2005 Missouri Revised Statutes - § 577.023. — Aggravated, chronic, persistent and prior offenders--enhanced penalties--imprisonment requirements, exceptions--procedures--definitions.

577.023. 1. For purposes of this section, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise:

(1) An "aggravated offender" is a person who:

(a) Has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of three or more intoxication-related traffic offenses; or

(b) Has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of one or more intoxication-related traffic offense and, in addition, any of the following: involuntary manslaughter under subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection 1 of section 565.024, RSMo; murder in the second degree under section 565.021, RSMo, where the underlying felony is an intoxication- related traffic offense; or assault in the second degree under subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.060, RSMo; or assault of a law enforcement officer in the second degree under subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.082, RSMo;

(2) A "chronic offender" is:

(a) A person who has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of four or more intoxication-related traffic offenses; or

(b) A person who has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of, on two or more separate occasions, any combination of the following: involuntary manslaughter under subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection 1 of section 565.024, RSMo; murder in the second degree under section 565.021, RSMo, where the underlying felony is an intoxication-related traffic offense; assault in the second degree under subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.060, RSMo; or assault of a law enforcement officer in the second degree under subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.082, RSMo; or

(c) A person who has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of two or more intoxication-related traffic offenses and, in addition, any of the following: involuntary manslaughter under subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection 1 of section 565.024, RSMo; murder in the second degree under section 565.021, RSMo, where the underlying felony is an intoxication- related traffic offense; assault in the second degree under subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.060, RSMo; or assault of a law enforcement officer in the second degree under subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.082, RSMo;

(3) An "intoxication-related traffic offense" is driving while intoxicated, driving with excessive blood alcohol content, involuntary manslaughter pursuant to subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection 1 of section 565.024, RSMo, murder in the second degree under section 565.021, RSMo, where the underlying felony is an intoxication-related traffic offense, assault in the second degree pursuant to subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.060, RSMo, assault of a law enforcement officer in the second degree pursuant to subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.082, RSMo, or driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs in violation of state law or a county or municipal ordinance, where the defendant was represented by or waived the right to an attorney in writing;

(4) A "persistent offender" is one of the following:

(a) A person who has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of two or more intoxication-related traffic offenses;

(b) A person who has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of involuntary manslaughter pursuant to subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection 1 of section 565.024, RSMo, assault in the second degree pursuant to subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.060, RSMo, assault of a law enforcement officer in the second degree pursuant to subdivision (4) of subsection 1 of section 565.082, RSMo; and

(5) A "prior offender" is a person who has pleaded guilty to or has been found guilty of one intoxication-related traffic offense, where such prior offense occurred within five years of the occurrence of the intoxication-related traffic offense for which the person is charged.

2. Any person who pleads guilty to or is found guilty of a violation of section 577.010 or 577.012 who is alleged and proved to be a prior offender shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

3. Any person who pleads guilty to or is found guilty of a violation of section 577.010 or 577.012 who is alleged and proved to be a persistent offender shall be guilty of a class D felony.

4. Any person who pleads guilty to or is found guilty of a violation of section 577.010 or section 577.012 who is alleged and proved to be an aggravated offender shall be guilty of a class C felony.

5. Any person who pleads guilty to or is found guilty of a violation of section 577.010 or section 577.012 who is alleged and proved to be a chronic offender shall be guilty of a class B felony.

6. No state, county, or municipal court shall suspend the imposition of sentence as to a prior offender, persistent offender, aggravated offender, or chronic offender under this section nor sentence such person to pay a fine in lieu of a term of imprisonment, section 557.011, RSMo, to the contrary notwithstanding. No prior offender shall be eligible for parole or probation until he or she has served a minimum of five days imprisonment, unless as a condition of such parole or probation such person performs at least thirty days of community service under the supervision of the court in those jurisdictions which have a recognized program for community service. No persistent offender shall be eligible for parole or probation until he or she has served a minimum of ten days imprisonment, unless as a condition of such parole or probation such person performs at least sixty days of community service under the supervision of the court. No aggravated offender shall be eligible for parole or probation until he or she has served a minimum of sixty days imprisonment. No chronic offender shall be eligible for parole or probation until he or she has served a minimum of two years imprisonment.

7. The state, county, or municipal court shall find the defendant to be a prior offender, persistent offender, aggravated offender, or chronic offender if:

(1) The indictment or information, original or amended, or the information in lieu of an indictment pleads all essential facts warranting a finding that the defendant is a prior offender or persistent offender; and

(2) Evidence is introduced that establishes sufficient facts pleaded to warrant a finding beyond a reasonable doubt the defendant is a prior offender, persistent offender, aggravated offender, or chronic offender; and

(3) The court makes findings of fact that warrant a finding beyond a reasonable doubt by the court that the defendant is a prior offender, persistent offender, aggravated offender, or chronic offender.

8. In a jury trial, the facts shall be pleaded, established and found prior to submission to the jury outside of its hearing.

9. In a trial without a jury or upon a plea of guilty, the court may defer the proof in findings of such facts to a later time, but prior to sentencing.

10. The defendant shall be accorded full rights of confrontation and cross-examination, with the opportunity to present evidence, at such hearings.

11. The defendant may waive proof of the facts alleged.

12. Nothing in this section shall prevent the use of presentence investigations or commitments.

13. At the sentencing hearing both the state, county, or municipality and the defendant shall be permitted to present additional information bearing on the issue of sentence.

14. The pleas or findings of guilty shall be prior to the date of commission of the present offense.

15. The court shall not instruct the jury as to the range of punishment or allow the jury, upon a finding of guilty, to assess and declare the punishment as part of its verdict in cases of prior offenders, persistent offenders, aggravated offenders, or chronic offenders.

16. Evidence of prior convictions shall be heard and determined by the trial court out of the hearing of the jury prior to the submission of the case to the jury, and shall include but not be limited to evidence of convictions received by a search of the records of the Missouri uniform law enforcement system maintained by the Missouri state highway patrol. After hearing the evidence, the court shall enter its findings thereon. A conviction of a violation of a municipal or county ordinance in a county or municipal court for driving while intoxicated or a conviction or a plea of guilty or a finding of guilty followed by a suspended imposition of sentence, suspended execution of sentence, probation or parole or any combination thereof in a state court shall be treated as a prior conviction.

(L. 1982 S.B. 513, A.L. 1983 S.B. 318 & 135, A.L. 1991 S.B. 125 & 341, A.L. 1993 S.B. 167 merged with S.B. 180, A.L. 1998 S.B. 634, A.L. 2001 H.B. 302 & 38, A.L. 2005 H.B. 353 merged with H.B. 972 and S.B. 37, et al. merged with H.B. 353, A.L. 2005 1st Ex. Sess. H.B. 2)

Effective 9-15-05

(1984) Sentence enhancement provisions do not violate constitutional proscription against ex post facto laws. (Mo.banc) State v. Acton, 665 S.W.2d 618.

(1991) Where defendant was convicted of intoxication-related traffic offenses in violation of laws of other states, such convictions may be used for enhancement purposes as persistent offender. Phrase "in violation of state law" bars use of municipal ordinance convictions for enhancement. State v. Ryan, 813 S.W.2d 898 (Mo. App.S.D.).

(1997) Intoxication-related traffic offense includes a guilty plea to a DWI in violation of a municipal ordinance with a suspended imposition of sentence. State v. Meggs, 950 S.W.2d 608 (Mo.App.S.D.).

(1997) A blood alcohol content conviction pursuant to municipal ordinance can be used as evidence to enhance punishment. State v. Haskins, 950 S.W.2d 613 (Mo.App.S.D.).

(2005) Provision of section enhancing driving while intoxicated charge from misdemeanor to felony, by including prior DWI charges only from courts in which the judge was a lawyer, is constitutional under the Equal Protection and Due Process clauses. State v. Pike, 162 S.W.3d 464 (Mo.banc).

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