2021 Montana Code Annotated
Title 45. Crimes
Chapter 5. Offenses Against the Person
Part 2. Assault and Related Offenses
45-5-223. Surreptitious visual observation or recordation -- place of residence -- public place -- exceptions
45-5-223. Surreptitious visual observation or recordation -- place of residence -- public place -- exceptions. (1) A person commits the offense of surreptitious visual observation or recordation in a place of residence if the person purposely or knowingly hides, waits, or otherwise loiters in person or by means of a remote electronic device within or in the vicinity of a private dwelling house, apartment, or other place of residence for the purpose of:
(a) watching, gazing at, or looking upon any occupant in the residence in a surreptitious manner without the occupant's knowledge; or
(b) by means of an electronic device, surreptitiously observing or recording the visual image of any occupant in the residence without the occupant's knowledge.
(2) A person commits the offense of surreptitious visual observation or recordation in public if the person purposely or knowingly observes or records a visual image of the sexual or intimate parts of another person in a public place without the other person's knowledge when the victim has a reasonable expectation of privacy.
(3) Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to a law enforcement officer, an agent or employee of an insurer, or a private investigator licensed pursuant to 37-60-301 or to any person engaged in fraud detection, prevention, or prosecution pursuant to 2-15-2015 or 39-71-211 while the officer, agent, employee, or private investigator is acting in the course and scope of employment for legitimate investigative purposes.
(4) A person convicted of an offense under subsection (1) or (2) shall be fined an amount not to exceed $500 or be incarcerated in the county jail for a term not to exceed 6 months, or both. Upon a second conviction, a person shall be fined an amount not to exceed $1,000 or be incarcerated for a term not to exceed 1 year, or both. Upon a third or subsequent conviction, a person shall be fined an amount not to exceed $10,000 or be incarcerated for a term not to exceed 5 years, or both.
History: En. Sec. 1, Ch. 62, L. 1997; amd. Sec. 3, Ch. 303, L. 1997; amd. Sec. 1, Ch. 75, L. 2015.