2018 Louisiana Laws
TITLE 15 - Criminal Procedure
RS 15:1310 - Procedure for interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications
§1310. Procedure for interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications
A. Each application for an order authorizing or approving the interception of a wire, electronic, or oral communication shall be made in writing upon oath or affirmation to a judge in whose district such interception of wire, electronic, or oral communication shall take place and shall state the applicant's authority to make such application. Each application shall include the following information:
(1) The identity of the investigative or law enforcement officer making the application and the person authorizing the application.
(2) A full and complete statement of the facts and circumstances relied upon by the applicant to justify his belief that an order should be issued, including:
(a) Details as to the particular offense that has been, is being, or is about to be committed,
(b) A particular description of the nature and location of the facilities from which or the place where the communication is to be intercepted,
(c) A particular description of the type of communications sought to be intercepted, and
(d) The identity of the person, if known, committing the offense and whose communications are to be intercepted.
(3) A full and complete statement as to whether or not other investigative procedures have been tried and failed or why they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be too dangerous, or that such circumstances exist that without immediate action a human life may be endangered.
(4) A statement of the period of time for which the interception is required to be maintained, which shall not exceed thirty days.
(5) When the application is for the extension of an order, a statement setting forth the results thus far obtained from the interception, or a reasonable explanation of the failure to obtain such results.
(6) A full and complete statement of the facts concerning previous applications for the past five years, known to the individuals authorizing and making the application, made to any judge for authorization to intercept, or for approval of interception of, wire, electronic, or oral communications involving any of the same persons, facilities, or places specified in the application, and the action taken by the judge on each such application.
B.(1) If statements of an identified or unidentified informant are relied upon in the application as a basis for establishing that there are reasonable grounds to believe that an offense has been, is being, or is about to be committed, the application shall set forth the factual basis for the affiant's belief that the informant is credible and that the information has been obtained in a reliable manner. The informant shall be presented to the judge and be sworn to afford the judge opportunity to inquire if the statements made in the application are true. The application shall so state that the informant was presented to the judge and sworn for such purpose. This provision shall not affect the privileged character of the identity of an informant. Nothing herein shall be construed to require the identification of a confidential informant.
(2) The judge may require the applicant to furnish additional testimony or documentary evidence.
C. Upon such application the judge may enter an ex parte order, as requested or as modified, authorizing or approving interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications within the territorial jurisdiction of the district in which the judge is sitting, if the judge determines on the basis of the facts submitted by the applicant that:
(1) There is probable cause for belief that an individual is committing, has committed, or is about to commit a particular offense enumerated in R.S. 15:1308.
(2) There is probable cause for belief that particular communications concerning that offense will be obtained through such interception.
(3) There is probable cause for belief that the facilities from which, or the place where, the wire or oral communications are to be intercepted are being used, or are about to be used, in connection with the commission of such offense or are leased to, listed in the name of, or commonly used by such person.
(4) There is reason to believe that investigative procedures have been tried and failed or they reasonably appear to be unlikely to succeed if tried or to be dangerous, or that such circumstances exist that without immediate action a human life may be endangered.
(5) The interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications, as planned, is not reasonably expected to intercept privileged communications.
D.(1) Each order authorizing or approving the interception of any wire, electronic, or oral communication shall specify:
(a) The identity of the person, if known, whose communications are to be intercepted.
(b) The nature and location of the communications facilities as to which, or the place where, authority to intercept is granted.
(c) A particular description of the type of communication sought to be intercepted and a statement of the particular offense to which it relates.
(d) The identity of the agency authorized to intercept the communications, the person applying for the application, and the person authorizing the application.
(e) The period of time during which such interception is authorized.
(2) An order issued under this Section shall direct, upon request of the applicant, the furnishing of information, facilities, and technical assistance necessary to accomplish the installation of the pen register or trap and trace device under R.S. 15:1312.1.
E. No order entered under this Section may authorize or approve the interception of any wire, electronic, or oral communication for any period longer than is necessary to achieve the objective of the investigation, and in no event longer than thirty days. Extensions of an order may be granted, but only upon application for an extension made in accordance with Subsection A of this Section and the court's making the findings required by Subsection C of this Section. The period of extension shall be no longer than the authorizing judge deems necessary to achieve the purposes for which it was granted and in no event for longer than thirty successive days or until the described type of communication has been obtained. Every order and extension thereof shall contain a provision that the authorization to intercept shall be executed as soon as practicable, shall be conducted in such a way as to minimize the interception of communications not otherwise subject to interception under this Chapter, and must terminate upon completion of the investigation or expiration of the order.
F.(1) The contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication intercepted by any means authorized by this Chapter shall be recorded on tape or wire or other comparable device. The recording of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication under this Subsection shall be done in such way as will protect the recording from editing or other alterations. Immediately upon the expiration of the period of the order, or extensions thereof, such recordings shall be made available to the judge issuing such order and sealed under his directions. Custody of the recording shall be wherever the judge orders. They shall not be destroyed except upon an order of the issuing or denying judge and in any event shall be kept for ten years. Duplicate recordings may be made for use or disclosure pursuant to the provisions of R.S. 15:1309(A) and (B) for investigations. The presence of the seal provided for by this Subsection, or a satisfactory explanation for the absence thereof, shall be a prerequisite for the use or disclosure of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom under R.S. 15:1309(C).
(2) Applications made and orders granted under this Chapter shall be sealed by the judge. Custody of the applications and orders shall be wherever the judge directs. Such applications and orders shall be disclosed only upon a showing of good cause before a judge in whose district the interception of wire, electronic, or oral communication took place and shall not be destroyed, except on order of the issuing or denying judge, and in any event shall be kept for ten years.
(3) Any violation of the provisions of this Subsection may be punished as contempt of the issuing or denying judge.
(4) Within a reasonable time, but not later than ninety days after the filing of an application for an order of approval, the issuing judge shall cause to be served, on the persons named in the order of the application, and such other parties to intercepted communications as the judge may determine in his discretion to be in the interest of justice, an inventory which shall include notice of:
(a) The fact of the entry of the order or the application;
(b) The date of the entry and the period of authorized, approved, or disapproved interception, or the denial of the application; and
(c) The fact that during the period wire, electronic, or oral communications were or were not intercepted. The judge, upon the filing of a motion, may in his discretion make available to such person or his counsel for inspection such portions of the intercepted communications, applications, and orders as the judge determines to be in the interest of justice. On an ex parte showing of good cause to a judge in whose district the interception of wire, electronic, or oral communications took place, the serving of the inventory required by this Subsection may be postponed until such time as may be appropriate in the circumstances.
(5) Whenever an order authorizing the interceptions is entered pursuant to this Chapter, the order shall require reports to be made to the judge who issued the order showing what progress has been made toward achievement of the authorized objective and the need for continued interception. Such reports shall be made at such intervals as the judge may require.
G. The contents of any intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communication or evidence derived therefrom shall not be received in evidence or otherwise disclosed in any trial, hearing, or other proceeding in any court unless each party, not less than thirty days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, has been furnished with a copy of the court order, and accompanying application, under which the interception was authorized or approved. This thirty-day period may be waived by the judge if he finds that it was not possible to furnish the party with the above information thirty days before the trial, hearing, or proceeding and that the party will not be prejudiced by the delay in receiving such information.
H.(1) Any aggrieved person in any trial, hearing, or proceeding in or before any court, department, officer, agency, regulatory body, or other authority of the state, or a political subdivision thereof, may move to suppress the contents of any intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, on the grounds that:
(a) The communication was unlawfully intercepted;
(b) The order of authorization or approval under which it was intercepted is insufficient on its face; or
(c) The interception was not made in conformity with the order of authorization or approval.
(2) Such motion shall be made before the trial, hearing, or proceeding, unless there was not opportunity to make such motion or the person was not aware of the grounds of the motion. If the motion is granted, the contents of the intercepted wire, electronic, or oral communication, or evidence derived therefrom, shall be treated as having been obtained in violation of this Chapter. The judge, upon the filing of such motion by the aggrieved person, may in his discretion make available to the aggrieved person or his counsel for inspection such portion of the intercepted communication or evidence derived therefrom as the judge determines to be in the interests of justice.
(3) In addition to any other right to appeal, the state shall have the right to appeal from an order granting a motion to suppress made under this Subsection, or the denial of any application for an order of approval, if the attorney general or district attorney shall certify to the judge or other official granting such motion or denying such application that the appeal is not taken for purposes of delay. Such appeal shall be taken within thirty days after the date the order was entered and shall be diligently prosecuted.
Acts 1985, No. 859, §1, eff. July 23, 1985; Acts 2007, No. 132, §1; Acts 2012, No. 727, §2.