2017 Kentucky Revised Statutes
CHAPTER 304 - INSURANCE CODE
Subtitle 39 - Motor Vehicle Reparations Act
304.39-060 Acceptance or rejection of partial abolition of tort liability -- Exceptions.
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Acceptance or rejection of partial abolition of tort liability -Exceptions.
Any person who registers, operates, maintains or uses a motor vehicle on the public
roadways of this Commonwealth shall, as a condition of such registration,
operation, maintenance or use of such motor vehicle and use of the public
roadways, be deemed to have accepted the provisions of this subtitle, and in
particular those provisions which are contained in this section.
(a) Tort liability with respect to accidents occurring in this Commonwealth and
arising from the ownership, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle is
"abolished" for damages because of bodily injury, sickness or disease to the
extent the basic reparation benefits provided in this subtitle are payable
therefor, or that would be payable but for any deductible authorized by this
subtitle, under any insurance policy or other method of security complying
with the requirements of this subtitle, except to the extent noneconomic
detriment qualifies under paragraph (b) of this subsection.
(b) In any action of tort brought against the owner, registrant, operator or
occupant of a motor vehicle with respect to which security has been provided
as required in this subtitle, or against any person or organization legally
responsible for his or her acts or omissions, a plaintiff may recover damages
in tort for pain, suffering, mental anguish and inconvenience because of bodily
injury, sickness or disease arising out of the ownership, maintenance,
operation or use of such motor vehicle only in the event that the benefits
which are payable for such injury as "medical expense" or which would be
payable but for any exclusion or deductible authorized by this subtitle exceed
one thousand dollars ($1,000), or the injury or disease consists in whole or in
part of permanent disfigurement, a fracture to a bone, a compound,
comminuted, displaced or compressed fracture, loss of a body member,
permanent injury within reasonable medical probability, permanent loss of
bodily function or death. Any person who is entitled to receive free medical
and surgical benefits shall be deemed in compliance with the requirements of
this subsection upon a showing that the medical treatment received has an
equivalent value of at least one thousand dollars ($1,000).
(c) Tort liability is not so limited for injury to a person who is not an owner,
operator, maintainer or user of a motor vehicle within subsection (1) of this
section, nor for injury to the passenger of a motorcycle arising out of the
maintenance or use of such motorcycle.
For purposes of this section and the provisions on reparation obligor's rights of
reimbursement, subrogation, and indemnity, a person does not intentionally cause
harm merely because his or her act or failure to act is intentional or done with the
realization that it creates a grave risk of harm.
Any person may refuse to consent to the limitations of his or her tort rights and
liabilities as contained in this section. Such rejection must be completed in writing
or electronically in a form to be prescribed by the Department of Insurance and
must have been executed and filed with the department at a time prior to any motor
vehicle accident for which such rejection is to apply. Such rejection form shall
affirmatively state in bold print that acceptance of this form of insurance denies the
applicant the right to sue a negligent motorist unless certain requirements contained
in the policy of insurance are met. Rejection by a person who is under legal
disability shall be made on behalf of such person by his or her legal guardian,
conservator, or natural parent. The failure of such guardian or a natural parent of a
person under legal disability to file a rejection, within six (6) months from the date
that this subtitle would otherwise become applicable to such person, shall be
deemed to be an affirmative acceptance of all provisions of this subtitle. Provided,
however, any person who, at the time of an accident, does not have basic reparation
insurance but has not formally rejected such limitations of his or her tort rights and
liabilities and has at such time in effect security equivalent to that required by KRS
304.39-110 shall be deemed to have fully rejected such limitations within meaning
of this section for that accident only.
(a) Any rejection must be filed with the Department of Insurance and shall
become effective on the date of its filing until revoked. Nothing in this section
shall require a new rejection to be filed for each new motor vehicle policy
(b) Any rejection filed prior to June 30, 1980, shall be deemed to be effective
from the date of its filing until revoked; and
(c) Any revocation shall be in writing and shall become effective upon the date of
its filing with the Department of Insurance.
Every insurance company when issuing an automobile policy to a resident of this
Commonwealth must inform the buyer in writing in a form to be prescribed by the
insurance commissioner of his or her right to reject the limitations of the tort rights
and liabilities under this subtitle in the manner provided in subsections (4) and (7)
of this section.
Any rejection shall result in the full retention by the individual of his or her tort
rights and tort liabilities. Any person injured by a motor vehicle operator who has
such rejection on file may claim the full damages, including nonpecuniary damages,
or, if such injured person has not rejected his or her own tort limitations, he or she
may also claim basic reparation benefits from the appropriate security on the vehicle
as established under KRS 304.39-050. If such provider of security is other than the
one providing security for the operator who has rejected the limitations, such
provider shall be subrogated to the rights of the injured person to the extent of
reparation benefits paid against the owner and operator of the vehicle.
No person who has rejected the tort limitations under this section, except as
provided in subsection (9) of this section or KRS 304.39-140(5), may collect basic
Any owner or operator of a motorcycle, as defined in Kentucky Revised Statutes,
may file a rejection as described in subsections (4) and (5) of this section, which
will apply solely to the ownership and operation of a motorcycle but will not apply
to injury resulting from the ownership, operation or use of any other type of motor
Effective: July 15, 2010
History: Amended 2010 Ky. Acts ch. 24, sec. 1525, effective July 15, 2010; and ch.
166, sec. 11, effective July 15, 2010. -- Amended 1986 Ky. Acts ch. 37, sec. 1,
effective July 15, 1986. -- Amended 1980 Ky. Acts ch. 364, sec. 1, effective July 15,
1980. -- Amended 1976 Ky. Acts ch. 75, sec. 2, effective March 29, 1976. -- Created
1974 Ky. Acts ch. 385, sec. 6, effective July 1, 1975.
1980 Ky. Acts ch. 396, sec. 92 would have amended this section effective July
1, 1982. However, 1980 Ky. Acts ch. 396 was repealed by 1982 Ky. Acts ch. 141,
sec. 146, also effective July 1,1982.
Legislative Research Commission Note (7/15/2010). This section was amended by
2010 Ky. Acts chs. 24 and 166, which do not appear to be in conflict and have been
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