2019 Mississippi Code
Title 79 - Corporations, Associations, and Partnerships
Chapter 29 - Revised Mississippi Limited Liability Company Act
Article 2 - Formation, Certificate of Formation.
§ 79-29-231. Appraisal rights

Universal Citation: MS Code § 79-29-231 (2019)
  • (1) The certificate of formation or written operating agreement may eliminate, expand or restrict the appraisal rights granted in this section and may vary, modify, eliminate or expand any of the provisions of this section.

  • (2) Definitions. In this section:

    • (a) “Entitled persons” means all owners of financial interests. Financial interests may be owned by members and may also be owned by persons who are not members of the limited liability company. Members of the limited liability company who have no financial interests in the limited liability company are not entitled to appraisal rights pursuant to this section.

    • (b) “Fair value” means the value of the financial interests of the limited liability company determined:

      • (i) Immediately before the effectuation of the action to which the entitled person objects;

      • (ii) Using customary and current valuation concepts and techniques generally employed for similar businesses in the context of the transaction requiring appraisal; and

      • (iii) Without discounting for lack of marketability or minority status.

  • (3) Right to appraisal.

    • (a) Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of formation or written operating agreement or other written agreement each entitled person is entitled to appraisal rights, and to obtain payment of the fair value of the entitled person’s financial interest in the event of any of the following actions:

      • (i) Consummation of a merger to which the limited liability company is a party;

      • (ii) Consummation of a sale, lease, exchange, or other disposition of assets if the disposition would leave the limited liability company without a significant continuing business activity. If a limited liability company retains a business activity that represented at least twenty-five percent (25%) of total assets at the end of the most recently completed fiscal year, and twenty-five percent (25%) of either income from continuing operations or revenues from continuing operations for that fiscal year, in each case of the limited liability company and its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, the limited liability company will conclusively be deemed to have retained a significant continuing business activity;

      • (iii) Any other action to the extent provided by the certificate of formation or written operating agreement.

    • (b) An entitled person may not challenge a completed action for which appraisal rights are available unless such action:

      • (i) Was not effectuated in accordance with the applicable provisions of this chapter or the limited liability company’s certificate of formation or operating agreement; or

      • (ii) Was procured as a result of fraud or material misrepresentation.

  • (4) Notice of appraisal rights. If a proposed action described in subsection (3) of this section is to be submitted to a vote, the meeting notice must state that the limited liability company has concluded that entitled persons are entitled to assert appraisal rights under this section and a copy of this section or a copy of the appraisal rights and procedures as provided in the written operating agreement, as applicable, must accompany the meeting notice sent to the entitled persons.

  • (5) Notice of intent to demand payment.

    • (a) If a proposed action requiring appraisal rights under subsection (3)(a) of this section is submitted to a vote, entitled persons who wish to assert appraisal rights with respect to any class or series of financial interests:

      • (i) Must deliver to the limited liability company before the vote is taken written notice of the person’s intent to demand payment if the proposed action is effectuated; and

      • (ii) Must not vote, or cause or permit to be voted, any of the person’s financial interests in favor of the proposed action.

    • (b) An entitled person who does not satisfy the requirements of subsection (5)(a) of this section is not entitled to payment under this section.

  • (6) Appraisal notice and form.

    • (a) If a proposed action requiring appraisal rights under subsection (3) of this section becomes effective, the limited liability company must deliver a written appraisal notice and form required by this subsection (6) to all entitled persons who satisfied the requirements of subsection (5) of this section.

    • (b) The appraisal notice must be sent no earlier than the date the action became effective and no later than ten (10) days after such date and must:

      • (i) Supply a form that specifies the date of the first announcement to entitled persons of the principal terms of the proposed action and requires the person asserting appraisal rights to certify: 1. whether the entitled person acquired ownership of the interests for which appraisal rights are asserted before that date; and 2. that the person did not vote for the transaction;

      • (ii) State:

        • 1. Where the form must be sent and where certificates for certificated interests must be deposited and the date by which those certificates must be deposited, which date may not be earlier than the date for receiving the required form under subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section;

        • 2. A date by which the limited liability company must receive the form which date may not be fewer than forty (40) nor more than sixty (60) days after the date the subsection (6)(a) appraisal notice and form are sent, and state that the person shall have waived the right to demand appraisal with respect to the interests unless the form is received by the limited liability company by such specified date;

        • 3. The limited liability company’s estimate of the fair value of the financial interests;

        • 4. That, if requested in writing, the limited liability company will provide to the person so requesting, within ten (10) days after the date specified in subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section, the number of persons who return the forms by the specified date and the aggregate interests owned by them; and

        • 5. The date by which the notice to withdraw under subsection (7) must be received, which date must be within twenty (20) days after the date specified in subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section; and

    • (c) Be accompanied by a copy of this section or by a copy of the appraisal rights and procedures as provided in the written operating agreement, as applicable.

  • (7) Perfection of rights; right to withdraw.

    • (a) An entitled person who receives notice pursuant to subsection (6) of this section and who wishes to exercise appraisal rights must certify on the form sent by the limited liability company whether the entitled person acquired ownership of the person’s financial interests before the date required to be set forth in the notice pursuant to subsection (6)(b) of this section. If an entitled person fails to make this certification, the limited liability company may elect to treat the entitled person’s financial interests as after-acquired interests under subsection (9) of this section. In addition, an entitled person who wishes to exercise appraisal rights must execute and return the form and, in the case of certificated interests, deposit the entitled person’s certificates in accordance with the terms of the notice by the date referred to in the notice pursuant to subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section. Once an entitled person deposits that person’s certificates or, in the case of uncertificated interests, returns the executed forms, that entitled person loses all rights as a member or owner of a financial interest, unless the entitled person withdraws pursuant to subsection (7)(b) of this section.

    • (b) An entitled person who has complied with subsection (7)(a) of this section may nevertheless decline to exercise appraisal rights and withdraw from the appraisal process by so notifying the limited liability company in writing by the date set forth in the appraisal notice pursuant to subsection (6)(b)(ii)5 of this section. An entitled person who fails to so withdraw from the appraisal process may not thereafter withdraw from the appraisal process without the limited liability company’s written consent.

    • (c) An entitled person who does not execute and return the form and, in the case of certificated interests, deposit that person’s certificates where required, each by the date set forth in the notice described in subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section, shall not be entitled to payment under this subsection.

  • (8) Payment.

    • (a) Except as provided in subsection (7) of this section, within thirty (30) days after the form required by subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section is due, the limited liability company shall pay in cash to those entitled persons who complied with subsection (7)(a) of this section the amount the limited liability company estimates to be the fair value of their financial interests, plus interest at the legal rate.

    • (b) The payment to each person pursuant to subsection (8)(a) of this section must be accompanied by:

      • (i) Financial statements of the limited liability company that issued the financial interests to be appraised, consisting of a balance sheet as of the end of a fiscal year ending not more than sixteen (16) months before the date of payment, an income statement for that year, a statement of changes in equity for that year, and the latest available interim financial statements, if any;

      • (ii) A statement of the limited liability company’s estimate of the fair value of the financial interests, which estimate must equal or exceed the limited liability company’s estimate given pursuant to subsection (6)(b)(ii)3 of this section;

      • (iii) A statement that persons described in this subsection (8) have the right to demand further payment under subsection (10) of this section and that if any such person does not do so within the time period specified therein, the person shall be deemed to have accepted the payment in full satisfaction of the limited liability company’s obligations under this section.

  • (9) After-acquired interests.

    • (a) A limited liability company may elect to withhold payment required by subsection (8) of this section from any entitled person who did not certify that ownership of all of the entitled person’s financial interests for which appraisal rights are asserted was acquired before the date set forth in the appraisal notice sent pursuant to subsection (6)(b)(i) of this section.

    • (b) If the limited liability company elected to withhold payment under subsection (9)(a) of this section, it must, within thirty (30) days after the form required by subsection (6)(b)(ii)2 of this section is due, notify all entitled persons who are described in subsection (9)(a) of this section:

      • (i) Of the information required by subsection (8)(b)(i) of this section;

      • (ii) Of the limited liability company’s estimate of fair value pursuant to subsection (8)(b)(ii) of this section;

      • (iii) That they may accept the limited liability company’s estimate of fair value, plus interest at the legal rate, in full satisfaction of their demands, or demand appraisal under subsection (10) of this section;

      • (iv) That those entitled persons who wish to accept the offer must so notify the limited liability company of the person’s acceptance of the limited liability company’s offer within thirty (30) days after receiving the offer; and

      • (v) That those entitled persons who do not satisfy the requirements for demanding appraisal under subsection (10) of this section shall be deemed to have accepted the limited liability company’s offer.

    • (c) Within ten (10) days after receiving the entitled person’s acceptance pursuant to subsection (9)(b) of this section, the limited liability company must pay in cash the amount it offered under subsection (9)(b)(ii) of this section to each person who agreed to accept the limited liability company’s offer in full satisfaction of the person’s demand.

    • (d) Within forty (40) days after sending the notice described in subsection (9)(b) of this section, the limited liability company must pay in cash the amount it offered to pay under subsection (8)(b) of this section to each entitled person described in subsection (9)(b)(ii) of this section.

  • (10) Procedure if entitled person dissatisfied with payment or offer.

    • (a) An entitled person paid pursuant to subsection (8) of this section who is dissatisfied with the amount of the payment must notify the limited liability company in writing of that person’s estimate of the fair value of the financial interests and demand payment of that estimate plus interest at the legal rate less any payment under subsection (8) of this section. An entitled person offered payment under subsection (9) of this section who is dissatisfied with that offer must reject the offer and demand payment of the person’s stated estimate of the fair value of the financial interests plus interest at the legal rate.

    • (b) An entitled person who fails to notify the limited liability company in writing of that entitled person’s demand to be paid the entitled person’s stated estimate of the fair value plus interest at the legal rate under subsection (10)(a) of this section within thirty (30) days after receiving the limited liability company’s payment or offer of payment under subsection (8) or (9) of this section, respectively, waives the right to demand payment under this subsection (10) and shall be entitled only to the payment made or offered pursuant to those respective subsections.

  • (11) Court action.

    • (a) If an entitled person makes demand for payment under subsection (10) of this section which remains unsettled, the limited liability company shall commence a proceeding within sixty (60) days after receiving the payment demand and petition the court to determine the fair value of the financial interests and accrued interest at the legal rate. If the limited liability company does not commence the proceeding within the sixty-day period, it shall pay in cash to each the entitled person the amount the entitled person demanded pursuant to subsection (10)(a) of this section plus interest at the legal rate.

    • (b) The limited liability company shall commence the proceeding in the chancery court of the county where the limited liability company’s principal office is located. If the limited liability company is a foreign limited liability company, it shall commence the proceeding in the county in this state where the principal office of the domestic limited liability company merged with the foreign limited liability company was located at the time of the transaction.

    • (c) The limited liability company shall make all entitled persons whose demands remain unsettled, whether or not residents of this state, parties to the proceeding as in an action against their interests, and all parties must be served with a copy of the complaint. Nonresidents may be served as otherwise provided by law.

    • (d) The jurisdiction of the court in which the proceeding is commenced under subsection (11)(b) of this section is plenary and exclusive. The court may appoint one or more persons as appraisers to receive evidence and recommend a decision on the question of fair value. The appraisers shall have the powers described in the order appointing them, or in any amendment to it. The entitled persons demanding appraisal rights are entitled to the same discovery rights as parties in other civil proceedings. There shall be no right to a jury trial.

    • (e) Each entitled person made a party to the proceeding is entitled to judgment: (i) for the amount, if any, by which the court finds the fair value of the entitled person’s financial interests, plus interest at the legal rate, exceeds the amount paid by the limited liability company to the entitled person for such financial interests; or (ii) for the fair value, plus interest at the legal rate, of the entitled person’s financial interests for which the limited liability company elected to withhold payment under subsection (9) of this section.

  • (12) Court costs and counsel fees.

    • (a) The court in an appraisal proceeding commenced under subsection (11) of this section shall determine all costs of the proceeding including the reasonable compensation and expenses of appraisers appointed by the court. The court shall assess the costs against the limited liability company, except that the court may assess costs against all or some of the entitled persons demanding appraisal, in amounts the court finds equitable, to the extent the court finds such persons acted arbitrarily, vexatiously, or not in good faith with respect to the rights provided by this subsection.

    • (b) The court in an appraisal proceeding may also assess the fees and expenses of counsel and experts for the respective parties, in amounts the court finds equitable:

      • (i) Against the limited liability company and in favor of any or all entitled persons demanding appraisal if the court finds the limited liability company did not substantially comply with the requirements of subsection (4), (6), (8) or (9) of this section; or

      • (ii) Against either the limited liability company or an entitled person demanding appraisal, in favor of any other party, if the court finds that the party against whom the fees and expenses are assessed acted arbitrarily, vexatiously, or not in good faith with respect to the rights provided by this subsection.

    • (c) If the court in an appraisal proceeding finds that the services of counsel for any entitled person were of substantial benefit to other persons similarly situated, and that the fees for those services should not be assessed against the limited liability company, the court may award to such counsel reasonable fees to be paid out of the amounts awarded the entitled persons who were benefited.

    • (d) To the extent the limited liability company fails to make a required payment pursuant to subsection (8), (9) or (10) of this section, the entitled person may sue directly for the amount owed and, to the extent successful, shall be entitled to recover from the limited liability company all costs and expenses of the suit, including counsel fees.

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