2011 New Mexico Statutes
Chapter 30: Criminal Offenses
Article 31: Controlled Substances, 30-31-1 through 30-31-41
Section 30-31-23: Controlled substances; possession prohibited.


NM Stat § 30-31-23 (1996 through 1st Sess 50th Legis) What's This?

30-31-23. Controlled substances; possession prohibited.

A. It is unlawful for a person intentionally to possess a controlled substance unless the substance was obtained pursuant to a valid prescription or order of a practitioner while acting in the course of professional practice or except as otherwise authorized by the Controlled Substances Act. It is unlawful for a person intentionally to possess a controlled substance analog.

B. A person who violates this section with respect to:

(1) one ounce or less of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is, for the first offense, guilty of a petty misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars ($50.00) or more than one hundred dollars ($100) and by imprisonment for not more than fifteen days, and, for the second and subsequent offenses, guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both;

(2) more than one ounce and less than eight ounces of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both; or

(3) eight ounces or more of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978.

C. A minor who violates this section with respect to the substances listed in this subsection is guilty of a petty misdemeanor and, notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 32A-1-5 and 32A-2-19 NMSA 1978, shall be punished by a fine not to exceed one hundred dollars ($100) or forty-eight hours of community service. For the third or subsequent violation by a minor of this section with respect to those substances, the provisions of Section 32A-2-19 NMSA 1978 shall govern punishment of the minor. As used in this subsection, "minor" means a person who is less than eighteen years of age. The provisions of this subsection apply to the following substances:

(1) synthetic cannabinoids;

(2) any of the substances listed in Paragraphs (20) through (25) of Subsection C of Section 30-31-6 NMSA 1978; or

(3) a substance added to Schedule I by a rule of the board adopted on or after the effective date of this 2011 act if the board determines that the pharmacological effect of the substance, the risk to the public health by abuse of the substance and the potential of the substance to produce psychic or physiological dependence liability is similar to the substances described in Paragraph (1) or (2) of this subsection.

D. Except for those substances listed in Subsection E of this section, a person who violates this section with respect to any amount of any controlled substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV or a controlled substance analog of a substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV is guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred dollars ($500) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both.

E. A person who violates this section with respect to phencyclidine as enumerated in Schedule III or a controlled substance analog of phencyclidine; methamphetamine, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule II or a controlled substance analog of methamphetamine, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; flunitrazepam, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of flunitrazepam, including naturally occurring metabolites, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; gamma hydroxybutyric acid and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; gamma butyrolactone and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of gamma butyrolactone, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; 1-4 butane diol and any chemical compound that is metabolically converted to gamma hydroxybutyric acid, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers as enumerated in Schedule I or a controlled substance analog of 1-4 butane diol, its salts, isomers or salts of isomers; or a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II or a controlled substance analog of a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978.

F. Except for a minor as defined in Subsection C of this section, a person who violates Subsection A of this section while within a posted drug-free school zone, excluding private property residentially zoned or used primarily as a residence and excluding a person in or on a motor vehicle in transit through the posted drug-free school zone, with respect to:

(1) one ounce or less of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is, for the first offense, guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) or more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for a definite term less than one year, or both, and for the second or subsequent offense, is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978;

(2) more than one ounce and less than eight ounces of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978;

(3) eight ounces or more of marijuana or synthetic cannabinoids is guilty of a third degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978;

(4) any amount of any other controlled substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV or a controlled substance analog of a substance enumerated in Schedule I, II, III or IV, except phencyclidine as enumerated in Schedule III, a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II or a controlled substance analog of a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II, is guilty of a fourth degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978; and

(5) phencyclidine as enumerated in Schedule III, a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II, a controlled substance analog of phencyclidine or a controlled substance analog of a narcotic drug enumerated in Schedule I or II is guilty of a third degree felony and shall be sentenced pursuant to the provisions of Section 31-18-15 NMSA 1978.

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