2013 Maryland Code
§ 2-316 - Exclusion or modification of warranties

MD Comm L Code § 2-316 (2013) What's This?


(1) Words or conduct relevant to the creation of an express warranty and words or conduct tending to negate or limit warranty shall be construed wherever reasonable as consistent with each other; but subject to the provisions of this title on parol or extrinsic evidence (§ 2-202) negation or limitation is inoperative to the extent that such construction is unreasonable.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), to exclude or modify the implied warranty of merchantability or any part of it the language must mention merchantability and in case of a writing must be conspicuous, and to exclude or modify any implied warranty of fitness the exclusion must be by a writing and conspicuous. Language to exclude all implied warranties of fitness is sufficient if it states, for example, that “There are no warranties which extend beyond the description on the face hereof.”

(3) Notwithstanding subsection (2)

(a) Unless the circumstances indicate otherwise, all implied warranties are excluded by expressions like “as is,” “with all faults” or other language which in common understanding calls the buyer’s attention to the exclusion of warranties and makes plain that there is no implied warranty; and

(b) When the buyer before entering into the contract has examined the goods or the sample or model as fully as he desired or has refused to examine the goods there is no implied warranty with regard to defects which an examination ought in the circumstances to have revealed to him; and

(c) An implied warranty can also be excluded or modified by course of dealing or course of performance or usage of trade.

(4) Remedies for breach of warranty can be limited in accordance with the provisions of this title on liquidation or limitation of damages and on contractual modification of remedy (§§ 2-718 and 2-719).

§ 2-316 - 1. Limitation of exclusion or modification of warranties to consumers

(1) The provisions of § 2-316 do not apply to sales of consumer goods, as defined by § 9-102, services, or both.

(2) Any oral or written language used by a seller of consumer goods and services, which attempts to exclude or modify any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or to exclude or modify the consumer's remedies for breach of those warranties, is unenforceable. However, the seller may recover from the manufacturer any damages resulting from breach of the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.

(3) Any oral or written language used by a manufacturer of consumer goods, which attempts to limit or modify a consumer's remedies for breach of the manufacturer's express warranties, is unenforceable, unless the manufacturer provides reasonable and expeditious means of performing the warranty obligations.

(4) (a) The provisions of this section do not apply to a motor vehicle:

(i) Required to be titled under the Transportation Article;

(ii) That is over 6 model years old and that has been driven more than 60,000 miles; and

(iii) If, at the time of the sale of the motor vehicle, the seller gives the purchaser notice of the inapplicability of this section on the form prescribed under § 13-119 of the Transportation Article.

(b) (i) An exclusion or modification of an implied warranty of merchantability, or any part of a warranty under this subsection shall be in writing, mention merchantability, and be conspicuous.

(ii) An exclusion or modification of the implied warranty of fitness shall be in writing and conspicuous.

(iii) Any exclusion or modification of either warranty shall be separately acknowledged by the signature of the buyer.

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