2013 Maryland Code
CORPORATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS
§ 3-601 - Definitions


MD Corp & Assn Code § 3-601 (2013) What's This?

§3-601.

(a) In this subtitle the following words have the meanings indicated.

(b) “Affiliate”, including the term “affiliated person”, means a person that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, a specified person.

(c) “Associate”, when used to indicate a relationship with any person, means:

(1) Any corporation or organization (other than the corporation or a subsidiary of the corporation) of which such person is an officer, director, or partner or is, directly or indirectly, the beneficial owner of 10 percent or more of any class of equity securities;

(2) Any trust or other estate in which such person has a substantial beneficial interest or as to which such person serves as trustee or in a similar fiduciary capacity; and

(3) Any relative or spouse of such person, or any relative of such spouse, who has the same home as such person or who is a director or officer of the corporation or any of its affiliates.

(d) “Beneficial owner”, when used with respect to any voting stock, means a person that:

(1) Individually or with any of its affiliates or associates, beneficially owns voting stock, directly or indirectly;

(2) Individually or with any of its affiliates or associates, has:

(i) The right to acquire voting stock (whether the right is exercisable immediately or only after the passage of time), in accordance with any agreement, arrangement, or understanding, on the exercise of conversion rights, exchange rights, warrants, or options, or otherwise; or

(ii) Except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy, the right to vote voting stock in accordance with any agreement, arrangement, or understanding; or

(3) Except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy, has any agreement, arrangement, or understanding for the purpose of acquiring, holding, voting, or disposing of voting stock with any other person that beneficially owns, or the affiliates or associates of which beneficially own, directly or indirectly, the voting stock.

(e) “Business combination” means:

(1) Unless the merger, consolidation, or share exchange does not alter the contract rights of the stock as expressly set forth in the charter or change or convert in whole or in part the outstanding shares of stock of the corporation, any merger, consolidation, or share exchange of the corporation or any subsidiary with (i) any interested stockholder or (ii) any other corporation (whether or not itself an interested stockholder) which is, or after the merger, consolidation, or share exchange would be, an affiliate of an interested stockholder that was an interested stockholder prior to the transaction;

(2) Any sale, lease, transfer, or other disposition, other than in the ordinary course of business or pursuant to a dividend or any other method affording substantially proportionate treatment to the holders of voting stock, in one transaction or a series of transactions in any 12-month period, to any interested stockholder or any affiliate of any interested stockholder (other than the corporation or any of its subsidiaries) of any assets of the corporation or any subsidiary having, measured at the time the transaction or transactions are approved by the board of directors of the corporation, an aggregate book value as of the end of the corporation’s most recently ended fiscal quarter of 10 percent or more of the total market value of the outstanding stock of the corporation or of its net worth as of the end of its most recently ended fiscal quarter;

(3) The issuance or transfer by the corporation, or any subsidiary, in one transaction or a series of transactions, of any equity securities of the corporation or any subsidiary which have an aggregate market value of 5 percent or more of the total market value of the outstanding stock of the corporation to any interested stockholder or any affiliate of any interested stockholder (other than the corporation or any of its subsidiaries) except pursuant to the exercise of warrants or rights to purchase securities offered pro rata to all holders of the corporation’s voting stock or any other method affording substantially proportionate treatment to the holders of voting stock;

(4) The adoption of any plan or proposal for the liquidation or dissolution of the corporation in which anything other than cash will be received by an interested stockholder or any affiliate of any interested stockholder;

(5) Any reclassification of securities (including any reverse stock split), or recapitalization of the corporation, or any merger, consolidation, or share exchange of the corporation with any of its subsidiaries which has the effect, directly or indirectly, in one transaction or a series of transactions, of increasing by 5 percent or more of the total number of outstanding shares, the proportionate amount of the outstanding shares of any class of equity securities of the corporation or any subsidiary which is directly or indirectly owned by any interested stockholder or any affiliate of any interested stockholder; or

(6) The receipt by any interested stockholder or any affiliate of any interested stockholder (other than the corporation or any of its subsidiaries) of the benefit, directly or indirectly (except proportionately as a stockholder), of any loan, advance, guarantee, pledge, or other financial assistance or any tax credit or other tax advantage provided by the corporation or any of its subsidiaries.

(f) “Common stock” means any stock other than preferred or preference stock.

(g) “Control”, including the terms “controlling”, “controlled by” and “under common control with”, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract, or otherwise, and the beneficial ownership of 10 percent or more of the votes entitled to be cast by a corporation’s voting stock creates a presumption of control.

(h) “Corporation” includes a real estate investment trust as defined in Title 8 of this article.

(i) “Equity security” means:

(1) Any stock or similar security, certificate of interest, or participation in any profit sharing agreement, voting trust certificate, or certificate of deposit for an equity security;

(2) Any security convertible, with or without consideration, into an equity security, or any warrant or other security carrying any right to subscribe to or purchase an equity security; or

(3) Any put, call, straddle, or other option or privilege of buying an equity security from or selling an equity security to another without being bound to do so.

(j) “Interested stockholder” means any person (other than the corporation or any subsidiary) that:

(1) (i) Is the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10 percent or more of the voting power of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation after the date on which the corporation had 100 or more beneficial owners of its stock; or

(ii) Is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10 percent or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation:

1. At any time within the 2-year period immediately prior to the date in question; and

2. After the date on which the corporation had 100 or more beneficial owners of its stock.

(2) For the purpose of determining whether a person is an interested stockholder, the number of shares of voting stock deemed to be outstanding shall include shares deemed owned by the person through application of subsection (d) of this section but may not include any other shares of voting stock which may be issuable pursuant to any agreement, arrangement, or understanding, or upon exercise of conversion rights, warrants or options, or otherwise.

(3) A person is not an interested stockholder if, prior to the most recent time at which the person would otherwise have become an interested stockholder, the board of directors of the corporation approved the transaction which otherwise would have resulted in the person becoming an interested stockholder.

(4) In approving a transaction in accordance with paragraph (3) of this subsection, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board.

(k) “Market value” means:

(1) In the case of stock, the highest closing sale price during the 30-day period immediately preceding the date in question of a share of such stock on the composite tape for New York Stock Exchange-listed stocks, or, if such stock is not quoted on the composite tape, on the New York Stock Exchange, or, if such stock is not listed on such Exchange, on the principal United States securities exchange registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 on which such stock is listed, or, if such stock is not listed on any such exchange, the highest closing bid quotation with respect to a share of such stock during the 30-day period preceding the date in question on the National Association of Securities Dealers, Inc. automated quotations system or any system then in use, or, if no such quotations are available, the fair market value on the date in question of a share of such stock as determined by the board of directors of the corporation in good faith; and

(2) In the case of property other than cash or stock, the fair market value of such property on the date in question as determined by the board of directors of the corporation in good faith.

(l) “Original articles of incorporation” means:

(1) Articles of incorporation as originally filed or as amended in accordance with § 2-603 of this article; and

(2) Articles of incorporation as amended or restated by a corporation meeting the requirements of § 3-603(e)(1)(i), (ii), or (iv) of this subtitle, without regard to the voting requirements of § 3-603(e)(1)(iii) of this subtitle.

(m) “Subsidiary” means any corporation of which voting stock having a majority of the votes entitled to be cast is owned, directly or indirectly, by the corporation.

(n) “Voting stock” means shares of capital stock of a corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors.

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