2017 Nebraska Revised Statutes
Chapter 28 - CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS
28-1463.02 Terms, defined.
As used in the Child Pornography Prevention Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) Child, in the case of a participant, means any person under the age of eighteen years and, in the case of a portrayed observer, means any person under the age of sixteen years;
(2) Erotic fondling means touching a person's clothed or unclothed genitals or pubic area, breasts if the person is a female, or developing breast area if the person is a female child, for the purpose of real or simulated overt sexual gratification or sexual stimulation of one or more persons involved. Erotic fondling shall not be construed to include physical contact, even if affectionate, which is not for the purpose of real or simulated overt sexual gratification or sexual stimulation of one or more of the persons involved;
(3) Erotic nudity means the display of the human male or female genitals or pubic area, the human female breasts, or the developing breast area of the human female child, for the purpose of real or simulated overt sexual gratification or sexual stimulation of one or more of the persons involved;
(4) Sadomasochistic abuse means flagellation or torture by or upon a nude person or a person clad in undergarments, a mask, or bizarre costume, or the condition of being fettered, bound, or otherwise physically restrained when performed to predominantly appeal to the morbid interest;
(5) Sexually explicit conduct means: (a) Real or simulated intercourse, whether genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal between persons of the same or opposite sex or between a human and an animal or with an artificial genital; (b) real or simulated masturbation; (c) real or simulated sadomasochistic abuse; (d) erotic fondling; (e) erotic nudity; or (f) real or simulated defecation or urination for the purpose of sexual gratification or sexual stimulation of one or more of the persons involved; and
(6) Visual depiction means live performance or photographic representation and includes any undeveloped film or videotape or data stored on a computer disk or by other electronic means which is capable of conversion into a visual image and also includes any photograph, film, video, picture, digital image, or computer-displayed image, video, or picture, whether made or produced by electronic, mechanical, computer, digital, or other means.
- Laws 1985, LB 668, § 2;
- Laws 1986, LB 788, § 1;
- Laws 2009, LB97, § 17.
A defendant can be found guilty of creating or possessing child pornography beyond a reasonable doubt even when the actual depiction at issue is unavailable at trial. State v. Smith, 292 Neb. 434, 873 N.W.2d 169 (2016).
In order to show "erotic nudity," as defined in subsection (3) of this section, the State must prove, first, that the depiction displays a human's genitals or a human's pubic area or female breast area, and second, that the depiction was created for the purpose of real or simulated overt sexual gratification or sexual stimulation. State v. Smith, 292 Neb. 434, 873 N.W.2d 169 (2016).
To determine whether photographs were taken for the purpose of real or simulated overt sexual gratification or sexual stimulation, an appellate court considers the following nonexclusive factors: (1) whether the focal point of the visual depiction is on the child's genitalia or pubic area; (2) whether the setting of the visual depiction is sexually suggestive, i.e., in a place or pose generally associated with sexual activity; (3) whether the child is depicted in an unnatural pose, or in inappropriate attire, considering the age of the child; (4) whether the child is fully or partially clothed, or nude; (5) whether the visual depiction suggests sexual coyness or willingness to engage in sexual activity; and (6) whether the visual depiction is intended or designed to elicit a sexual response in the viewer. State v. Smith, 292 Neb. 434, 873 N.W.2d 169 (2016).
Probable cause to search for evidence of crimes involving visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving minors may be established by a detailed verbal description of the conduct depicted in the images. State v. Nuss, 279 Neb. 648, 781 N.W.2d 60 (2010).
While copies of images obtained during a law enforcement investigation may be used to establish probable cause to search for evidence of crimes involving visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving minors, they are not absolutely required. State v. Nuss, 279 Neb. 648, 781 N.W.2d 60 (2010).
Age of child may be proved by stipulation of defendant. State v. Burke, 225 Neb. 625, 408 N.W.2d 239 (1987).