2019 Idaho Code
Title 36 - FISH AND GAME

Universal Citation: ID Code § 36-1604 (2019)

36-1604. LIMITATION OF LIABILITY OF LANDOWNER. (a) Statement of Purpose. The purpose of this section is to encourage owners of land to make land, airstrips and water areas available to the public without charge for recreational purposes by limiting their liability toward persons entering thereon for such purposes.

(b) Definitions. As used in this section:

(1) "Airstrips" means either improved or unimproved landing areas used by pilots to land, park, take off, unload, load and taxi aircraft. Airstrips shall not include landing areas that are or may become eligible to receive federal funding pursuant to the federal airport and airway improvement act of 1982 and subsequent amendments thereto.

(2) "Governmental entity" shall have the same meaning as provided in section 6-902, Idaho Code.

(3) "Land" means private or public land, roads, airstrips, trails, water, watercourses, irrigation dams, water control structures, headgates, private or public ways and buildings, structures, and machinery or equipment when attached to or used on the realty.

(4) "Owner" means the possessor of a fee interest, a tenant, lessee, occupant or person in control of the premises.

(5) "Recreational purposes" includes, but is not limited to, any of the following activities or any combination thereof: hunting, fishing, swimming, boating, rafting, tubing, camping, picnicking, hiking, pleasure driving, the flying of aircraft, bicycling, running, playing on playground equipment, skateboarding, athletic competition, nature study, waterskiing, animal riding, motorcycling, snowmobiling, recreational vehicles, winter sports, and viewing or enjoying historical, archeological, scenic, geological or scientific sites, when done without charge of the owner.

(c) Owner Exempt from Warning. An owner of land owes no duty of care to keep the premises safe for entry by others for recreational purposes, or to give any warning of a dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity on such premises to persons entering for such purposes. Neither the installation of a sign or other form of warning of a dangerous condition, use, structure, or activity, nor any modification made for the purpose of improving the safety of others, nor the failure to maintain or keep in place any sign, other form of warning, or modification made to improve safety, shall create liability on the part of an owner of land where there is no other basis for such liability.

(d) Owner Assumes No Liability. An owner of land or equipment who either directly or indirectly invites or permits without charge any person to use such property for recreational purposes does not thereby:

(1) Extend any assurance that the premises are safe for any purpose.

(2) Confer upon such person the legal status of an invitee or licensee to whom a duty of care is owed.

(3) Assume responsibility for or incur liability for any injury to person or property caused by an act of omission of such persons.

(e) Provisions Apply to Leased Public Land. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the provisions of this section shall be deemed applicable to the duties and liability of an owner of land who grants public access for recreational purposes pursuant to a lease or other agreement with a governmental entity as long as the landowner does not directly charge individual members of the public for such access, regardless of whether the governmental entity provides landowners with remuneration.

(f) Provisions Apply to Land Subject to a Conservation Easement. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, the provisions of this section shall be deemed applicable to the duties and liability of an owner of land subject to a conservation easement to any governmental entity or nonprofit organization.

(g) Provisions Apply to Funding, Maintenance or Improvements. The provisions of this section shall be deemed applicable to the duties and liability of any governmental entity, nongovernmental organization or person that provides funds, reasonably performs maintenance, reasonably makes or supports improvements, holds conservation easements or takes similar reasonable action regarding land made available to the public without charge for recreational purposes.

(h) Owner Not Required to Keep Land Safe. Nothing in this section shall be construed to:

(1) Create a duty of care or ground of liability for injury to persons or property.

(2) Relieve any person using the land of another for recreational purposes from any obligation which he may have in the absence of this section to exercise care in his use of such land and in his activities thereon, or from legal consequences or failure to employ such care.

(3) Apply to any person or persons who for compensation permit the land to be used for recreational purposes.

(i) User Liable for Damages. Any person using the land of another for recreational purposes, with or without permission, shall be liable for any damage to property, livestock or crops which he may cause while on said property, in addition to all remedies provided in section 6-202, Idaho Code, in the event the person has committed a civil trespass.


[36-1604, added 1976, ch. 95, sec. 2, p. 368; am. 1980, ch. 161, sec. 1, p. 349; am. 1988, ch. 230, sec. 1, p. 443; am. 1988, ch. 336, sec. 1, p. 1002; am. 1999, ch. 72, sec. 1, p. 194; am. 2002, ch. 346, sec. 1, p. 981; am. 2003, ch. 265, sec. 1, p. 702; am. 2006, ch. 279, sec. 1, p. 861; am. 2018, ch. 50, sec. 2, p. 130; am. 2018, ch. 350, sec. 12, p. 838; am. 2019, ch. 176, sec. 1, p. 568.]

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