2010 Mississippi Code
TITLE 15 - LIMITATIONS OF ACTIONS AND PREVENTION OF FRAUDS
Chapter 3 - Prevention of Frauds.
15-3-107 - Fraudulent transfers as to present and future creditors; determination of actual intent; rebuttable presumption of fraud.

§ 15-3-107. Fraudulent transfers as to present and future creditors; determination of actual intent; rebuttable presumption of fraud.
 

(1)  A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor, whether the creditor's claim arose before or after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred, if the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation with actual intent to hinder, delay or defraud any creditor of the debtor. 

(2)  In determining actual intent under subsection (1), consideration may be given, among other factors, to whether: 

(a) The transfer or obligation was to an insider; 

(b) The debtor retained possession or control of the property transferred after the transfer; 

(c) The transfer or obligation was disclosed or concealed; 

(d) Before the transfer was made or obligation was incurred, the debtor had been sued or threatened with suit; 

(e) The transfer was of substantially all the debtor's assets; 

(f) The debtor absconded; 

(g) The debtor removed or concealed assets; 

(h) The value of the consideration received by the debtor was reasonably equivalent to the value of the asset transferred or the amount of the obligation incurred; 

(i) The debtor was insolvent or became insolvent shortly after the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred; 

(j) The transfer occurred shortly before or shortly after a substantial debt was incurred; 

(k) The debtor transferred the essential assets of the business to a lienor who transferred the assets to an insider of the debtor; 

(l) The debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation, and the debtor: 

(i) Was engaged or was about to engage in a business or a transaction for which the remaining assets of the debtor were unreasonably small in relation to the business or transaction; or 

(ii) Intended to incur, or believed or reasonably should have believed that he would incur, debts beyond his ability to pay as they became due; 

(m) A transfer made or obligation incurred by a debtor may be fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made or the obligation was incurred if the debtor made the transfer or incurred the obligation without receiving a reasonably equivalent value in exchange for the transfer or obligation and the debtor was insolvent at that time or the debtor became insolvent as a result of the transfer or obligation; and 

(n) A transfer made by a debtor may be fraudulent as to a creditor whose claim arose before the transfer was made if the transfer was made to an insider for an antecedent debt, the debtor was insolvent at that time, and the insider had reasonable cause to believe that the debtor was insolvent. 

(3)  If there exists a combination of facts such as described in subsection (2)(l), (m) or (n) only, then there will be a strong presumption of fraud which can be rebutted only by clear and convincing evidence. 
 

Sources: Laws, 2006, ch. 371, § 4, eff from and after July 1, 2006.

 

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