2013 Maryland Code
TRANSPORTATION
§ 21-202 - Traffic lights with steady indication


MD Transp Code § 21-202 (2013) What's This?

§21-202.

(a) (1) Except for special pedestrian signals that carry a legend, where traffic is controlled by traffic control signals that show different colored lights or colored lighted arrows, whether successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red, and yellow may be used.

(2) These lights apply to drivers and pedestrians as provided in this section.

(b) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or, unless a sign at the place prohibits the turn, turn right or left.

(c) Vehicular traffic described under subsection (b) of this section, including any vehicle turning right or left, shall yield the right-of-way to any other vehicle and any pedestrian lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk when the signal is shown.

(d) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, whether shown alone or with another indication, cautiously may enter the intersection, but only to make the movement indicated by the arrow or to make another movement permitted by other indications shown at the same time.

(e) Vehicular traffic described under subsection (d) of this section shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian or bicycle lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to any other traffic lawfully using the intersection.

(f) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in § 21-203 of this subtitle, a pedestrian facing any green signal, unless the green signal is only a turn arrow, may cross the roadway, within any marked or unmarked crosswalk, in the direction of the green signal.

(g) (1) Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow signal is warned that the related green movement is ending or that a red signal, which will prohibit vehicular traffic from entering the intersection, will be shown immediately after the yellow signal.

(2) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in § 21-203 of this subtitle, a pedestrian facing a steady yellow signal is warned that there is not enough time to cross the roadway before a red signal is shown, and a pedestrian may not then start to cross the roadway.

(h) (1) Vehicular traffic facing a steady circular red signal alone:

(i) Shall stop at the near side of the intersection:

1. At a clearly marked stop line;

2. If there is no clearly marked stop line, before entering any crosswalk; or

3. If there is no crosswalk, before entering the intersection; and

(ii) Except as provided in subsections (i), (j), and (k) of this section, shall remain stopped until a signal to proceed is shown.

(2) Vehicular traffic facing a steady red arrow signal:

(i) May not enter the intersection to make the movement indicated by the arrow;

(ii) Unless entering the intersection to make a movement permitted by another signal, shall stop at the near side of the intersection:

1. At a clearly marked stop line;

2. If there is no clearly marked stop line, before entering any crosswalk; or

3. If there is no crosswalk, before entering the intersection; and

(iii) Except as provided in subsections (i), (j), and (k) of this section, shall remain stopped until a signal permitting the movement is shown.

(i) Unless a sign prohibiting a turn is in place, vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal, after stopping as required by subsection (h) of this section, cautiously may enter the intersection and make:

(1) A right turn; or

(2) A left turn from a one-way street onto a one-way street.

(j) If a sign permitting any other turn is in place, vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal, after stopping as required by subsection (h) of this section, cautiously may enter the intersection and make the turn indicated by the sign.

(k) In each instance, vehicular traffic described in subsections (i) and (j) of this section shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian or bicycle lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to any vehicle in the intersection or approaching on another roadway so closely as to constitute an immediate hazard.

(l) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian control signal as provided in § 21-203 of this subtitle, pedestrians facing a steady red signal alone may not enter the roadway.

(m) Except for those provisions of this section that by their very nature cannot apply, this section applies to a traffic control signal placed at a location other than an intersection. Each stop required by the signal shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made or, if there is no sign or marking, at the signal.

§ 21-202 - 1. Traffic control signal monitoring systems

(a) Definitions. --

(1) In this section the following words have the meanings indicated.

(2) "Agency" means:

(i) For a traffic control signal operated and maintained at an intersection under the control of the State, the law enforcement agency primarily responsible for traffic control at that intersection; or

(ii) For a traffic control signal operated and maintained at an intersection under the control of a political subdivision, a law enforcement agency of the political subdivision that is authorized to issue citations for a violation of the Maryland Vehicle Law or of local traffic laws or regulations.

(3) (i) "Owner" means the registered owner of a motor vehicle or a lessee of a motor vehicle under a lease of 6 months or more.

(ii) "Owner" does not include a motor vehicle rental or leasing company or a holder of a special registration plate issued under Part III of Title 13, Subtitle 9 of this article.

(4) "Recorded images" means images recorded by a traffic control signal monitoring system:

(i) On:

1. Two or more photographs;

2. Two or more microphotographs;

3. Two or more electronic images;

4. Videotape; or

5. Any other medium; and

(ii) Showing the rear of a motor vehicle and, on at least one image or portion of tape, clearly identifying the registration plate number of the motor vehicle.

(5) "Traffic control signal monitoring system" means a device with one or more motor vehicle sensors working in conjunction with a traffic control signal to produce recorded images of motor vehicles entering an intersection against a red signal indication.

(b) Timing of yellow light signals. -- The agency primarily responsible for traffic control at an intersection monitored by a traffic control signal monitoring system shall ensure that the length of time that a traffic control signal displays a yellow light before changing to a red signal indication is set in accordance with regulations adopted by the State Highway Administration consistent with standards or guidelines established by the Federal Highway Administration.

(c) Applicability of section. -- This section applies to a violation of § 21-202(h) of this subtitle at an intersection monitored by a traffic control signal monitoring system.

(d) Violations; civil penalties. --

(1) Unless the driver of the motor vehicle received a citation from a police officer at the time of the violation, the owner or, in accordance with subsection (g)(5) of this section, the driver of a motor vehicle is subject to a civil penalty if the motor vehicle is recorded by a traffic control signal monitoring system while being operated in violation of § 21-202(h) of this subtitle.

(2) A civil penalty under this subsection may not exceed $ 100.

(3) For purposes of this section, the District Court shall prescribe:

(i) A uniform citation form consistent with subsection (e)(1) of this section and § 7-302 of the Courts and Judicial Proceedings Article; and

(ii) A civil penalty, which shall be indicated on the citation, to be paid by persons who choose to prepay the civil penalty without appearing in District Court.

(e) Citations; warning notice. --

(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs (2) through (4) of this subsection, an agency shall mail to the owner liable under subsection (d) of this section a citation which shall include:

(i) The name and address of the registered owner of the vehicle;

(ii) The registration number of the motor vehicle involved in the violation;

(iii) The violation charged;

(iv) The location of the intersection;

(v) The date and time of the violation;

(vi) A copy of the recorded image;

(vii) The amount of the civil penalty imposed and the date by which the civil penalty should be paid;

(viii) A signed statement by a technician employed by the agency that, based on inspection of recorded images, the motor vehicle was being operated in violation of § 21-202(h) of this subtitle;

(ix) A statement that recorded images are evidence of a violation of § 21-202(h) of this subtitle; and

(x) Information advising the person alleged to be liable under this section:

1. Of the manner and time in which liability as alleged in the citation may be contested in the District Court; and

2. Warning that failure to pay the civil penalty or to contest liability in a timely manner is an admission of liability and may result in refusal or suspension of the motor vehicle registration.

(2) The agency may mail a warning notice in lieu of a citation to the owner liable under subsection (d) of this section.

(3) Except as provided in subsection (g)(5) of this section, a citation issued under this section shall be mailed no later than 2 weeks after the alleged violation.

(4) An agency may not mail a citation to a person who is not an owner under subsection (a)(3)(ii) of this section.

(5) A person who receives a citation under paragraph (1) of this subsection may:

(i) Pay the civil penalty, in accordance with instructions on the citation, directly to the political subdivision or to the District Court; or

(ii) Elect to stand trial for the alleged violation.

(f) Evidence. --

(1) A certificate alleging that the violation of § 21-202(h) of this subtitle occurred, sworn to or affirmed by a duly authorized agent of the agency, based on inspection of recorded images produced by a traffic control signal monitoring system shall be evidence of the facts contained therein and shall be admissible in any proceeding alleging a violation under this section.

(2) Adjudication of liability shall be based on a preponderance of evidence.

(g) Defenses. --

(1) The District Court may consider in defense of a violation:

(i) That the driver of the vehicle passed through the intersection in violation of § 21-202(h) of this subtitle:

1. In order to yield the right-of-way to an emergency vehicle; or

2. As part of a funeral procession in accordance with § 21-207 of this subtitle;

(ii) Subject to paragraph (2) of this subsection, that the motor vehicle or registration plates of the motor vehicle were stolen before the violation occurred and were not under the control or possession of the owner at the time of the violation;

(iii) That under § 21-201 of this subtitle, this section is unenforceable against the owner because at the time and place of the alleged violation, the traffic control signal was not in proper position and legible enough to be seen by an ordinarily observant individual;

(iv) Subject to paragraph (3) of this subsection, evidence that the person named in the citation was not operating the vehicle at the time of the violation; and

(v) Any other issues and evidence that the District Court deems pertinent.

(2) In order to demonstrate that the motor vehicle or the registration plates were stolen before the violation occurred and were not under the control or possession of the owner at the time of the violation, the owner must submit proof that a police report about the stolen motor vehicle or registration plates was filed in a timely manner.

(3) To satisfy the evidentiary burden under paragraph (1)(iv) of this subsection, the person named in the citation shall provide to the District Court evidence to the satisfaction of the court of who was operating the vehicle at the time of the violation, including, at a minimum, the operator's name and current address.

(4) (i) The provisions of this paragraph apply only to a citation that involves a Class E (truck) vehicle with a registered gross weight of 26,001 pounds or more, Class F (tractor) vehicle, Class G (trailer) vehicle operated in combination with a Class F (tractor) vehicle, and Class P (passenger bus) vehicle.

(ii) To satisfy the evidentiary burden under paragraph (1)(iv) of this subsection, the person named in a citation described under subparagraph (i) of this paragraph may provide to the District Court a letter, sworn to or affirmed by the person and mailed by certified mail, return receipt requested, that:

1. States that the person named in the citation was not operating the vehicle at the time of the violation; and

2. Provides the name, address, and driver's license identification number of the person who was operating the vehicle at the time of the violation.

(5) (i) If the District Court finds that the person named in the citation was not operating the vehicle at the time of the violation or receives evidence under paragraph (4)(ii)2 of this subsection identifying the person driving the vehicle at the time of the violation, the clerk of the court shall provide to the agency issuing the citation a copy of any evidence substantiating who was operating the vehicle at the time of the violation.

(ii) Upon the receipt of substantiating evidence from the District Court under subparagraph (i) of this paragraph, an agency may issue a citation as provided in subsection (e) of this section to the person that the evidence indicates was operating the vehicle at the time of the violation.

(iii) A citation issued under subparagraph (ii) of this paragraph shall be mailed no later than 2 weeks after receipt of the evidence from the District Court.

(h) Failure to pay penalty or contest violation. -- If the civil penalty is not paid and the violation is not contested, the Administration may refuse to register or reregister or may suspend the registration of the motor vehicle.

(i) Nature of violations. -- A violation for which a civil penalty is imposed under this section:

(1) Is not a moving violation for the purpose of assessing points under § 16-402 of this article and may not be recorded by the Administration on the driving record of the owner or driver of the vehicle;

(2) May be treated as a parking violation for purposes of § 26-305 of this article; and

(3) May not be considered in the provision of motor vehicle insurance coverage.

(j) Procedures. -- In consultation with local governments, the chief judge of the District Court shall adopt procedures for the issuance of citations, the trial of civil violations, and the collection of civil penalties under this section.

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