Maryland Commercial Law Section 13-301

Article - Commercial Law

§ 13-301.

CAUTION: READ FULL TEXT OF SECTION FOR SPECIAL NOTE

      Unfair or deceptive trade practices include any:

            (1)      False, falsely disparaging, or misleading oral or written statement, visual description, or other representation of any kind which has the capacity, tendency, or effect of deceiving or misleading consumers;

            (2)      Representation that:

                  (i)      Consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services have a sponsorship, approval, accessory, characteristic, ingredient, use, benefit, or quantity which they do not have;

                  (ii)      A merchant has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection which he does not have;

                  (iii)      Deteriorated, altered, reconditioned, reclaimed, or secondhand consumer goods are original or new; or

                  (iv)      Consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services are of a particular standard, quality, grade, style, or model which they are not;

            (3)      Failure to state a material fact if the failure deceives or tends to deceive;

            (4)      Disparagement of the goods, realty, services, or business of another by a false or misleading representation of a material fact;

            (5)      Advertisement or offer of consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services:

                  (i)      Without intent to sell, lease, or rent them as advertised or offered; or

                  (ii)      With intent not to supply reasonably expected public demand, unless the advertisement or offer discloses a limitation of quantity or other qualifying condition;

            (6)      False or misleading representation of fact which concerns:

                  (i)      The reason for or the existence or amount of a price reduction; or

                  (ii)      A price in comparison to a price of a competitor or to one's own price at a past or future time;

            (7)      Knowingly false statement that a service, replacement, or repair is needed;

            (8)      False statement which concerns the reason for offering or supplying consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services at sale or discount prices;

            (9)      Deception, fraud, false pretense, false premise, misrepresentation, or knowing concealment, suppression, or omission of any material fact with the intent that a consumer rely on the same in connection with:

                  (i)      The promotion or sale of any consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer service;

                  (ii)      A contract or other agreement for the evaluation, perfection, marketing, brokering or promotion of an invention; or

                  (iii)      The subsequent performance of a merchant with respect to an agreement of sale, lease, or rental;

            (10)      Solicitations of sales or services over the telephone without first clearly, affirmatively, and expressly stating:

                  (i)      The solicitor's name and the trade name of a person represented by the solicitor;

                  (ii)      The purpose of telephone conversation; and

                  (iii)      The kind of merchandise, real property, intangibles, or service solicited;

            (11)      Use of any plan or scheme in soliciting sales or services over the telephone that misrepresents the solicitor's true status or mission;

            (12)      Use of a contract related to a consumer transaction which contains a confessed judgment clause that waives the consumer's right to assert a legal defense to an action;

            (13)      Use by a seller, who is in the business of selling consumer realty, of a contract related to the sale of single family residential consumer realty, including condominiums and town houses, that contains a clause limiting or precluding the buyer's right to obtain consequential damages as a result of the seller's breach or cancellation of the contract;

            (14)      Violation of a provision of:

                  (i)      This title;

                  (ii)      An order of the Attorney General or agreement of a party relating to unit pricing under Title 14, Subtitle 1 of this article;

                  (iii)      Title 14, Subtitle 2 of this article, the Maryland Consumer Debt Collection Act;

                  (iv)      Title 14, Subtitle 3 of this article, the Maryland Door-to-Door Sales Act;

                  (v)      Title 14, Subtitle 9 of this article, Kosher Products;

                  (vi)      Title 14, Subtitle 10 of this article, Automotive Repair Facilities;

                  (vii)      Section 14-1302 of this article;

                  (viii)      Title 14, Subtitle 11 of this article, Maryland Layaway Sales Act;

                  (ix)      Section 22-415 of the Transportation Article;

                  (x)      Title 14, Subtitle 20 of this article;

                  (xi)      Title 14, Subtitle 15 of this article, the Automotive Warranty Enforcement Act;

                  (xii)      Title 14, Subtitle 21 of this article;

                  (xiii)      Section 18-107 of the Transportation Article;

                  (xiv)      Title 14, Subtitle 22 of this article, the Maryland Telephone Solicitations Act;

                  (xv)      Title 14, Subtitle 23 of this article, the Automotive Crash Parts Act;

                  (xvi)      Title 10, Subtitle 6 of the Real Property Article;

                  (xvii)      Title 14, Subtitle 25 of this article, the Hearing Aid Sales Act;

                  (xviii)      Title 14, Subtitle 26 of this article, the Maryland Door-to-Door Solicitations Act;

                  (xix)      Title 14, Subtitle 31 of this article, the Maryland Household Goods Movers Act; or

                  (xx)      Title 14, Subtitle 32 of this article, the Maryland Telephone Consumer Protection Act; or

            (15)      Act or omission that relates to a residential building and that is chargeable as a misdemeanor under or otherwise violates a provision of the Energy Conservation Building Standards Act, Title 7, Subtitle 4 of the Public Utility Companies Article.

** SPECIAL NOTE: EFFECTIVE - JANUARY 1, 2006 - CHAPTER 521 - 2005 **

      Unfair or deceptive trade practices include any:

            (1)      False, falsely disparaging, or misleading oral or written statement, visual description, or other representation of any kind which has the capacity, tendency, or effect of deceiving or misleading consumers;

            (2)      Representation that:

                  (i)      Consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services have a sponsorship, approval, accessory, characteristic, ingredient, use, benefit, or quantity which they do not have;

                  (ii)      A merchant has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection which he does not have;

                  (iii)      Deteriorated, altered, reconditioned, reclaimed, or secondhand consumer goods are original or new; or

                  (iv)      Consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services are of a particular standard, quality, grade, style, or model which they are not;

            (3)      Failure to state a material fact if the failure deceives or tends to deceive;

            (4)      Disparagement of the goods, realty, services, or business of another by a false or misleading representation of a material fact;

            (5)      Advertisement or offer of consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services:

                  (i)      Without intent to sell, lease, or rent them as advertised or offered; or

                  (ii)      With intent not to supply reasonably expected public demand, unless the advertisement or offer discloses a limitation of quantity or other qualifying condition;

            (6)      False or misleading representation of fact which concerns:

                  (i)      The reason for or the existence or amount of a price reduction; or

                  (ii)      A price in comparison to a price of a competitor or to one's own price at a past or future time;

            (7)      Knowingly false statement that a service, replacement, or repair is needed;

            (8)      False statement which concerns the reason for offering or supplying consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services at sale or discount prices;

            (9)      Deception, fraud, false pretense, false premise, misrepresentation, or knowing concealment, suppression, or omission of any material fact with the intent that a consumer rely on the same in connection with:

                  (i)      The promotion or sale of any consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer service;

                  (ii)      A contract or other agreement for the evaluation, perfection, marketing, brokering or promotion of an invention; or

                  (iii)      The subsequent performance of a merchant with respect to an agreement of sale, lease, or rental;

            (10)      Solicitations of sales or services over the telephone without first clearly, affirmatively, and expressly stating:

                  (i)      The solicitor's name and the trade name of a person represented by the solicitor;

                  (ii)      The purpose of telephone conversation; and

                  (iii)      The kind of merchandise, real property, intangibles, or service solicited;

            (11)      Use of any plan or scheme in soliciting sales or services over the telephone that misrepresents the solicitor's true status or mission;

            (12)      Use of a contract related to a consumer transaction which contains a confessed judgment clause that waives the consumer's right to assert a legal defense to an action;

            (13)      Use by a seller, who is in the business of selling consumer realty, of a contract related to the sale of single family residential consumer realty, including condominiums and town houses, that contains a clause limiting or precluding the buyer's right to obtain consequential damages as a result of the seller's breach or cancellation of the contract;

            (14)      Violation of a provision of:

                  (i)      This title;

                  (ii)      An order of the Attorney General or agreement of a party relating to unit pricing under Title 14, Subtitle 1 of this article;

                  (iii)      Title 14, Subtitle 2 of this article, the Maryland Consumer Debt Collection Act;

                  (iv)      Title 14, Subtitle 3 of this article, the Maryland Door-to-Door Sales Act;

                  (v)      Title 14, Subtitle 9 of this article, Kosher Products;

                  (vi)      Title 14, Subtitle 10 of this article, Automotive Repair Facilities;

                  (vii)      Section 14-1302 of this article;

                  (viii)      Title 14, Subtitle 11 of this article, Maryland Layaway Sales Act;

                  (ix)      Section 22-415 of the Transportation Article;

                  (x)      Title 14, Subtitle 20 of this article;

                  (xi)      Title 14, Subtitle 15 of this article, the Automotive Warranty Enforcement Act;

                  (xii)      Title 14, Subtitle 21 of this article;

                  (xiii)      Section 18-107 of the Transportation Article;

                  (xiv)      Title 14, Subtitle 22 of this article, the Maryland Telephone Solicitations Act;

                  (xv)      Title 14, Subtitle 23 of this article, the Automotive Crash Parts Act;

                  (xvi)      Title 10, Subtitle 6 of the Real Property Article;

                  (xvii)      Title 14, Subtitle 25 of this article, the Hearing Aid Sales Act;

                  (xviii)      Title 14, Subtitle 26 of this article, the Maryland Door-to-Door Solicitations Act;

                  (xix)      Title 14, Subtitle 31 of this article, the Maryland Household Goods Movers Act;

                  (xx)      Title 14, Subtitle 32 of this article, the Maryland Telephone Consumer Protection Act; or

                  (xxi)      Title 14, Subtitle 33 of this article, the Social Security Number Privacy Act; or

            (15)      Act or omission that relates to a residential building and that is chargeable as a misdemeanor under or otherwise violates a provision of the Energy Conservation Building Standards Act, Title 7, Subtitle 4 of the Public Utility Companies Article.

** SPECIAL NOTE: EFFECTIVE - JULY 1, 2006 - CHAPTER 456 - 2005 **

      Unfair or deceptive trade practices include any:

            (1)      False, falsely disparaging, or misleading oral or written statement, visual description, or other representation of any kind which has the capacity, tendency, or effect of deceiving or misleading consumers;

            (2)      Representation that:

                  (i)      Consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services have a sponsorship, approval, accessory, characteristic, ingredient, use, benefit, or quantity which they do not have;

                  (ii)      A merchant has a sponsorship, approval, status, affiliation, or connection which he does not have;

                  (iii)      Deteriorated, altered, reconditioned, reclaimed, or secondhand consumer goods are original or new; or

                  (iv)      Consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services are of a particular standard, quality, grade, style, or model which they are not;

            (3)      Failure to state a material fact if the failure deceives or tends to deceive;

            (4)      Disparagement of the goods, realty, services, or business of another by a false or misleading representation of a material fact;

            (5)      Advertisement or offer of consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services:

                  (i)      Without intent to sell, lease, or rent them as advertised or offered; or

                  (ii)      With intent not to supply reasonably expected public demand, unless the advertisement or offer discloses a limitation of quantity or other qualifying condition;

            (6)      False or misleading representation of fact which concerns:

                  (i)      The reason for or the existence or amount of a price reduction; or

                  (ii)      A price in comparison to a price of a competitor or to one's own price at a past or future time;

            (7)      Knowingly false statement that a service, replacement, or repair is needed;

            (8)      False statement which concerns the reason for offering or supplying consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer services at sale or discount prices;

            (9)      Deception, fraud, false pretense, false premise, misrepresentation, or knowing concealment, suppression, or omission of any material fact with the intent that a consumer rely on the same in connection with:

                  (i)      The promotion or sale of any consumer goods, consumer realty, or consumer service;

                  (ii)      A contract or other agreement for the evaluation, perfection, marketing, brokering or promotion of an invention; or

                  (iii)      The subsequent performance of a merchant with respect to an agreement of sale, lease, or rental;

            (10)      Solicitations of sales or services over the telephone without first clearly, affirmatively, and expressly stating:

                  (i)      The solicitor's name and the trade name of a person represented by the solicitor;

                  (ii)      The purpose of telephone conversation; and

                  (iii)      The kind of merchandise, real property, intangibles, or service solicited;

            (11)      Use of any plan or scheme in soliciting sales or services over the telephone that misrepresents the solicitor's true status or mission;

            (12)      Use of a contract related to a consumer transaction which contains a confessed judgment clause that waives the consumer's right to assert a legal defense to an action;

            (13)      Use by a seller, who is in the business of selling consumer realty, of a contract related to the sale of single family residential consumer realty, including condominiums and town houses, that contains a clause limiting or precluding the buyer's right to obtain consequential damages as a result of the seller's breach or cancellation of the contract;

            (14)      Violation of a provision of:

                  (i)      This title;

                  (ii)      An order of the Attorney General or agreement of a party relating to unit pricing under Title 14, Subtitle 1 of this article;

                  (iii)      Title 14, Subtitle 2 of this article, the Maryland Consumer Debt Collection Act;

                  (iv)      Title 14, Subtitle 3 of this article, the Maryland Door-to-Door Sales Act;

                  (v)      Title 14, Subtitle 9 of this article, Kosher Products;

                  (vi)      Title 14, Subtitle 10 of this article, Automotive Repair Facilities;

                  (vii)      Section 14-1302 of this article;

                  (viii)      Title 14, Subtitle 11 of this article, Maryland Layaway Sales Act;

                  (ix)      Section 22-415 of the Transportation Article;

                  (x)      Title 14, Subtitle 20 of this article;

                  (xi)      Title 14, Subtitle 15 of this article, the Automotive Warranty Enforcement Act;

                  (xii)      Title 14, Subtitle 21 of this article;

                  (xiii)      Section 18-107 of the Transportation Article;

                  (xiv)      Title 14, Subtitle 22 of this article, the Maryland Telephone Solicitations Act;

                  (xv)      Title 14, Subtitle 23 of this article, the Automotive Crash Parts Act;

                  (xvi)      Title 10, Subtitle 6 of the Real Property Article;

                  (xvii)      Title 14, Subtitle 25 of this article, the Hearing Aid Sales Act;

                  (xviii)      Title 14, Subtitle 26 of this article, the Maryland Door-to-Door Solicitations Act;

                  (xix)      Title 14, Subtitle 31 of this article, the Maryland Household Goods Movers Act;

                  (xx)      Title 14, Subtitle 32 of this article, the Maryland Telephone Consumer Protection Act;

                  (xxi)      Title 14, Subtitle 33 of this article, the Social Security Number Privacy Act; or

                  (xxii)      Section 14-1319 or § 14-1320 of this article; or

            (15)      Act or omission that relates to a residential building and that is chargeable as a misdemeanor under or otherwise violates a provision of the Energy Conservation Building Standards Act, Title 7, Subtitle 4 of the Public Utility Companies Article.