2014 New York Laws
PEN - Penal
Part 3 - SPECIFIC OFFENSES
Title K - OFFENSES INVOLVING FRAUD
Article 190 - (190.00 - 190.89) OTHER FRAUDS
190.10 - Issuing a bad check; presumptions.
190.10 Issuing a bad check; presumptions.
1. When the drawer of a check has insufficient funds with the drawee to cover it at the time of utterance, the subscribing drawer or representative drawer, as the case may be, is presumed to know of such insufficiency.
2. A subscribing drawer or representative drawer, as the case may be, of an ultimately dishonored check is presumed to have intended or believed that the check would be dishonored upon presentation when:
(a) The drawer had no account with the drawee at the time of utterance; or
(b) (i) The drawer had insufficient funds with the drawee at the time of utterance, and (ii) the check was presented to the drawee for payment not more than thirty days after the date of utterance, and (iii) the drawer had insufficient funds with the drawee at the time of presentation.
3. Dishonor of a check by the drawee and insufficiency of the drawer's funds at the time of presentation may properly be proved by introduction in evidence of a notice of protest of the check, or of a certificate under oath of an authorized representative of the drawee declaring the dishonor and insufficiency, and such proof shall constitute presumptive evidence of such dishonor and insufficiency.
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