g) of such section,  or  to  adjudicate  the  liability  of
owners  for  violations of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter
in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this  chapter,  or
to  adjudicate  the liability of owners for violations of section eleven
hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred
eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the  rules  and  regulations
pertaining  thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with
the following sections.
  * NB Effective until September 6, 2024
  ** 1. Notwithstanding  any  inconsistent  provision  of  any  general,
special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city
which   heretofore   or   hereafter   is   authorized  to  establish  an
administrative tribunal to hear  and  determine  complaints  of  traffic
infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to
adjudicate  the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of
section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section
eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the  liability
of  owners  for  violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred
eleven of this  chapter  in  accordance  with  sections  eleven  hundred
eleven-b  of  this  chapter  as  added  by  sections sixteen of chapters
twenty, and  twenty-two  of  the  laws  of  two  thousand  nine,  or  to
adjudicate  the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of
section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section
eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or to adjudicate the  liability
of  owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this
chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this
chapter, or to adjudicate the liability  of  owners  for  violations  of
subdivision  (d)  of  section  eleven  hundred eleven of this chapter in
accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter,  or  to
adjudicate  the  liability  of  owners for violations of toll collection

regulations as defined in and  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  of
section  two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities
law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and  sixteen-c  of  chapter  seven
hundred  seventy-four  of  the  laws  of  nineteen  hundred fifty, or to
adjudicate liability of owners in accordance with section eleven hundred
eleven-c of this chapter for violations  of  bus  lane  restrictions  as
defined  in subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of such section, or to
adjudicate the liability of owners  for  violations  of  section  eleven
hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred
eighty-b  of  this  chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations
pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance  with
the following sections.
  ** NB Effective September 6, 2024 until December 1, 2024
  2.  Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special
or local law or administrative code to the contrary,  any  city  with  a
population  in  excess  of one hundred thousand persons according to the
nineteen hundred eighty United States census hereinafter referred to  as
a  city shall provide notice of parking violations and of the imposition
of additional penalties whenever the person who is liable therefor fails
to respond to the parking ticket in the manner designated thereon.  Such
notice   shall   be   in  substantial  conformance  with  the  following
provisions:
  a. Notice. (1) Whenever a city issues a  notice  of  violation  for  a
parking  violation,  it  shall  be  served  in  the manner prescribed by
subdivision two of section two hundred thirty-eight of this article.

(2) Whenever a person has been issued a notice of violation for a parking violation and has not responded in the manner described in the notice, a city shall give the owner a second notice of the violation by regular first class mail: (i) within forty days of issuance of the first notice of violation for a parking violation where the vehicle is a vehicle registered in this state; or (ii) within forty days of the receipt by such city of the name and address of the owner of the vehicle where the vehicle is a vehicle registered in any other state. Such second notice shall include, but not be limited to, the following information:

(A) that the owner has a period of twenty days from issuance of the second notice in which to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation;

(B) that failure to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation may result in the suspension and non-renewal of the owner's registration;

(C) that failure to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation may subject the owner to additional penalties as provided in paragraph b of this subdivision;

(D) that failure to respond to the notice of violation for a parking violation shall subject the owner to a default judgment as provided in paragraph c of this subdivision and the additional penalties imposed upon parking violations pursuant to paragraph b of this subdivision; and

(E) that submission of a plea of guilty to the parking violation makes the owner liable for payment of the stated fine and additional penalties imposed pursuant to paragraph b of this subdivision and the mandatory surcharge of fifteen dollars imposed upon parking violations pursuant to section eighteen hundred nine-a of this chapter.

(1) Upon written application of the chief executive officer of any such city, the commissioner may authorize for a specified time period the use of a notice mailer form that does not contain all the information set forth in this subdivision but which was used by such city on or before the effective date of this section.

(2) In addition, the commissioner may suspend for a period not to exceed one year from the effective date of this section the provisions of this subdivision requiring that a second notice of violation be served within forty days of issuance of the first notice of a parking violation, upon written application of the chief executive officer of any such city demonstrating that immediate imposition of such notice requirement will cause substantial financial hardship to such city, and setting forth the steps to be taken by such city to achieve compliance with the notice requirements of this subdivision at the end of such one hundred eighty day period. Upon granting such application, the commissioner shall specify a period, not to exceed seventy-five days, within which such second notice must be served, and shall adjust accordingly the time periods set forth in paragraph b of this subdivision to provide that the additional penalties set forth in such subdivision will not be imposed prior to the stated number of days from the service of such notice. b. Additional penalties. (1) For the purposes of this paragraph, each locality shall determine an initial response date of not less than eight days nor more than thirty days, after which time a penalty may be imposed. The liability for such initial penalty shall commence on the date following the initial response date.

(2) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation by the initial response date may result in the liability for a penalty in an amount of the fine indicated on the notice of violation for a parking violation; where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision, the following schedule of additional penalties may apply:

(A) failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation by the initial response date may result in the liability for an additional penalty not to exceed ten dollars or, if the first penalty assessed by a city does not exceed five dollars, such city may assess an additional penalty within thirty-one to seventy-five days not to exceed ten dollars; and

(B) where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within seventy-five days may result in the liability, commencing on the seventy-sixth day, for an additional penalty not to exceed twenty dollars.

(3) Where the additional penalty schedule set forth in subparagraph two of this paragraph, as interpreted in 9 New York Code of Rules and Regulations Part 6180, has not been implemented by a city and is not in effect in such city on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply. For the purposes of this subdivision, the provisions of this paragraph shall not be considered to have been implemented and in effect unless the penalty schedule contained herein shall have been applied to parking violations issued in such city on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three. b-1. Alternate additional penalty schedule. In any city in which the schedule of penalties contained in subparagraph two of paragraph b of this subdivision, as interpreted in 9 New York Code of Rules and Regulations Part 6180, has not been implemented and is not in effect on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three, the provisions of this paragraph shall only apply upon enactment of a local law containing the penalty schedule provided in this paragraph within forty-five days of the effective date of this paragraph. Following the enactment of such a local law, such city may elect to impose the additional penalties set forth in subparagraphs one and two of this paragraph for failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation in accordance with this paragraph. In the event that no such local law is enacted within forty-five days of the effective date of this paragraph, the alternate additional penalty schedule set forth in paragraph b-2 of this subdivision shall apply.

(1) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within thirty days shall result in liability, commencing on the thirty-first day, for an additional penalty in an amount not to exceed ten dollars, indicated on the notice of violation for a parking violation: where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within forty-five days may result in liability, commencing on the forty-sixth day, for the penalty prescribed above for failure to respond within thirty days and an additional penalty not to exceed twenty dollars; and where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within seventy-five days may result in liability, commencing on the seventy-sixth day, for the penalties prescribed above for failure to respond within thirty days and for failure to respond within forty-five days and an additional penalty not to exceed thirty dollars.

(2) Notwithstanding the foregoing schedule of alternative additional penalties, if an owner makes a plea or appears within twenty days after issuance of a second notice of violation in accordance with paragraph a of this subdivision, or prior to such mailing, such additional penalty shall not exceed ten dollars. b-2. Alternate additional penalty schedule. In any city in which the schedule of penalties contained in paragraph b of this subdivision, as interpreted in 9 New York Code of Rules and Regulations Part 6180, has not been implemented and is not in effect on or before January first, nineteen hundred ninety-three and which has not enacted a local law pursuant to paragraph b-1 of this subdivision within forty-five days of the effective date of this paragraph, the following alternate additional penalty schedule shall apply:

(1) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within eight days may result in the liability, commencing on the ninth day, for an additional penalty in an amount not to exceed five dollars;

(2) Failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within thirty days may result in the liability, commencing on the thirty-first day, for the penalty prescribed above for failure to respond within eight days and an additional penalty not to exceed ten dollars or, if the first penalty assessed by the city does not exceed five dollars, such city may assess an additional penalty within thirty-one to seventy-five days not to exceed ten dollars;

(3) Where a city has given a second notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within seventy-five days may result in the liability, commencing on the seventy-sixth day, for the penalties prescribed above for failure to respond within eight days and for failure to respond within thirty days and an additional penalty not to exceed twenty dollars; and

(4) Notwithstanding the foregoing schedule of alternate penalties, if an owner makes a plea or appears within twenty days after issuance of a second notice of violation in accordance with paragraph a of this subdivision, or prior to such mailing, such additional penalty shall not exceed five dollars. b-3. Application. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any rule or regulation previously or heretofore issued prior to the effective date of this paragraph by any state or local agency, division, bureau or other entity, authorizing the imposition of an additional penalty equal to the amount of the initial fine for failure to respond to the first notice of violation within eight days of its issuance shall be of no force and effect in a city to which the provisions of paragraph b-1 or b-2 of this subdivision apply. c. Default judgment. Where a city has given notice pursuant to paragraph a of this subdivision, failure to respond to a notice of violation for a parking violation within ninety days shall be deemed an admission of liability and shall subject the owner to a default judgment being entered thereon in an amount not greater than the amount of the original fine and accrued penalties plus any applicable surcharges. Such default shall be reported to the department which department shall cause a suspension and non-renewal of the owner's registration pursuant to the provisions of subdivision four-c of section five hundred ten of this chapter. * NB Effective until September 1, 2021 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate liability of owners in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter for violations of bus lane restrictions as defined in such section, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective September 1, 2021 until December 1, 2024 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with sections eleven hundred eleven-b of this chapter as added by sections sixteen of chapters twenty, and twenty-two of the laws of two thousand nine, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate liability of owners in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter for violations of bus lane restrictions as defined in such section, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective and Expires December 1, 2024 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate liability of owners in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-c of this chapter for violations of bus lane restrictions as defined in such section, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. *NB Effective December 1, 2024 until September 20, 2025 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate liability of owners for violations of subdivisions (c) and (d) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-b of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective September 20, 2025 until July 1, 2022 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-d of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective July 1, 2022 until December 1, 2024 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (d) of section eleven hundred eleven of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eleven-e of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective December 1, 2024 until December 1, 2024 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of section eleven hundred seventy-four of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred seventy-four-a of this chapter, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this chapter in accordance with section eleven hundred eighty-d of this chapter, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective December 1, 2024 until December 1, 2024 * § 235. Jurisdiction. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of any general, special or local law or administrative code to the contrary, in any city which heretofore or hereafter is authorized to establish an administrative tribunal to hear and determine complaints of traffic infractions constituting parking, standing or stopping violations, or to adjudicate the liability of owners for violations of toll collection regulations as defined in and in accordance with the provisions of section two thousand nine hundred eighty-five of the public authorities law and sections sixteen-a, sixteen-b and sixteen-c of chapter seven hundred seventy-four of the laws of nineteen hundred fifty, such tribunal and the rules and regulations pertaining thereto shall be constituted in substantial conformance with the following sections. * NB Effective December 1, 2024

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