2006 New York Code - Equipment.



 
    § 375. Equipment.  1. (a) Every motor vehicle, operated or driven upon
  the public highways of the state, shall be provided with adequate brakes
  and steering mechanism in good working order and sufficient  to  control
  such  vehicle  at  all times when the same is in use, and a suitable and
  adequate horn or other device for signaling, which horn or device  shall
  produce a sound sufficiently loud to serve as a danger warning but shall
  not be used other than as a reasonable warning nor be unnecessarily loud
  or harsh.
    (b) Every such motor vehicle shall be equipped with suitable wipers or
  other  device  which shall clear a sufficient area of the windshields to
  provide reasonable driving vision. (i) The use or placing of posters  or
  stickers  on  windshields  or  rear windows of motor vehicles other than
  those  authorized  by  the  commissioner,  is  hereby  prohibited.   The
  attaching  to  windshields  and windshield wipers of handbills and other
  forms of advertisements, is hereby prohibited.
    (ii) In a city of one million or more, the attaching  or  affixing  by
  any  means whatsoever of handbills or other forms of advertisements to a
  motor vehicle is hereby prohibited. In any prosecution  for  an  alleged
  violation  of this subparagraph, there shall be a rebuttable presumption
  that the person whose  name,  telephone  number,  or  other  identifying
  information  appears  on  any  handbill  or  other form of advertisement
  attached or affixed to a motor vehicle shall  be  in  violation  of  the
  provisions of this subparagraph.
    (iii) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in addition to those
  persons  otherwise authorized to enforce this subdivision and adjudicate
  violations  thereof,  the  provisions  of  subparagraph  (ii)  of   this
  paragraph shall also be enforceable in a city having a population of one
  million  or more by an agency or agencies designated for such purpose by
  the mayor of such city, and notices of violation may  be  returnable  to
  the environmental control board of such city, which shall have the power
  to  impose the monetary penalties provided in subdivision (b) of section
  eighteen hundred of this chapter. Notwithstanding any other provision of
  law, service of a notice of  violation  of  subparagraph  (ii)  of  this
  paragraph  committed  in  such  city  may be made upon a person by first
  class mail, postage prepaid, and any such notice served by mail shall be
  returnable only to such environmental control  board.  Such  service  by
  first  class mail shall be deemed complete upon mailing of the notice of
  violation, unless the notice of violation is returned to the  sender  by
  the  United  States  postal service for any reason other than refusal of
  delivery. In addition, any  notice  of  violation  for  a  violation  of
  subparagraph  (ii) of this paragraph may be served by a means prescribed
  in article three of the civil practice law and rules or article three of
  the business corporation law. Notwithstanding  any  other  provision  of
  law, such penalties imposed by such environmental control board shall be
  paid into the general fund of such city.
    (iv)  Any  final  order  issued  pursuant to subparagraph (ii) of this
  paragraph  by  an  environmental  control  board  of  a  city  having  a
  population  of one million or more shall constitute a judgment which may
  be entered in any place provided for the entry of civil judgments within
  the state, and may be enforced without  court  proceeding  in  the  same
  manner  as  the enforcement of money judgments entered in civil actions.
  Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, before a judgment based  upon  a
  default  may  be  so entered, such environmental control board must have
  notified the respondent by  first  class  mail  in  such  form  as  such
  environmental  control board may direct: (A) of the default decision and
  order and the penalty imposed; (B) that a judgment will  be  entered  in
  any  place  provided  for the entry of civil judgments in the state; and
  (C) that the entry of such judgment may be avoided by requesting a  stay
  of  default  for  good  cause  shown  and either requesting a hearing or
  entering a plea pursuant to the  rules  of  such  environmental  control
  board  within  thirty  days  of  the mailing of such notice. No judgment
  based  upon  a  default  may  be so entered by the environmental control
  board within thirty days of the mailing  of  such  notice.  No  judgment
  based  upon  a  default  may  be so entered by the environmental control
  board within less than sixty days from the completion of service by mail
  of the notice of violation as provided in  subparagraph  (iii)  of  this
  paragraph.  Any  requirement  of  any  provision  of law other than this
  subdivision that related to the manner  of  service  of  the  notice  of
  violation  that  precedes  any final order of such environmental control
  board shall  not  apply  to  a  final  order  issued  pursuant  to  this
  subparagraph.  A  judgment  entered  pursuant  to this subdivision shall
  remain in full force and effect for eight years.
    (c) Every trailer and semi-trailer weighing  more  than  one  thousand
  pounds  unladen  and  every  trailer  and  semi-trailer  manufactured or
  assembled on or after January first, nineteen hundred seventy-one having
  a registered maximum gross weight,  an  actual  gross  weight  or  gross
  weight  consisting  of  the unladen weight and maximum carrying capacity
  recommended by the manufacturer in excess of three thousand pounds  also
  shall be equipped with adequate brakes in good working order if operated
  or drawn on the public highways of this state. Every trailer while being
  drawn upon the public highways of this state shall be so attached to the
  vehicle  drawing  the same as to prevent the wheels of such trailer from
  being deflected more than  six  inches  from  the  path  of  the  towing
  vehicle's   wheels.   On  and  after  January  first,  nineteen  hundred
  seventy-one every trailer, except a semi-trailer, while being drawn upon
  the public highways of this state, shall  be  attached  to  the  vehicle
  drawing the same by a device of a type approved by the commissioner.
    (d)  The  commissioner shall make rules prescribing standards of brake
  efficiency, except for motor vehicles the standard of  brake  efficiency
  of  which  are  fixed by the department of public service, and no brakes
  shall be deemed adequate within the meaning of this  subdivision  unless
  they  meet  the requirements of such rules. Such rules shall be filed in
  the office of the secretary of state and thereafter  published  once  in
  the  state  advertising  bulletin  and  shall become effective one month
  after such publication. Any amendment to such rules  shall  be  likewise
  filed  and  published  and  shall  take  effect  one  month  after  such
  publication.
    (e) No operator or registered owner of  any  motor  vehicle  having  a
  registered  maximum  gross  weight  of  eighteen thousand pounds or more
  shall disconnect or knowingly permit the disconnection  of  any  set  of
  service brakes on such motor vehicle. Any violation of the provisions of
  this  paragraph  shall occur only when such vehicle is actually operated
  on the  public  highways.  Such  violation  shall  be  punishable  as  a
  misdemeanor.
    2.  (a)  Every motor vehicle except a motorcycle, driven upon a public
  highway during the period from one-half hour after  sunset  to  one-half
  hour  before  sunrise or at any other time when windshield wipers are in
  use, as a result  of  rain,  sleet,  snow,  hail  or  other  unfavorable
  atmospheric  condition,  and  at  such  other  times as visibility for a
  distance of one thousand feet ahead of such motor vehicle is not  clear,
  shall display:
    1.  at  least  two  lighted head lamps on the front, one on each side,
  having light sources of equal power;
    2. if manufactured prior to January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two,
  at least one lighted lamp on the rear which shall display  a  red  light
  visible from the rear for a distance of at least five hundred feet;
    3.  if  manufactured  on  or  after  January  first,  nineteen hundred
  fifty-two, at least two lighted lamps on the rear,  one  on  each  side,
  which  lamps  shall  display  a  red  light  visible from the rear for a
  distance of at least one thousand feet; and
    4.  if  required  to display a number plate on the rear, a white light
  which shall illuminate the numerals on such plate in such manner  as  to
  render  such numerals legible for at least fifty feet from the rear. The
  provisions of this subparagraph shall also apply to trailers.
    (b) All lamps used on a motor vehicle except a motorcycle shall be  so
  arranged,  adjusted and operated, as to avoid dangerous glare or dazzle.
  Except as provided in paragraph  (d)  of  this  subdivision,  the  upper
  outline  of  any  beam  of  dazzling  light projected to the left of the
  longitudinal axis of the vehicle by the lowermost light distribution  of
  a  headlamp  designed to produce more than one light distribution, or by
  the single light distribution of any other lamp used  on  such  a  motor
  vehicle,  shall  not  rise  higher than the lamp center at a distance of
  twenty-five feet nor higher than  forty-two  inches  at  a  distance  of
  seventy-five  feet.  In  each  case,  the  height  of  the beam shall be
  measured from the plane upon which the vehicle stands and  the  distance
  shall be measured from the lamp projecting the light.
    (c)  No  lamp  shall  be used on a motor vehicle having a light source
  greater than thirty-two candle power, unless such lamp  is  approved  by
  the  commissioner  as  provided  by this section. The provisions of this
  paragraph shall not  apply  to  any  light  which  is  permitted  to  be
  displayed only on an authorized emergency vehicle, a hazard vehicle or a
  vehicle  which is permitted to display a blue or green light pursuant to
  paragraphs four and five of subdivision forty-one of this section.
    (d) A motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, equipped with any device
  such as, but not limited to, a snow plow blade, which blocks or  impairs
  the  projection  of  light  from the headlamps of such vehicle, shall be
  equipped with at least two  additional  headlamps  on  the  front  which
  headlamps  meet  all  the requirements of this subdivision for headlamps
  except  those  provisions  of  paragraph   (b)   of   this   subdivision
  specifically limiting the height of the beam of any headlamp.
    3. Headlamps required pursuant to the provisions of subdivision two of
  this  section  may be of the multiple beam type designed to produce more
  than one distribution of light or of the single beam  type  designed  to
  produce only one distribution of light.
    Provided  that,  whenever  a  vehicle approaching from ahead is within
  five hundred feet, or when approaching a moving vehicle  from  the  rear
  and  within  two  hundred  feet  of  the  same, the headlamps, if of the
  multiple beam type, or the auxiliary front facing lamps, if the  vehicle
  is  so  equipped,  shall  be  operated  so  that dazzling light does not
  interfere with the driver of the approaching  vehicle,  or  the  vehicle
  being  approached,  and,  whenever  the highway is so lighted or traffic
  thereon is such that illumination of  the  highway  for  more  than  two
  hundred  feet  ahead  of  the  vehicle  by  lights  on  such  vehicle is
  unnecessary or impracticable, the headlamps, if  of  the  multiple  beam
  type,  or  the  auxiliary  front  facing  lamps,  if  the  vehicle is so
  equipped, shall be operated with the lowermost distribution of light  in
  use. Nothing contained in this subdivision shall be construed to prevent
  the use of flashing high beams to signify an intention to pass a vehicle
  or  vehicles  when  two  or  more  vehicles  are  traveling  in the same
  direction, the operation of any headlamp as defined in  paragraph  d  of
  subdivision  two  of  this  section, nor shall it apply to any auxiliary
  front facing lamp permitted  to  be  displayed  only  on  an  authorized
  emergency vehicle.
    4.  No  headlamp  shall  be  used  upon  any  motor  vehicle  except a
  motorcycle operated upon the public highways of this state, unless  such
  lamp is approved by the commissioner or is equipped with a lens or other
  device  approved by the commissioner. Every such headlamp, lens or other
  device shall be applied and adjusted in accordance with the requirements
  of  the certificate approving the use thereof. Every such headlamp shall
  be firmly and substantially mounted on the motor vehicle in such  manner
  as  to  allow the lamp to be properly and readily adjusted. The operator
  of every motor vehicle shall permit any  policeman,  police  officer  or
  other  person  exercising police powers to inspect the equipment of such
  motor vehicle, and make such tests as  may  be  necessary  to  determine
  whether the provisions of this section are being complied with.
    Any  certificate  of  approval  heretofore  issued pursuant to law, or
  hereafter issued by the commissioner may be revoked by the commissioner,
  after a hearing of which the person or corporation named therein, or his
  or its successor in interest, shall have been  given  reasonable  notice
  and  an  opportunity  to  appear  and  be heard upon the ground that the
  device does not comply with the provisions  of  this  section,  and  the
  rules  and  regulations  of  the  commissioner  and  the decision of the
  commissioner revoking such certificate shall be final; such  revocation,
  however,  of a lens or other headlighting device heretofore or hereafter
  approved shall not take effect until six months after  the  decision  of
  the  commissioner  revoking  the  same  and shall apply only to vehicles
  manufactured and used thereafter on the highways of this state.
    The foregoing provisions governing lights on  motor  vehicles  do  not
  apply  to so-called dimmers the use of which is permitted or required by
  local ordinances.
    The commissioner may make  such  rules  and  regulations  relative  to
  lights  on  motor  vehicles  and  the  approval  of  the same as are not
  inconsistent with the specific provisions of this section.
    7.  It  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person,  firm,  association  or
  corporation  to  sell  or  offer  for sale a headlighting device without
  delivering therewith to the purchaser a printed  sheet  of  instructions
  describing the device in detail, its method of mounting, arrangement and
  adjustment  and  specifying  the  candle  power  of the lamps to be used
  thereon and any other matter that may be necessary to insure  compliance
  in  the  use  of such device with the provisions of this article and the
  certificate of approval. Such  instructions  shall  be  printed  with  a
  photogravure  of  the  pattern  of  light  from one headlight shown on a
  regulation testing screen with respect to a horizontal cross line placed
  across the face of such screen at a height equal to the  height  of  the
  center  of such headlight, and with the headlight adjusted in accordance
  with the rules and regulations  of  the  commissioner.  The  sale  of  a
  headlighting device not approved under the provisions of this section is
  prohibited.  A  violation  of  any of the provisions of this subdivision
  shall be a misdemeanor.
    9. Every omnibus operating upon  the  public  highways  of  the  state
  having  a carrying capacity of ten or more passengers, shall be equipped
  with one  hand  fire  extinguisher  of  at  least  4  B:C  Underwriters'
  Laboratories  rating  or a similar rating by any qualified laboratory or
  testing organization which meets the criteria of  American  Society  for
  Testing Materials test E548-76. Fire extinguishers shall be kept in good
  operating  condition at all times and must be mounted in a place readily
  accessible for use.
    10. a. Every motor vehicle, when driven  or  operated  upon  a  public
  highway,  shall  be equipped with a mirror or other reflecting device so
  adjusted that the operator of such vehicle shall have a clear  and  full
  view of the road and condition of traffic behind such vehicle.
    b. In addition to the above requirements, an omnibus having a capacity
  of  ten  or more passengers registered in this state and manufactured or
  assembled after July first, nineteen hundred seventy, shall be  equipped
  with a mirror attached to the right side of such vehicle and so adjusted
  that the driver thereof shall have a clear and full view of the road and
  condition of traffic behind such vehicle.
    c.  Every  passenger  motor  vehicle  registered  in  this  state  and
  manufactured  or  assembled  after  June  thirtieth,  nineteen   hundred
  sixty-nine,  and  designated as a nineteen hundred seventy or subsequent
  year model, shall be equipped with adjustable interior  mirrors  meeting
  specifications  established by the commissioner which specifications may
  provide minimum and maximum reflectance values.
    d. Every  new  passenger-type  motor  vehicle,  except  a  motorcycle,
  manufactured  for  sale  in New York state on or after January first, in
  the year next succeeding the effective date of this paragraph  shall  be
  manufactured with an interior rear-view mirror of the selective position
  prismatic type with a reflectance value in the night driving position of
  at  least  four  percent;  or its functional equivalent. For purposes of
  this section,  "passenger-type  motor  vehicle"  shall  mean  any  motor
  vehicle  with  a  seating  capacity of not more than fifteen adults, not
  including the driver, that is equipped with one or  more  rear  windows.
  Any  violation  of  the provisions of this paragraph by any manufacturer
  shall constitute an offense and shall be punishable by a civil  fine  of
  not more than seven hundred fifty dollars for each offense.
    e.  Every single-unit motor vehicle registered in this state, operated
  for commercial purposes and having a  cube  style  or  enclosed  walk-in
  delivery  bay,  where  such  delivery bay has a length of eight feet six
  inches or more, but not exceeding a length of eighteen  feet,  shall  be
  equipped  with  a  cross-view  back-up mirror system, rear video system,
  rear object detection system, or other device, which enables the  driver
  of  the  vehicle  to  detect by means of a visual, or visual and audible
  warning-indicator, persons  and  objects  located  directly  behind  the
  vehicle. The commissioner is hereby authorized to promulgate regulations
  providing  specifications  for  mirrors  or other devices as required by
  this paragraph.
    10-a.  It  shall  be  unlawful  after  July  first,  nineteen  hundred
  sixty-seven  to  operate  on  any public highway in this state any motor
  vehicle registered in this state, manufactured or assembled on or  after
  such  date,  and  designated  as a nineteen hundred sixty-eight or later
  model, unless such vehicle is equipped  with  an  adjustable  side  view
  mirror  which  shall  be affixed to the left outside of such vehicle and
  which shall be adjustable so that the operator of such vehicle may  have
  a  clear  view of the road and condition of traffic on the left side and
  to the rear of such vehicle.
    10-b. It shall be unlawful  after  June  thirtieth,  nineteen  hundred
  seventy-three  to operate on any public highway or street in this state,
  any passenger  type  motor  vehicle  except  convertible,  suburban  and
  omnibus  or  other  motor  vehicle that has a roll-down rear window or a
  rear window or windows located in a movable closure  (door-like)  member
  registered in this state, manufactured or assembled after said date, and
  designated as a nineteen hundred seventy-four or subsequent model unless
  such vehicle be equipped with a rear window defogger or defroster, which
  shall  be  so  located  and  adjusted  that  its operation will give the
  operator of such vehicle, by means of the  mirror  or  other  reflecting
  device  required  by subdivision ten of this section, a view of the road
  and the condition of traffic behind such vehicle.
    10-c. It shall be unlawful  after  June  thirtieth,  nineteen  hundred
  eighty-five  to  operate  on any public highway or street in this state,
  any passenger type motor vehicle that  has  a  rear  window  or  windows
  located   in   a  movable  closure  (door-like)  member,  except  for  a
  multipurpose passenger vehicle (designed to carry ten  persons  or  less
  and  constructed  either on a truck chassis or with special features for
  occasional off-road operation) registered in this state and manufactured
  or assembled after said date,  and  designated  as  a  nineteen  hundred
  eighty-six  or  subsequent  model unless such vehicle be equipped with a
  rear window defogger  or  defroster,  which  shall  be  so  located  and
  adjusted  that  its operation will give the operator of such vehicle, by
  means of the mirror or other reflecting device required  by  subdivision
  ten  of  this  section,  a view of the road and the condition of traffic
  behind such vehicle.
    10-d. It shall  be  unlawful  after  December  thirty-first,  nineteen
  hundred  ninety-two  to  operate on any public highway or street in this
  state, any passenger type motor vehicle that has a rear  window  located
  in  a  single  movable  closure  (door-like)  member  and  which  has  a
  non-removeable  top,  registered  in  this  state  and  manufactured  or
  assembled  after  said  date,  and  designated  as  a  nineteen  hundred
  ninety-three or subsequent model unless such vehicle be equipped with  a
  rear  window  defogger  or  defroster,  which  shall  be  so located and
  adjusted that its operation will give the operator of such  vehicle,  by
  means  of  the mirror or other reflecting device required by subdivision
  ten of this section, a view of the road and  the  condition  of  traffic
  behind such vehicle.
    11.  It  shall  be  unlawful  after  January  first,  nineteen hundred
  thirty-four to operate on any public highway or street, in this state, a
  motor vehicle manufactured or assembled after  said  date,  designed  or
  used  for  the  purpose  of carrying passengers for hire, or as a public
  conveyance to transport school children and others, unless such  vehicle
  be  equipped  with safety glass wherever glass is used in doors, windows
  and windshields.
    12. It shall be unlawful to operate on any public highway or street in
  this state any motor vehicle registered in New York  state  unless  such
  vehicle  be  equipped with safety glass wherever glass is used in doors,
  windows and windshields. For  the  purposes  of  this  subdivision,  any
  device  other  than  a  trailer,  which is attached to or carried upon a
  motor vehicle and which lawfully can be occupied while the motor vehicle
  is in motion, shall be considered a part of such motor vehicle.
    12-a. (a) Every motor vehicle, except a  motorcycle,  when  driven  or
  operated  upon a public highway, road or street shall be equipped with a
  front  windshield  in  a  fixed  and  more  or  less  upright   position
  constructed  of  safety glass as defined in subdivision fourteen of this
  section and required by subdivisions eleven and twelve hereof. No person
  shall drive any motor vehicle with  any  sign  or  other  nontransparent
  material  other  than a certificate or paper required to be displayed by
  law upon the front windshield or the sidewings or side windows on either
  side forward of or adjacent to the operator's seat.
    (b) No person shall operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway,
  road or street:
    (1) the front windshield of  which  is  composed  of,  covered  by  or
  treated  with  any material which has a light transmittance of less than
  seventy percent unless such materials are limited to the  uppermost  six
  inches of the windshield; or
    (2)  the  sidewings or side windows of which on either side forward of
  or adjacent to the operator's  seat  are  composed  of,  covered  by  or
  treated  with  any material which has a light transmittance of less than
  seventy percent; or
    (3) if it is classified as a station  wagon,  sedan,  hardtop,  coupe,
  hatchback   or  convertible  and  any  rear  side  window  has  a  light
  transmittance of less than seventy percent; or
    (4)  the  rear  window  of which is composed of, covered by or treated
  with any material which has a light transmittance of less  than  seventy
  percent.  A  rear  window  may  have  a light transmittance of less than
  seventy percent if the vehicle is equipped with  side  mirrors  on  both
  sides  of  the  vehicle so adjusted that the driver thereof shall have a
  clear and full view of the road and condition  of  traffic  behind  such
  vehicle.
    (c)  Any  person  required for medical reasons to be shielded from the
  direct rays of the sun and/or  any  person  operating  a  motor  vehicle
  belonging  to  such  person  or  in  which  such  person  is an habitual
  passenger shall be exempt from the provisions of subparagraphs  one  and
  two  of  paragraph (b) of this subdivision provided the commissioner has
  granted an exemption and notice of such  exemption  is  affixed  to  the
  vehicle  as  directed  by  the  commissioner.  The  applicant  for  such
  exemption must provide a physician's statement with the reason  for  the
  exemption,  the  name  of  the  individual  with  a  medically necessary
  condition  operating  or  transported  in  the  vehicle,  the   specific
  condition   involved,  and  the  minimum  level  of  light  transmission
  required. The commissioner shall only  authorize  exemptions  where  the
  medical  condition  certified by the physician is contained on a list of
  medical conditions prepared by the commissioner of  health  pursuant  to
  subdivision sixteen of section two hundred six of the public health law.
  If  such such exemption is granted, the commissioner shall make a record
  thereof and shall distribute a sufficiently noticeable  sticker  to  the
  applicant  to  be attached to any window so shielded or altered pursuant
  to such exemption.
    (d) The commissioner may test any window for a  person  who  has  been
  charged  with  violating this subdivision. If such window is found to be
  in conformity with this subdivision, a  small  label  attesting  to  the
  conformity shall be affixed to the window tested.
    (e) On and after January first, nineteen hundred ninety-two, no person
  shall  manufacture,  sell,  offer  for  sale,  equip  or operate a motor
  vehicle  in  this  state  in  violation  of  the  provisions   of   this
  subdivision,  except  that  a  person  may  operate  a  nineteen hundred
  ninety-one  or  earlier  model  year  vehicle  without  violating   this
  subdivision  if the windows on said vehicle were in conformity with this
  subdivision as it existed on  December  thirty-first,  nineteen  hundred
  ninety-one.
    (f) The commissioner shall make such rules and regulations as he shall
  deem necessary to carry out the provisions of this subdivision.
    (ff)  Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or any other
  general, special or local law, charter, administrative code,  ordinance,
  rule or regulation to the contrary, any person operating a motor vehicle
  in a burial or funeral procession while travelling to or from a funeral,
  interment or cremation may place a funeral sign no larger than eight and
  one  half  by  fourteen inches in any window of such vehicle, as long as
  such sign when so placed will not prevent  such  person  from  having  a
  clear and full view of the road and the condition of traffic behind such
  vehicle.
    13.  It  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person, firm or corporation to
  replace glass in doors, windows, or windshields of motor vehicles unless
  such replacement be made with safety glass.
    14. The term "safety glass" as used in this section shall be construed
  to mean any product composed of glass, so  manufactured,  fabricated  or
  treated  as  substantially to prevent shattering and flying of the glass
  when struck or broken, or such  other  or  similar  product  as  may  be
  approved by the commissioner.
    15.  The commissioner of motor vehicles shall maintain a list of types
  of glass approved  by  him  as  conforming  to  the  specifications  and
  requirements  for  safety  glass as set forth in this section, and shall
  not issue a license for or relicense any motor vehicle  subject  to  the
  provisions  of  subdivisions eleven and twelve unless such motor vehicle
  be equipped as therein provided with such approved type of glass.
    16. The owner and operator of any motor vehicle operated in  violation
  of the provisions of subdivisions eleven and twelve shall be guilty of a
  traffic infraction. In case of the violation of such subdivisions by any
  common  carrier  or person operating under a permit issued by the public
  service commission (or other authorized body  or  person),  said  permit
  shall  be  revoked, or, in the discretion of the commissioner, suspended
  until the provisions of such subdivisions  are  satisfactorily  complied
  with.
    17.  Every  omnibus  having  a  seating  capacity  of  more  than  ten
  passengers, every truck having a  maximum  gross  weight  in  excess  of
  twelve  thousand  pounds  and  every  combination of tractor and trailer
  operated upon a public highway shall carry emergency lighting  equipment
  ready  at  all  times for immediate use. The equipment of the vehicle or
  combination of vehicles may consist  of  flares  of  the  type  used  by
  railroads,   flaring   candles,   torches,  lanterns  or  red  emergency
  reflectors provided it is adequate to provide a  warning  light  in  all
  kinds  of weather both in front of and in the rear of the vehicle for at
  least eight hours. No red emergency reflector shall be  deemed  adequate
  within  the  meaning of this subdivision unless it is of a size and type
  approved by the commissioner, and  conforms  to  minimum  specifications
  established  by  him,  which  minimum shall not be less than the minimum
  established by the interstate commerce commission for buses  and  trucks
  in  interstate  commerce.  When  any  such  vehicle  or a combination of
  vehicles, except an omnibus which stops for the purpose of taking on  or
  discharging  passengers,  is parked or left standing on a public highway
  except within a city or incorporated village,  during  the  period  from
  one-half hour after sunset to one-half hour before sunrise, the operator
  of  such  vehicle  or  combination  of vehicles shall cause at least one
  light, or reflector or lighted flare to be  placed  on  the  highway  in
  front  of  such  vehicle  or  combination  of vehicles, and at least one
  light, reflector or lighted flare on the highway in  the  rear  of  such
  vehicle  or  combination  of vehicles at a distance of approximately one
  hundred feet in the front  of  and  at  the  rear  of  such  vehicle  or
  combination of vehicles, provided that if such vehicle is parked or left
  standing  within  three hundred feet of a curve, crest of hill, or other
  obstruction, the flare, candle, torch, lantern,  or  reflector  in  that
  direction shall be so placed as to afford ample warning to other highway
  users  but  in  no case less than approximately one hundred feet or more
  than approximately three hundred feet from the stopped vehicle.
    18. Except as otherwise provided  herein,  it  shall  be  unlawful  to
  operate on any public highway or street in this state any motor vehicle,
  or combination of motor vehicle and trailer, so constructed or so loaded
  that the driver thereof is unable to indicate clearly by hand signals to
  approaching  and following traffic his intention of stopping or turning,
  unless such motor vehicle or combination of vehicles shall  be  equipped
  with   directional  signals  approved  by  the  commissioner,  provided,
  however, it shall be unlawful  after  January  first,  nineteen  hundred
  fifty-two  to  operate on any public highway or street in this state any
  motor vehicle registered in this state, manufactured or assembled  after
  said  date  unless  such  vehicle  be  equipped with directional signals
  approved by the commissioner. It shall also be unlawful to fail to cause
  such signals to be maintained, at  all  times  in  good  and  sufficient
  working  order.  The  provisions  of this subdivision shall not apply to
  special purpose commercial motor vehicles registered under schedule F of
  subdivision  seven  of  section four hundred one of this chapter or to a
  vehicle or combination of vehicles lawfully operated under  registration
  issued,  under  section  four hundred fifteen of this chapter or under a
  similar provision of the law of another jurisdiction.
    18-a. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with and every  motor  vehicle
  registered  in  this  state  and  manufactured  or  assembled after June
  thirtieth, nineteen hundred sixty-five, and  designated  as  a  nineteen
  hundred  sixty-six  or  subsequent  year model, shall be equipped with a
  device, approved by the commissioner, by means of which the operator may
  cause  the  two  front  and  two  rear  directional  signals  to   flash
  simultaneously  for  the  purpose  of  warning  the  operators  of other
  vehicles of the presence of a vehicular  traffic  hazard  requiring  the
  exercise  of  unusual  care  in  approaching, overtaking or passing. The
  provisions of this subdivision requiring  that  certain  motor  vehicles
  shall be so equipped shall not apply to special purpose commercial motor
  vehicles  registered  under  schedule  F of subdivision seven of section
  four hundred one or to a vehicle or  combination  of  vehicles  lawfully
  operated under registration issued under section four hundred fifteen.
    19.  It  shall  be  unlawful for the owner to operate, park or stand a
  motor vehicle or trailer on any public highway or street in this  state,
  or  to authorize another to so operate, park or stand a motor vehicle or
  trailer, with the consent of such owner, expressed  or  implied,  unless
  such  motor  vehicle  or  trailer be equipped and lighted as provided by
  this  section  and  by  section  three  hundred  seventy-six,  and   the
  operation,  parking  or  standing  on a public highway or street in this
  state of a motor vehicle or trailer which is not so equipped and lighted
  or which is defectively equipped and lighted is hereby prohibited.
    20. Every omnibus  having  a  seating  capacity  of  more  than  seven
  passengers,  used  exclusively  to  transport pupils, teachers and other
  persons acting in a supervisory capacity to and from  school  or  school
  activities,  or  to  transport  children,  instructors  or other persons
  acting in  a  supervisory  capacity  to  and  from  child  care  centers
  maintained for migrant farm and food processing laborers or to transport
  children,  instructors or other persons acting in a supervisory capacity
  to  and  from  camp  or  camp  activities,  or  to  transport  children,
  instructors  or  other  persons  acting in a supervisory capacity to and
  from religious services or instruction shall be equipped in  the  manner
  provided  by  this  subdivision  and  any such omnibus used by any state
  facility or not-for-profit agency licensed by  the  state  and  used  to
  transport persons with disabilities, instructors or other persons acting
  in a supervisory capacity may be equipped in the manner provided by this
  subdivision:
    (a)  For  each  such  omnibus  having  a seating capacity in excess of
  fifteen  children,  there  shall  be  colored  flashing   signal   lamps
  conforming  to  regulations  prescribed by the commissioner on the front
  and on the rear thereof, including at least one flashing red signal lamp
  on the front thereof and at least one flashing red signal  lamp  on  the
  rear  thereof.    For each such omnibus having a seating capacity of not
  more than fifteen children, there shall be colored flashing signal lamps
  conforming to regulations prescribed  by  the  commissioner  facing  the
  front  and facing the rear thereof, and at least one flashing red signal
  lamp facing the front thereof and at least one flashing red signal  lamp
  facing  the  rear  thereof.  The driver of every such vehicle shall keep
  such red signal lamps lighted whenever passengers are being received  or
  discharged or whenever he has stopped within fifty feet to the rear of a
  vehicle  with  such  red signal lamps lighted, and shall light all other
  required signal lamps, as a warning, prior to  stopping  to  receive  or
  discharge  passengers  in  accordance with regulations prescribed by the
  commissioner.
    (b) (1)  In  addition  to  such  signal  lamps,  two  signs  shall  be
  conspicuously   displayed   on   the  exterior  of  every  such  omnibus
  designating it as a school omnibus by the use of the words "SCHOOL  BUS"
  which  shall be painted or otherwise inscribed thereon in black letters.
  Such letters shall be of uniform size, at least eight inches in  height,
  and each stroke of each letter shall be not less than one inch in width.
  The  background  of  each  such sign shall be painted the color known as
  "national school bus chrome." For each such  omnibus  having  a  seating
  capacity  in  excess  of  fifteen children, such signs shall be securely
  mounted on top of such vehicle, one of which shall  be  affixed  on  the
  front  and  one  on  the  rear  thereof.  For each such omnibus having a
  seating capacity of not more than fifteen children, such signs shall  be
  securely  mounted  on  top  of such vehicle, one of which shall face the
  front and one of which shall face the rear thereof. Each such sign shall
  be visible and readable from a point at least two hundred feet distant.
    (2) The universal handicapped symbol shall be conspicuously  displayed
  on  the  exterior of every omnibus equipped with a wheelchair lift which
  transports children with disabilities. The commissioner shall promulgate
  regulations  regarding  the  size  and  location   of   such   universal
  handicapped symbol.
    (c)  In  the event such vehicle is operated on a public highway during
  the period between one-half hour after sunset and one-half  hour  before
  sunrise,  the  signs required by paragraph (b) of this subdivision shall
  be illuminated as to be visible from a point at least five hundred  feet
  distant.
    (d) Every such omnibus shall be equipped as provided in paragraphs (a)
  and  (b)  of  this  subdivision,  and  such signs shall be displayed and
  illuminated  in  accordance  with  paragraphs  (b)  and  (c)   of   this
  subdivision,  and  such  signal  lamps  shall be operated as provided in
  paragraph (a) of this subdivision at all times when such  omnibus  shall
  be  engaged  in  transporting  pupils  to  and  from  school  or  school
  activities or in transporting children to and from  child  care  centers
  maintained for children of migrant farm and food processing laborers, or
  in  transporting  children  to  and  from  camp  or  camp  activities or
  transporting children to and from religious services or  instruction  or
  transporting  persons  with disabilities on any such omnibus used by any
  state facility or not-for-profit agency licensed by the state.
    (e) Every such omnibus, having its engine located ahead of the driver,
  with a seating capacity of more than twelve  school  children  shall  be
  equipped  with  a  mirror,  convex  in  shape,  at least eight inches in
  diameter, firmly mounted at hood, windshield  or  fender-top  height  in
  front  of  the bus. It shall be located on either the left or right side
  of the bus in such manner that the seated driver may observe through its
  use the road from the front bumper forward to  the  point  where  direct
  observation is possible.
    (f)  The  commissioner  of  motor  vehicles  is  hereby authorized and
  empowered to adopt and, from time to time, to  amend  such  regulations,
  not  inconsistent  with  this  subdivision, governing the color, number,
  size, type, construction and use of such signal lamps and signs,  as  he
  may  deem necessary for public safety. On and after July first, nineteen
  hundred fifty-one, no such signal lamp or sign shall be deemed to comply
  with the requirements of this subdivision unless it is  of  a  size  and
  type  approved  by  the  commissioner and unless it shall conform to the
  specifications prescribed and promulgated by him.
    (g)  In  the  event, however, that such an omnibus, equipped as herein
  provided, shall cease to be used  to  transport  pupils  or  pupils  and
  teachers  or  children of migrant laborers and migrant child care center
  instructors, or children and camp instructors, the  equipment,  markings
  and  paint,  herein  provided  for,  shall be removed and changed within
  fifteen  days  after  relicense.  Nothing  contained  in  this  section,
  however,  shall  be  deemed  to  waive  any  other  requirements  as  to
  equipment, markings and paint, contained in this chapter.
    (h) All the provisions of this chapter relating to school buses  shall
  apply with equal force and effect to buses used in transporting children
  and  instructors  to and from child care centers maintained for children
  of migrant farm and food  processing  laborers  and  to  buses  used  in
  transporting  children  to and from camp or camp activities and to buses
  used  in  transporting  children  to  and  from  religious  services  or
  instruction.  As used in this subdivision, camp or camp activities shall
  mean day camp or day camp activities respectively.
    (i) Every omnibus subject to the provisions of this subdivision  shall
  be  operated  with headlights and taillights illuminated at all times of
  day or night.
    (j)  The  commissioner  of  transportation,  in  his  discretion,   by
  regulation  or  upon  written  request,  by departmental order, for good
  cause, may exempt any school bus that  does  not  receive  or  discharge
  passengers on or along the public highways on regularly scheduled routes
  from  the  requirements  of any or all paragraphs of subdivisions twenty
  and twenty-one of this section.
    (k) All omnibuses manufactured or  assembled  prior  to  April  first,
  nineteen   hundred  seventy-seven  and  all  omnibuses  manufactured  or
  assembled after April first, nineteen hundred seventy-seven which do not
  meet federal standards for school bus safety, shall be phased out of use
  beginning  with  the  nineteen  hundred   ninety-six--nineteen   hundred
  ninety-seven   school   year   and  ending  with  the  nineteen  hundred
  ninety-seven--nineteen hundred ninety-eight school year. In each of such
  school years, at least one-half of such omnibuses shall be retired  from
  use  according  to  the  following  formula:  in  the  nineteen  hundred
  ninety-six--nineteen  hundred  ninety-seven  school  year,  the  minimum
  number of such omnibuses to be phased out of each owner/operator's fleet
  shall  be  the total number of such omnibuses divided by two and rounded
  upwards to the nearest whole number. All such omnibuses remaining  shall
  be  phased  out  in  the nineteen hundred ninety-seven--nineteen hundred
  ninety-eight school year.
    Notwithstanding  the  foregoing  provisions  of  this  paragraph   the
  commissioner of education may make exceptions on a case by case basis if
  a  school  district  certifies  to  the commissioner of education that a
  certain omnibus should not be retired for reason  of  economic  hardship
  and  the  commissioner of transportation determines upon inspection that
  such omnibus is in good working order. In making his determination,  the
  commissioner  of  transportation  shall  consider,  among other relevant
  factors, the relative age and structure of each such omnibus. When  such
  determination  is  made,  every  such  omnibus  so  certified  shall  be
  reinspected by the commissioner of transportation once every six months.
  Any school district receiving an exemption from the provisions  of  this
  paragraph for any omnibus shall provide to the commissioner of education
  an annual recertification of economic hardship.
    (l)(1)  Every such omnibus used on a regular basis to transport pupils
  with a disability on a regularly scheduled route shall, with the written
  consent of the parent,  guardian,  or  person  in  a  position  of  loco
  parentis,  have  maintained  on  such  omnibus the following information
  about each such pupil:
    (i) name;
    (ii) nature of the disability; and
    (iii)  the  name  of  such  pupil's  parent,  guardian, or person in a
  position of loco parentis and one or more telephone numbers  where  such
  person  can  be  reached  in an emergency, and/or the name and telephone
  number of any other person designated by such parent, guardian or person
  in a position of loco parentis as a person who can be  contacted  in  an
  emergency.
    (2)  Such  information  shall  be  used  solely  for  the  purpose  of
  contacting such pupil's parent, guardian, person in a position  of  loco
  parentis, or designee in the event of an emergency involving such pupil,
  shall  be  kept  in a manner which retains the privacy of the pupil, and
  shall not be accessible to any person other than the driver or a teacher
  acting in a supervisory capacity. Provided, however, that in  the  event
  that  such  driver  or teacher is incapacitated, such information may be
  accessed by any emergency services provider for the  purpose  authorized
  by this subparagraph.
    (3)  Such  information  shall  be updated as needed, but at least once
  each school year. Such  information  shall  be  destroyed  if:  parental
  consent  is  revoked;  the  pupil no longer attends such school; or, the
  disability no longer exists.
    (4) For the purposes of this paragraph, the  term  "disability"  shall
  mean  a  physical  or mental impairment that substantially limits one or
  more of the major life activities of a pupil, whether of a temporary  or
  permanent nature.
    21.  Every  motor vehicle having a seating capacity of more than seven
  passengers, and  used  primarily  to  transport  pupils  or  pupils  and
  teachers  to  and  from  school,  shall  be  painted  the color known as
  "national school bus chrome."
    In the event, however, such a motor vehicle so painted shall cease  to
  be  used  to transport pupils or pupils and teachers, the color of paint
  herein provided for, shall be changed to another color,  within  fifteen
  days of relicense.
    21-a.  In  any  case  where  a New York state police or New York city,
  Albany,  Buffalo,  Rochester,  Syracuse  or  Yonkers  police  department
  vehicle  is  painted a distinctive color which would designate it in the
  public's view as such a state or city police vehicle, the  purchaser  of
  such  vehicle  shall  cause the color of its paint to be altered and any
  designated markings to be removed within fifteen days of registration.
    21-b. The commissioner shall promulgate rules and regulations for  the
  use of two-way radios on school buses.
    21-c.  The  commissioner,  in  consultation  with  the commissioner of
  transportation, shall promulgate rules and regulations for  the  use  of
  stop-arms  on  school  buses which shall include provisions for a second
  stop-arm to be located on the driver's side as close as is practical  to
  the rear corner of the bus. Every school bus designed with a capacity of
  forty-five persons or more, and manufactured for use in this state on or
  after  January  first,  two thousand two shall be equipped with a second
  stop-arm in compliance with such regulations.
    21-d. The commissioner shall promulgate rules and regulations for  the
  use of back up beepers on school buses.
    21-e.  The commissioner shall promulgate rules and regulations for the
  use of front crossing arms on school buses.
    21-f. The commissioner shall promulgate rules and regulations for  the
  use of safety sensor devices on school buses.
    21-g.  Every school bus manufactured for use in this state after April
  first, nineteen hundred ninety, shall be equipped with back-up beepers.
    * 21-h.  It  shall  be unlawful for any motor vehicle having a seating
  capacity of more than seven passengers, and used primarily to  transport
  pupils  or pupils and teachers to and from school to be mounted with, or
  have placed or installed thereon any  sign,  placard  or  other  display
  except  as  provided  by  law. Provided, however, that the provisions of
  this subdivision shall not apply to such motor vehicles operating  in  a
  city with a population of one million or more.
    * NB There are 2 sub. 21-h's
    * 21-h.  (a) Every school bus manufactured for use in this state on or
  after April  first,  two  thousand,  shall  be  equipped  with  exterior
  reflective   markings  which  comply  with  the  rules  and  regulations
  promulgated by the  commissioner  pursuant  to  paragraph  (c)  of  this
  subdivision.
    (b)  Every school bus used to transport ten or more passengers in this
  state on or after September first, two thousand two, shall  be  equipped
  with  exterior  reflective  markings  which  comply  with  the rules and
  regulations promulgated by the commissioner pursuant to paragraph (c) of
  this subdivision.
    (c) The  commissioner  shall  promulgate  rules  and  regulations  for
  exterior  reflective  markings  required to be attached on school buses.
  Such rules and regulations:
    (1) shall  require  the  rear  of  school  buses  to  be  marked  with
  reflective  material to outline the perimeter of the back of the bus and
  of the rear emergency exit;
    (2) shall require the horizontal application of strips  of  reflective
  material,  not  less  than one and three-quarters inches wide, above the
  rear windows, and above the rear bumper  from  the  edges  of  the  rear
  emergency  exit  door  to  both  corners of the school bus with vertical
  strips of reflective material at each corner connected to the horizontal
  strips;
    (3) shall require the horizontal application of strips  of  reflective
  material,  not  less than one and three-quarters inches wide, the entire
  length of the sides of the  school  bus  body  and  located  equidistant
  between the floorline and the beltline of the bus; and
    (4)  may  require  the  marking  of the front, rear or both bumpers of
  school buses with reflective material between one and three-quarters and
  two and one-quarter inches wide applied thereto at a  forty-five  degree
  angle to the center line of the road surface.
    * NB There are 2 sub. 21-h's
    21-i. (a) (1) Every school bus manufactured on or after January first,
  nineteen  hundred ninety, fueled with other than diesel fuel and used to
  transport three or more students who use wheelchairs or other  assistive
  mobility  devices or with a total capacity of more than eight passengers
  and used to transport students who use wheelchairs  or  other  assistive
  mobility  devices  shall  be  equipped  with  an  automatic  engine fire
  extinguishing system.
    (2) Every school bus manufactured for use in this state  on  or  after
  September  first, two thousand seven fueled with diesel fuel and used to
  transport three or more students who use wheelchairs or other  assistive
  mobility  devices or with a total capacity of more than eight passengers
  and used to transport students who use wheelchairs  or  other  assistive
  mobility  devices  shall  be  equipped  with  an  automatic  engine fire
  extinguishing system.
    (b)  The  commissioner  of  the  department  of  transportation  shall
  promulgate  rules  and regulations establishing standards for the use of
  automatic engine fire extinguishing systems  on  school  buses  used  to
  transport  students  who  use  wheelchairs  or  other assistive mobility
  devices.
    22.  It  shall  be unlawful to operate a motor vehicle upon the public
  highways of this state which is equipped with  any  glass  which  is  so
  broken, fractured or discolored as to distort visibility.
    23.  Every motor vehicle operated for hire upon the public highways of
  this state shall be equipped with handles or other devices  which  shall
  permit  the  door  or  doors  to the passenger compartment to be readily
  opened from the interior of the vehicle.
    24. It shall be unlawful to operate upon any public  highway  in  this
  state  a motor vehicle which is equipped with a television receiving set
  within view of the operator or in which a television receiving set is in
  operation within the view of the operator. A motor vehicle shall not  be
  deemed  to  be  equipped  with a television receiving set solely because
  such set utilizes power  from  such  vehicle.  The  provisions  of  this
  subdivision  shall  not prohibit a vehicle with a weight of ten thousand
  pounds or more or a school  bus  from  using  closed-circuit  television
  receiving  equipment exclusively for safety and maneuvering purposes, in
  accordance with regulations to be established by the commissioner.
    24-a. It shall be unlawful to operate upon any public highway in  this
  state a motor vehicle, limited use automobile, limited use motorcycle or
  bicycle while the operator is wearing more than one earphone attached to
  a radio, tape player or other audio device.
    25.  (a)  On  and  after  the  first  day of January, nineteen hundred
  seventy-four it shall be unlawful to operate on any  public  highway  or
  street  in this state any tractor, commercial motor vehicle, combination
  of  a  commercial  motor  vehicle  and  trailer,  or  combination  of  a
  truck-tractor  and  semi-trailer which is not so constructed or equipped
  as reasonably to bar water or other road surface substances  from  being
  thrown  by the rearmost wheels beyond the extreme rear of the vehicle or
  combination of vehicles, and to minimize side spray.
    (b) Unless  the  commercial  vehicle  or  combination  vehicle  is  so
  designed  or  constructed  to  accomplish  the  objectives  set forth in
  paragraph  (a)  of  this  subdivision  by  reason  of  fender  or   body
  construction or other means of enclosure, any such commercial vehicle or
  combination  vehicle  shall  be  equipped,  on  and after January first,
  nineteen hundred fifty-seven, with splash guards  and  stone  deflectors
  which  shall  be  composed  of materials substantial enough to withstand
  ripping or tearing by ordinary means and withstand  the  action  of  the
  elements  for  a reasonable length of time. Such splash guards and stone
  deflectors shall also have a reasonable degree of  flexibility  and  the
  distance  from  the  lower  end  thereof  to the ground shall not exceed
  one-third of the distance, measured along the ground, from the bottom of
  the splash guard to the point of contact of the rear wheel.
    (c) The commissioner  of  motor  vehicles  is  hereby  authorized  and
  empowered  to  make  rules and regulations with respect to splash guards
  and stone deflectors, their type and construction, manner of  attachment
  to  vehicles and all other matters requisite for the proper effectuation
  of  the  purposes  of  this  subdivision.  In  making  such  rules   and
  regulations  the  commissioner  shall  be  guided by the desirability of
  uniformity in requirements  with  regard  to  splash  guards  and  stone
  deflectors among the several states.
    (d)  The  provisions  of  this  subdivision  shall  not apply to motor
  vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers registered pursuant to  subdivision
  thirteen  of  section four hundred one of this chapter, and not operated
  upon the public highways in excess of one and one-half miles  by  direct
  route  between  farms  or  portions  of  farms  under  single  or common
  ownership or operation.
    26. A gong or siren whistle shall not be used  on  any  vehicle  other
  than  an  authorized  emergency  vehicle. This shall not be construed to
  apply to a gong or siren designed and used solely as a burglar alarm  on
  a vehicle.
    27.  When  a  vehicle  (a)  has  a crane, boom or other similar device
  attached or (b) is loaded with  any  material,  and  such  crane,  boom,
  device or material extends four feet or more beyond the front or rear of
  such  vehicle,  such  vehicle shall be provided with a red flag not less
  than twenty-four inches square by day and a red light visible  from  the
  rear  and  an  amber  light  visible from the front for a distance of at
  least five hundred feet by night on the extreme  end  of  the  extending
  portion of such crane, boom, device or material.
    28.  No  person  shall  operate  upon a public highway a vehicle which
  emits unnecessary smoke or unnecessary offensive vapors.
    28-a. Except as permitted  or  authorized  by  law,  no  person  shall
  remove,  dismantle or otherwise cause to be inoperative any equipment or
  feature constituting an operational element of  a  motor  vehicle's  air
  pollution  control  system or mechanism required by federal or state law
  or by any rules or regulations promulgated pursuant thereto.
    28-b. Except where inconsistent with federal law, every motor  vehicle
  registered  in  this  state  and  manufactured  or  assembled after June
  thirty, nineteen hundred sixty-three shall be equipped with a  crankcase
  ventilating  system  of  a  type  approved  by the state commissioner of
  environmental conservation for the purpose of reducing the  emission  of
  pollutants  into the atmosphere. Such system shall be maintained in good
  working order in continued conformity with standards promulgated by  the
  state  commissioner  of  environmental conservation. For the purposes of
  this subdivision the term "motor vehicle" shall exclude  diesel  powered
  motor  vehicles,  motorcycles,  vehicles  driven  by  electric power and
  special purpose commercial motor vehicles registered under  paragraph  F
  of subdivision seven of section four hundred one of this chapter.
    28-c.   Except   where   inconsistent  with  federal  law,  rules  and
  regulations,  every  motor  vehicle  registered  in   this   state   and
  manufactured   or   assembled   after   June  thirty,  nineteen  hundred
  sixty-seven and known as a nineteen hundred  sixty-eight  or  subsequent
  model  shall be equipped with an air contaminant emission control system
  of  a  type  approved  by  the  state  commissioner   of   environmental
  conservation.  Such systems shall be maintained in good working order in
  continued conformity with emission standards promulgated  by  the  state
  commissioner  of  environmental  conservation.  For the purposes of this
  subdivision, "air contaminant emission control systems" may include, but
  shall  not  be  limited  to,  exhaust  control  systems   and   gasoline
  evaporation  control  systems  but  shall  exclude crankcase ventilating
  systems.
    28-d. The state commissioner of environmental conservation may  exempt
  or  partially  exempt from the provisions of subdivisions twenty-eight-b
  and twenty-eight-c of this section any type or class  of  motor  vehicle
  for  which  no  practical  control  systems  have  been developed or are
  necessary.
    28-e. Standards and exemptions established by the  state  commissioner
  of  environmental  conservation pursuant to subdivisions twenty-eight-b,
  twenty-eight-c and twenty-eight-d of this section, shall  be  consistent
  with applicable federal laws and regulations.
    28-f.  (a)  Except  where  inconsistent  with  federal  law, rules and
  regulations, in addition to any air contaminant emission control systems
  required by  subdivisions  twenty-eight-b  and  twenty-eight-c  of  this
  section,   the   commissioner   of  environmental  conservation  may  by
  regulation require the installation of exhaust emission control  devices
  in  proper  working  condition  on  all  or any vehicles of any class or
  classes of gasoline powered motor vehicle having  a  registered  maximum
  gross  weight  in  excess  of  six  thousand pounds. The commissioner of
  environmental  conservation  shall  not  promulgate  any such regulation
  unless he (i) has determined, with the concurrence of the  commissioner,
  that  any  such  device is, or devices are, effective and reliable, (ii)
  has determined that the installation of any such device on  all  or  any
  vehicles  of  such  class  or classes is necessary to the achievement of
  federal ambient air  quality  standards  pursuant  to  an  approved  air
  quality  implementation  plan  adopted pursuant to the federal clean air
  act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq.) and (iii) has  determined  that
  the  effect  of  such regulation will not be diluted by the absence of a
  comparable requirement in an adjoining state;  provided,  however,  that
  the  effective  date of the requirements of such regulation shall not be
  prior to the approval or promulgation of a transportation  control  plan
  pursuant  to  the Federal clean air act as amended for those portions of
  adjoining states designated as the territorial areas  forming  parts  of
  the  New  Jersey-New  York-Connecticut  Interstate  Air  Quality Control
  Region under such act and not prior to the effective date of  comparable
  requirements  for such vehicles registered in, required to be registered
  in, or operated in any such portions. Any such  requirement  shall  take
  effect with respect to any such motor vehicle as of the date of issuance
  of  a registration for such vehicle in the year next succeeding the date
  on which the regulation requiring the installation of such a  device  is
  promulgated by the commissioner of environmental conservation, but in no
  event prior to March first, nineteen hundred seventy-six.
    (b)  The  provisions  of paragraph (a) of this subdivision shall apply
  only to gasoline  powered  vehicles  which  are  registered  in  or  are
  required  by  law  to  be  registered  pursuant  to subdivision seven of
  section four hundred one of this chapter in, or are  regularly  operated
  in  that portion of the state designated as the territorial area forming
  part   of   the   New   Jersey-New   York-Connecticut   Interstate   Air
  Quality-Control  Region  under the federal clean air act, as amended (42
  U.S.C. 1857 et seq.) or any part of such region.
    (c) Whenever a motor vehicle registered pursuant to subdivision  seven
  of  section  four  hundred  one  of  this  chapter  is not required by a
  regulation promulgated pursuant to this subdivision, to have an  exhaust
  emission  control  device installed in accordance with this subdivision,
  the applicant for registration for  any  such  motor  vehicle  shall  be
  required  to  file  a  statement  as  prescribed  by the commissioner in
  conjunction with such  registration  that  such  motor  vehicle  is  not
  required  to  have  such a device. A false statement in relation to such
  exemption shall constitute a material false statement in an  application
  for registration.
    (d)  A  notation  on the registration for a vehicle and an identifying
  sticker on the vehicle, both of which  indicate  that  such  vehicle  is
  required to have an exhaust emission control device shall be presumptive
  evidence  that  such  device  in proper working condition is required on
  that vehicle pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subdivision.
    (e) The rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to paragraph (a) of
  this subdivision shall contain provisions necessary  or  appropriate  to
  implement  this  subdivision,  including  the  definition  of  terms and
  exemptions  for  motor  vehicles  registered  in  areas  from  which  no
  substantial  numbers  of  motor  vehicles  are regularly operated in the
  portion of the state referred to in paragraph (b) of this subdivision.
    (f) No registered owner shall permit a motor vehicle, required to have
  an exhaust emission control device in proper working condition  pursuant
  to  the provisions of this subdivision, to be operated in the portion of
  the state to which this subdivision is applicable, unless  such  vehicle
  is  equipped  with an approved exhaust emission control device in proper
  working condition.  Every  person  convicted  of  a  violation  of  this
  paragraph  shall  for  a  first  violation  thereof  with  respect  to a
  particular motor vehicle be punished by a fine of  seven  hundred  fifty
  dollars.  Such  fine may not be waived, suspended or in any other manner
  not levied, except that four hundred fifty dollars of such fine  may  be
  waived  upon  presentation  of  acceptable  evidence  prior to the final
  determination of the violation that  the  device  required  pursuant  to
  paragraph  (a) of this subdivision has been installed on the vehicle and
  is in proper working condition. Every person convicted of  a  second  or
  subsequent  violation  with  respect  to  a  particular vehicle shall be
  punished by a fine of seven hundred fifty dollars, which fine may not be
  waived, suspended or in any other manner not levied.
    29. (a) A motor vehicle shall not be used to tow more than  one  other
  vehicle.
    (b)   Notwithstanding   the   provisions  of  paragraph  (a)  of  this
  subdivision, the following  vehicles  or  combination  of  vehicles  are
  permitted to be operated in New York state:
    1.  Municipal  garbage  or  ash collecting systems consisting of three
  vehicles;
    2. A tow truck or  wrecker  being  used  to  tow  a  disabled  tractor
  semitrailer combination;
    3.  A  tractor being used to tow a semitrailer and trailer outside the
  city of New York or counties of Nassau and Suffolk or on any  qualifying
  highway  or  access  highway  within the city of New York or counties of
  Nassau or Suffolk;
    3-a. A tractor semitrailer-semitrailer combination of  vehicles  where
  the  two  semitrailers  are  connected  by  a  B-train assembly and such
  combinations of vehicles is operated outside the city  of  New  York  or
  counties  of  Nassau  and Suffolk or on any qualifying highway or access
  highway within the city of New York or counties of Nassau or Suffolk;
    4.  Subject  to  rules  and  regulations  of   the   commissioner   of
  transportation,  a  combination  of  an automotive powered cab and truck
  chassis being used  to  tow  two  such  additional  vehicles  in  double
  saddle-mount   fashion,   each   mounted  upon  a  device  designed  and
  constructed so as to be readily  dismountable  and  which  performs  the
  function  of a conventional fifth wheel, so that while all the wheels of
  the towing powered chassis touch the roadway, only  the  wheels  on  the
  rear axle of each of the towed vehicles are in contact with the roadway;
  and
    5.   Subject   to   rules  and  regulations  of  the  commissioner  of
  transportation, a combination of an automotive  powered  cab  and  truck
  chassis  being  used  to  tow  three  such additional vehicles in triple
  saddle-mount fashion on a qualifying or  access  highway,  each  mounted
  upon  a device designed and constructed so as to be readily dismountable
  and which performs the function of a conventional fifth wheel,  so  that
  while  all  the  wheels of the towing powered chassis touch the roadway,
  only the wheels on the rear axle of each of the towed  vehicles  are  in
  contact with the roadway.
    (c)  No vehicle shall be towed by a rope or other non-rigid connection
  which is longer than sixteen feet.
    (d) A  motor  vehicle  being  towed  by  a  rope  or  other  non-rigid
  connection  must  have a licensed driver in such motor vehicle who shall
  steer it when it is being towed.
    29-a. No vehicle or mobile equipment shall be towed with the use of  a
  dolly  unless  the  dolly, vehicle or mobile equipment is secured to the
  towing vehicle by safety chains or cables which will prevent the  dolly,
  vehicle  or mobile equipment from separating from the towing vehicle and
  the towed vehicle or mobile equipment is securely fastened to the dolly.
  Dolly shall mean a multi-wheel device utilized to  raise  a  part  of  a
  towed  vehicle  or  mobile  equipment while it is being towed by another
  vehicle.
    30. It shall be unlawful for any person to  operate  a  motor  vehicle
  with  any  object placed or hung in or upon the vehicle, except required
  or permitted equipment of the vehicle, in such a manner as  to  obstruct
  or interfere with the view of the operator through the windshield, or to
  prevent  him from having a clear and full view of the road and condition
  of traffic behind such vehicle.
    31. Mufflers and exhaust systems. Prevention  of  noise.  Every  motor
  vehicle, operated or driven upon the highways of the state, shall at all
  times  be  equipped  with  an  adequate  muffler  and  exhaust system in
  constant operation and properly maintained to prevent any  excessive  or
  unusual  noise  and  no such muffler or exhaust system shall be equipped
  with a cut-out, bypass, or similar device. No person  shall  modify  the
  muffler  or  exhaust  system  of  a motor vehicle in a manner which will
  amplify or increase the noise emitted by the motor or exhaust system  of
  such  vehicle  above  that  emitted  by  the  muffler  or exhaust system
  originally installed on  the  vehicle  and  such  original  muffler  and
  exhaust system shall comply with all the requirements of this section.
    A  muffler  is  a  device consisting of a series of chambers or baffle
  plates, or other mechanical design for the purpose of receiving  exhaust
  gas from an internal combustion engine, and effective in reducing noise.
    An exhaust system is a series of mechanical devices for the purpose of
  receiving  exhaust  gas from an internal combustion engine and expelling
  it into the atmosphere.
    31-a. No person shall, in the state, sell, install or use a motorcycle
  exhaust device without internal baffles, known as "straight pipes".
    31-b. No person shall, in the state, sell, install or use a motorcycle
  exhaust device that is intentionally designed to allow for the  internal
  baffling  to  be  fully  or  partially  removed or interchangeable. This
  subdivision shall not apply to a motorcycle  manufactured  or  assembled
  prior  to  nineteen hundred seventy-nine or a motorcycle registered as a
  limited use vehicle or  an  all  terrain  vehicle  pursuant  to  article
  forty-eight-A or forty-eight-B of this chapter.
    32.  The  violation  of  any  of  the  provisions of this section with
  respect to adequate brakes except those relating to  emergency  or  hand
  brakes  shall  constitute  a misdemeanor and the violation of any of the
  other provisions of this section, including those relating to  emergency
  or  hand brakes, shall be punishable by a fine not exceeding one hundred
  fifty dollars or by imprisonment for not exceeding thirty  days,  or  by
  both such fine and imprisonment, except as herein otherwise provided.
    33.  The provisions of this section shall not apply to fire and police
  vehicles,  self-propelled  combines,   self-propelled   corn   and   hay
  harvesting   machines,   farm   type   tractors   used  exclusively  for
  agricultural purposes or for snow  plowing  other  than  for  hire,  and
  self-propelled   caterpillar   or  crawler-type  equipment  while  being
  operated on the contract site except when reference is specifically made
  to such vehicle.
    34. Any motor vehicle may be equipped with and every passenger vehicle
  registered in this state and manufactured  or  assembled  after  January
  first,  nineteen hundred sixty-nine, shall be equipped with at least one
  back-up light. Such light shall display a white light to the  rear  when
  the ignition switch is energized and reverse gear is engaged. Such light
  shall not be lighted when the motor vehicle is in forward motion.
    35.  Tires.  (a)  The  commissioner  may  establish  standards for the
  manufacture, regrooving or retreading of tires  which  are  produced  or
  sold  in  this  state,  and for the use of tires on vehicles operated in
  this state.
    (b)  No  tire  shall be manufactured, distributed, offered for sale or
  sold in this state if it does not comply with the standards  established
  by  the  commissioner  pursuant  to paragraph (a) of this subdivision. A
  violation of this paragraph shall be punishable as a misdemeanor.
    (c) No person shall operate a motor vehicle or a trailer on  a  public
  highway  if  such  vehicle  is  equipped with tires that do not meet the
  standards established by the commissioner pursuant to paragraph  (a)  of
  this subdivision.
    35-a.  It  shall  be  unlawful  to  operate a motor vehicle or trailer
  equipped with tires having metal objects protruding from the tire  tread
  upon any public highway. The prohibition contained in this section shall
  not  apply  to pneumatic tires containing metal type studs, the diameter
  of  which  studs  inclusive  of  the  stud  casing   does   not   exceed
  three-eighths  of  an  inch  and  which do not protrude beyond the tread
  surface of such tires more than three thirty-seconds of an inch and  the
  contact  area  of which does not exceed three-fourths of one per cent of
  the total nominal contact area of said tires determined  by  multiplying
  the circumference of the outer most edge of tread times the tread width,
  except that no vehicle equipped with such tires, other than school buses
  and state or municipally-owned vehicles, may operate on a public highway
  during  the  period  from  the  first day of May to the fifteenth day of
  October, inclusive.
    36. (a) The slow-moving vehicle emblem as developed  by  the  American
  Society  of  Agricultural  Engineers shall be recognized as the official
  state slow moving vehicle emblem. The  commissioner  of  motor  vehicles
  shall  adopt  standards and specifications for design, creation and use,
  in conformance with those recommendations of  the  American  Society  of
  Agricultural  Engineers  for  the  size,  design  and  mounting  of said
  slow-moving vehicle emblem.
    (b) Farm machinery and implements of  husbandry  and  other  machinery
  including  road  construction  and  maintenance  machinery  designed  to
  operate at twenty-five miles per hour or less,  traveling  on  a  public
  highway during day or night shall display on and after January 1, 1972 a
  slow-moving  vehicle  emblem  as  specified  in  paragraph  (a)  of this
  subdivision. Such emblem may be displayed prior to January  1,  1972  in
  accordance with regulations issued by the commissioner.
    (c)  The  use  of  such  emblem  shall  be in addition to any lighting
  devices, flags or other equipment required by law. Such emblem shall  be
  used  only  on  farm  machinery  and  implements  of  husbandry  on road
  construction and maintenance machinery,  and  on  such  other  vehicles,
  machinery and equipment as may be specified in regulations issued by the
  commissioner.  All use shall be in accordance with such regulations. Use
  of  such  emblem  as  a clearance marker or on stationary objects on the
  highways is prohibited.
    37.  The  commissioner  shall   promulgate   rules   and   regulations
  prescribing  appropriate  cautionary  devices  to  be  affixed  to motor
  vehicles  engaged  in  retail  sales  of  frozen  desserts  directly  to
  consumers  which  shall  include,  but not be limited to, front crossing
  arms to be activated only when such vehicle is stopped and its occupants
  are engaged in such retail sales. Such rules and  regulations  shall  be
  designed  to  warn oncoming vehicles of the likelihood of pedestrians in
  or about the vicinity of such sales oriented motor vehicles.  No  person
  shall  engage  in  the  retail  sale by motor vehicle of frozen desserts
  directly  to  consumers  in  violation  of  the  rules  and  regulations
  promulgated  by  the  commissioner. As used in this subdivision, "frozen
  desserts" shall mean ice cream, frozen custard, French ice cream, French
  custard  ice  cream,  artificially  sweetened  ice  cream,   ice   milk,
  artificially sweetened ice milk, fruit sherbet, non-fruit sherbet, water
  ices,  non-fruit  water ices, quiescently frozen confection, quiescently
  frozen dairy confection, manufactured desserts mix,  frozen  confection,
  mellorine  frozen dessert, parevine, frozen yogurt, freezer made shakes,
  freezer made milk shakes, lo-mel, and dietary frozen dessert as all such
  products are commonly known, together with any mix used in  such  frozen
  desserts and any products which are similar in appearance, odor or taste
  to  such  products,  or  are  prepared  or frozen as frozen desserts are
  customarily prepared or frozen, whether  made  with  dairy  products  or
  non-dairy products.
    39.  Every  motor vehicle registered in this state and manufactured or
  assembled after October first,  nineteen  hundred  sixty-four  shall  be
  equipped  with  a  defrosting  device,  in  good  working order, for the
  purpose of preventing the formation of snow or  ice  on  the  windshield
  directly  in front of the operator. For the purposes of this subdivision
  the term  "motor  vehicle"  shall  exclude  motorcycles,  tractors  used
  exclusively   for   agricultural   purposes,   self-propelled  combines,
  self-propelled harvesting machines and farm equipment and self-propelled
  caterpillar or  crawler-type  equipment  while  being  operated  on  the
  contract site.
    40. Stop lamps. (a) Every motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, operated
  or  driven  upon the public highways of the state, if manufactured prior
  to January first, nineteen hundred fifty-two, shall be equipped with  at
  least  one stop lamp which shall display a red to amber light visible at
  least five hundred feet from the rear of the vehicle when the  brake  of
  such vehicle is applied.
    (b)  Every motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, operated or driven upon
  the public highways of the state, if manufactured on  or  after  January
  first,  nineteen  hundred fifty-two, shall be equipped with at least two
  stop lamps, one on each side, each of which shall display a red to amber
  light visible at least five hundred feet from the rear  of  the  vehicle
  when the brake of such vehicle is applied.
    41.  Colored  and  flashing lights. The provisions of this subdivision
  shall govern the affixing and display of lights on vehicles, other  than
  those lights required by law. 1. No light, other than a white light, and
  no revolving, rotating, flashing, oscillating or constantly moving white
  light  shall  be  affixed  to,  or  displayed  on  any vehicle except as
  prescribed herein.
    2. Red lights and certain white lights. One or more red or combination
  red and white lights, or one white light  which  must  be  a  revolving,
  rotating,  flashing,  oscillating  or  constantly  moving  light, may be
  affixed to an authorized emergency  vehicle,  and  such  lights  may  be
  displayed  on  an  authorized  emergency  vehicle  when  such vehicle is
  engaged in an  emergency  operation,  and  upon  a  fire  vehicle  while
  returning from an alarm of fire or other emergency.
    3.  Amber  lights.  a.  One  or  more amber lights may be affixed to a
  hazard vehicle, and such a light or lights which display an amber  light
  visible  to  all approaching traffic under normal atmospheric conditions
  from a distance  of  five  hundred  feet  from  such  vehicle  shall  be
  displayed  on  a  hazard  vehicle  when  such  vehicle  is  engaged in a
  hazardous operation.  Such light or lights shall not be required  to  be
  displayed  during daylight hours provided at least two red flags visible
  from a distance of five hundred feet are placed both in or on the  front
  of,  and  to or on the rear of the vehicle and two such flags are placed
  to each side of the vehicle open to traffic. Such lights or  flags  need
  not  be  displayed  on  the  vehicle  when  the vehicle is operating, or
  parked, within a barricaded work area  and  said  lights  or  flags  are
  displayed on the barricade. The provisions of this subdivision shall not
  prohibit the temporary affixing and display of an amber light to be used
  as  a warning on a disabled motor vehicle or on a motor vehicle while it
  is stopped on a highway  while  engaged  in  an  operation  which  would
  restrict, impede or interfere with the normal flow of traffic.
    b.  In  any  city  in this state having a population of one million or
  more, one amber light may be affixed  to  any  motor  vehicle  owned  or
  operated  by  a  volunteer member of a civilian or crime patrol provided
  such volunteer civilian or crime patrol member has  been  authorized  in
  writing  to  so  affix  an amber light by the police commissioner of the
  municipality in which he patrols, which authorization shall  be  subject
  to revocation at any time by the police commissioner who issued the same
  or  his  successor  in  office. Such amber light may be operated by such
  volunteer civilian or crime patrol member in such a  vehicle  only  when
  engaged  in  a  patrol  operation as defined and authorized by rules and
  regulations promulgated by the police commissioner and only  in  such  a
  manner and at such times as may be authorized by the police commissioner
  pursuant to said rules and regulations.
    4.  Blue  light.  One  blue  light may be affixed to any motor vehicle
  owned by a volunteer member of a fire department or on a  motor  vehicle
  owned by a member of such person's family residing in the same household
  or  by  a  business  enterprise  in  which such person has a proprietary
  interest or by which he or she  is  employed,  provided  such  volunteer
  firefighter  has  been authorized in writing to so affix a blue light by
  the chief of the fire department or company of which  he  or  she  is  a
  member,  which  authorization shall be subject to revocation at any time
  by the chief who issued the same or his or her successor in office. Such
  blue light may be displayed exclusively by such volunteer firefighter on
  such a vehicle only when engaged in an emergency operation. The  use  of
  blue  and  red  light  combinations  shall  be  prohibited  on  all fire
  vehicles. The use of blue lights on fire vehicles  shall  be  prohibited
  and  the use of blue lights on vehicles shall be restricted for use only
  by a volunteer firefighter as provided for in this paragraph.
    5. Green light. One green light may be affixed to  any  motor  vehicle
  owned  by  a  member  of  a  volunteer  ambulance service, or on a motor
  vehicle owned by a member of such person's  family,  or  by  a  business
  enterprise  in  which such person has a proprietary interest or by which
  he is employed, provided such member has been authorized in  writing  to
  so  affix  a  green  light  by  the  chief  officer  of  such service as
  designated by the members thereof. Such green  light  may  be  displayed
  exclusively  by  such  member of a volunteer ambulance service only when
  engaged in an emergency operation. The use of green lights  on  vehicles
  shall  be  restricted  for use only by a member of a volunteer ambulance
  service as provided for in this paragraph.
    As used in this paragraph volunteer  ambulance  service  means:  a.  a
  non-profit  membership  corporation  (other  than  a  fire  corporation)
  incorporated under or  subject  to  the  provisions  of  the  membership
  corporations   law,  or  any  other  law,  operating  its  ambulance  or
  ambulances on a non-profit basis for  the  convenience  of  the  members
  thereof  and their families or of the community or under a contract with
  a county,  city,  town  or  village  pursuant  to  section  one  hundred
  twenty-two-b of the general municipal law; or
    b. an unincorporated association of persons operating its ambulance or
  ambulances  on a non-profit basis for the convenience of the members and
  their families or of the community.
    6. The commissioner  is  authorized  to  promulgate  regulations  with
  respect  to the affixing and display of colored lights and to promulgate
  specifications with respect to such lights.
    7.   The  provisions  of  this  subdivision  forty-one  shall  not  be
  applicable to vehicles from other states or from the Dominion of  Canada
  which  have  entered  this state to render police, fire or civil defense
  aid, or ambulance service, while such vehicles are here or are returning
  to their home stations if the lights on such vehicles  comply  with  the
  laws of their home states or the Dominion of Canada and are displayed in
  this  state  in  the  same  manner permitted by their home states or the
  Dominion of  Canada,  nor  shall  the  provisions  of  this  subdivision
  forty-one  be  deemed  to  amend,  supersede or in any manner affect the
  provisions of the New York state defense emergency act as now  in  force
  or as it may be amended from time to time.
    8.  The  provisions of this subdivision shall not be applicable to the
  driver of a vehicle from another state  or  foreign  jurisdiction  which
  vehicle   has  colored  lights  affixed  but  not  revolving,  rotating,
  flashing, oscillating or constantly moving if the lights on such vehicle
  comply with the laws of the state or home foreign jurisdiction in  which
  the vehicle is registered.
    42. Every motor vehicle registered in this state which is manufactured
  or  assembled  on  or after September first, nineteen hundred eighty and
  operated or driven upon the highways of the state shall be equipped with
  a speedometer device which is capable of measuring  the  speed  of  such
  vehicle and displaying the same in miles per hour.
    43.  No  dealer shall sell a motor vehicle or a trailer which is to be
  registered in this state unless such motor vehicle or  trailer  has  all
  the  equipment  required  for  operation  on the public highways of this
  state.
    44. Driver education vehicles. Any motor vehicle used for the  purpose
  of  driving instruction for hire or for driver education by a school and
  being operated by a person receiving such instruction or education shall
  bear identification, visible to both oncoming and following traffic,  to
  indicate  that  the  vehicle  is  being  driven by a student driver. The
  commissioner may establish standards for such identification.
    45. Hydrocarbon gas powered vehicles. It shall be unlawful to  operate
  upon  any  public  highway  or street in this state a motor vehicle that
  uses hydrocarbon gas as its primary or secondary fuel supply, unless the
  motor vehicle conspicuously displays a reflective  placard  designed  to
  alert  emergency  personnel to the extraordinary hazards which may arise
  from proximity with this fuel. The commissioner  shall,  in  cooperation
  with  the  state  fire  administrator,  establish  regulations as to the
  location and design of this warning placard.
    46. Tamper-resistant odometers or speedometers. It shall  be  unlawful
  after  July  first,  nineteen  hundred  ninety-one for any person, firm,
  association or corporation to sell or offer for sale in this state a new
  motor vehicle which is to be registered in  this  state  and  which  was
  manufactured  or  assembled  on  or  after  such date, and designed as a
  nineteen hundred ninety-two or  later  model,  unless  such  vehicle  is
  equipped  with  a tamper-resistant odometer or speedometer designed with
  the intent to reduce the  likelihood  of  unlawful  tampering  with  the
  mileage reading thereon.
    The  commissioner shall promulgate such rules and regulations relative
  to tamper-resistant odometers and speedometers on motor vehicles and the
  approval of the same as are not  inconsistent  with  the  provisions  of
  federal  law,  if any, relating thereto. Such rules shall, at a minimum,
  require odometers and speedometers which indicate mileage with a minimum
  of six digits exclusive of digits indicating fractions of a  mile.  This
  section shall not apply to motorcycles.
    47.  (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to operate or cause to be
  operated, an audio amplification system which is operated in,  installed
  in  or powered by a vehicle which generates an A-weighted sound level in
  excess of seventy dB (A) measured at, or  adjusted  to,  a  distance  of
  twenty-five  feet  from the vehicle which is driven, standing, or parked
  on a public highway, or within one hundred  feet  of  a  public  highway
  unless  that system is being operated to request assistance or warn of a
  hazardous  situation.  This  section  shall  not  apply  to   authorized
  emergency vehicles or vehicles operated by gas, electric, communications
  or water utilities. This section shall not apply to the sound systems of
  vehicles used for advertising, or in parades, political or other special
  events, except that the use of sound systems on those motor vehicles may
  be prohibited by a local authority by ordinance or local law.
    (b)  Any  person  convicted of a violation of this section shall for a
  first conviction thereof be punished by a fine  of  up  to  one  hundred
  fifty  dollars;  for  a  conviction of a second violation, both of which
  were committed within a period of eighteen months, such person shall  be
  guilty  of  a  traffic infraction and shall be punished by a fine of not
  less than one hundred fifty dollars and  not  more  than  three  hundred
  dollars;  upon  conviction  of  a  third or subsequent violation, all of
  which were committed within a period of  eighteen  months,  such  person
  shall  be guilty of a traffic infraction and shall be punished by a fine
  of not less than three hundred seventy-five dollars and  not  more  than
  seven hundred fifty dollars.
    48.  Bumpers  or  similar  devices.  (a)  For  the  purposes  of  this
  subdivision, the following terms shall have the following meanings:
    (i) Bumper. A system, the primary function  of  which  is  to  provide
  protection  against  damage affecting front or rear external lamps, body
  parts and vehicle occupants during low speed impacts.
    (ii) Passenger car. A motor vehicle  whose  body  style  is  a  sedan,
  hardtop,  coupe,  convertible, station wagon or hatchback but not a van,
  minivan, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, tractor,  motorcycle  or
  bus.
    (b)  No  person  shall  operate a passenger car registered in New York
  unless it is equipped with both a front and rear bumper,  each  securely
  fastened and with some part of the bumper located between sixteen inches
  and  twenty inches above the ground. This provision shall not apply to a
  vehicle registered as an historical vehicle.
    (c) Except insofar as paragraph (b) of this subdivision  shall  apply,
  no person shall operate a motor vehicle designated as a nineteen hundred
  ninety  or  newer model year vehicle, which is registered in this state,
  except a motorcycle or special  purpose  commercial  vehicle  registered
  under  schedule  F  of  subdivision seven of section four hundred one of
  this chapter, which is so constructed that the body has a  clearance  at
  the  front  end  of  more than thirty inches from the ground when empty,
  unless the front end of the vehicle is equipped with bumpers or  devices
  serving  similar purposes which shall be so constructed and located that
  (i) some part of the bumpers or devices must be at least sixteen but not
  more than thirty inches above the ground with the  vehicle  empty;  (ii)
  the  maximum  distance  between  the  closest  points between bumpers or
  devices, if more than one is used, shall not exceed twenty-four  inches;
  (iii)  the maximum transverse distance from the widest part of the motor
  vehicle at the front to the bumper or device shall not  exceed  eighteen
  inches;   and  (iv)  the  bumpers  or  devices  shall  be  substantially
  constructed  and  firmly  attached.  A  motor  vehicle  constructed  and
  maintained  so  that  the  body,  chassis, or other parts of the vehicle
  afford the front end protection contemplated shall be deemed  to  be  in
  compliance with this section.
    (d)  Except  insofar as paragraph (b) of this subdivision shall apply,
  no person shall operate a motor vehicle or a  combination  of  vehicles,
  designated  as  a  nineteen  hundred ninety or newer model year vehicle,
  except  a  tractor,  pole  trailer,  vehicle  engaged  in   saddle-mount
  operation,  motorcycle  or special purpose commercial vehicle registered
  under schedule F of subdivision seven of section  four  hundred  one  of
  this  chapter,  if  the  motor  vehicle is registered in this state, and
  which is so constructed that the body, or the chassis  assembly  without
  the  body,  has  a  clearance at the rear end of more than thirty inches
  from the ground when empty, unless  the  rear  end  of  the  vehicle  or
  combination  of  vehicles  is  equipped  with bumpers or devices serving
  similar purposes which shall be so constructed  and  located  that:  (i)
  some  part  of  the  bumpers or devices must be at least sixteen but not
  more than thirty inches above the ground with the  vehicle  empty;  (ii)
  the  maximum  distance  between  the  closest points between bumpers, or
  devices, if more than one is used, shall not exceed twenty-four  inches;
  (iii)  the maximum transverse distance from the widest part of the motor
  vehicle at the rear to the bumper or device shall  not  exceed  eighteen
  inches;  (iv)  the  bumpers  or  devices  shall be located not more than
  twenty-four inches forward of the extreme rear of the vehicle;  and  (v)
  the  bumpers  or  devices  shall be substantially constructed and firmly
  attached. Motor vehicles constructed and maintained so  that  the  body,
  chassis,  or  other  parts of the vehicle afford the rear end protection
  contemplated shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section.
    49. Truck warning lights. (a) Every truck registered in this state and
  manufactured  or  assembled  after  September  first,  nineteen  hundred
  ninety-two,  which has a bed capable of being tilted or lifted and which
  is operated upon any public highway or street in  this  state  shall  be
  equipped  with a warning light in its cab that is activated whenever the
  bed of the truck is elevated.
    (b) Every  tractor  registered  in  this  state  and  manufactured  or
  assembled after September first, nineteen hundred ninety-three, which is
  used  primarily  for  the towing of a trailer capable of being tilted or
  lifted and which is operated upon any public highway or street  in  this
  state  shall  be  equipped  with  a  warning  light  in  its cab that is
  activated whenever the trailer is elevated.
    50. Taxicab partitions and shields. Every taxicab registered  in  this
  state  and  registered  or  licensed  by  a  city,  town  or  village of
  seventy-five thousand persons or more pursuant to  section  one  hundred
  eighty-one  of  the  general  municipal  law  shall be equipped with (a)
  partitions or shields made of plexiglass or other shatterproof  material
  located between and effectively separating the front and rear seats, and
  (b)  amber  colored  distress  lights, mounted on and clearly visible to
  passersby from the front and rear of  the  taxicab;  provided,  however,
  that  the  requirements  of this subdivision shall not apply to taxicabs
  registered or licensed by such city, town or village which elects not to
  be subjected to the requirements of this subdivision pursuant to a  duly
  enacted or adopted local law, ordinance or regulation. Nothing contained
  herein  shall  be  construed  to  restrict  the power of a city, town or
  village which elects not to be  subject  to  the  requirements  of  this
  subdivision  to  adopt  or  enforce a local law, ordinance or regulation
  regarding the use of taxicab partitions and distress lights.
    51.  Taxicab  and  livery  notices.  (a)  Every  taxicab  and   livery
  registered in this state shall have posted therein the following notice:
  "Seatbelts must be available for your use. Please buckle up."
    (b)  The  notices  required  to be posted pursuant to paragraph (a) of
  this subdivision shall be posted in a manner legible and conspicuous  to
  passengers in all seating positions of such vehicles.

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