Maryland Transportation Section 16-115
(a)   (1)   A license issued under this title to a driver at least 21 years old shall expire on the birth date of the licensee in the fifth year following the issuance of the license.
(2)   A license issued under this title to a driver under the age of 21 years shall expire 60 days after the driver's 21st birthday.
(3)   A license is renewable on the presentation of an application, the payment of the renewal fee required by § 16-111.1 of this subtitle, and satisfactory completion of the examination required or authorized by subsection (h) of this section:
(i)   Within 6 months before its expiration; or
(ii)   When a driver qualifies for a corrected license issued under § 16-114.1(c) of this subtitle.
(4)   Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, the Administration may not renew an individual's license for more than one consecutive term without requiring the individual to appear in person at an office of the Administration.
(b)   At least 60 days before a license expires, the Administration shall mail to each licensee, at the last address of the licensee shown in the records of the Administration, notice of the date on which the license will expire.
(c)   The Administration may renew a license within 1 year after the expiration date without requiring a driving test.
(d)   (1)   A license held by a member of the armed forces of the United States who is absent from this State on active service in the armed forces of the United States, or a dependent of the member who is residing with the member outside the State, shall remain in full force and effect during such absence.
(2)   The license also shall remain in effect, if it would otherwise have expired under this section, for a period of 30 days following the date of the licensee's return to this State, or the member's discharge or separation from active service:
(i)   If the licensee has in the licensee's immediate possession, together with the licensee's driver's license, papers indicating the member's active service outside this State or the member's discharge or separation; and
(ii)   If the license is not otherwise suspended, revoked, or canceled under this title during the 30-day period.
(e)   If a licensee is absent from this State for cause, other than as provided in subsection (d) of this section, and is unable to renew his license in the manner required by this section, the licensee may renew by mail to the Administration. The renewal application shall be accompanied by the prescribed fee and a statement giving the reason for and the expected length of the absence. On receipt of the application, the Administration may issue a regular license which bears a photo or a notation that it is valid without a photo until 15 days after the licensee first returns to this State.
(f)   An individual may not drive a motor vehicle on any highway in this State if the license issued to him under this title has expired.
(g)   An individual may not attempt to drive a motor vehicle on any highway in this State if the license issued to the individual under this title has expired.
(h)   (1)   Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, the Administration shall require every individual applying for renewal of a driver's license to pass a vision test as prescribed by the Administration.
(2)   (i)   The Administration shall accept a certification of acceptable visual acuity from a licensed physician or optometrist instead of requiring the actual test provided for in this subsection.
(ii)   The examination for which certification is made shall take place within 12 months of the date of application for renewal.
(3)   An individual at least 21 years of age but under the age of 40 years may apply for renewal of a driver's license electronically or by mail or other means authorized by the Administration without taking a vision test if the applicant has passed a vision test authorized by the Administration within the previous 6 years.
(4)   (i)   If the Administration has reason to believe that an individual is a safety hazard by reason of a vision deficiency, the Administration may require the vision test provided for in this subsection at a time other than renewal of a driver's license.
(ii)   The Administration may adopt regulations to implement the provisions of this subsection.
(i)   Before the expiration of a driver's license, if the Administration has reason to believe that an individual is not a safety hazard, but the individual is unable to pass a required knowledge test or vision test, the Administration may extend the individual's privilege to drive for a period not to exceed 90 days.