2021 Georgia Code
Title 51 - Torts
Chapter 3 - Liability of Owners and Occupiers of Land
Article 1 - General Provisions
§ 51-3-1. Duty of Owner or Occupier of Land to Invitee

Universal Citation: GA Code § 51-3-1 (2021)

Where an owner or occupier of land, by express or implied invitation, induces or leads others to come upon his premises for any lawful purpose, he is liable in damages to such persons for injuries caused by his failure to exercise ordinary care in keeping the premises and approaches safe.

(Civil Code 1895, § 3824; Civil Code 1910, § 4420; Code 1933, § 105-401.)

Law reviews.

- For article discussing property owner liability in "slip and fall" cases, see 14 Ga. St. B. J. 131 (1978). For article surveying torts law, see 34 Mercer L. Rev. 271 (1982). For annual survey of torts law, see 35 Mercer L. Rev. 291 (1983). For article, "Changes in Liability Standards for Owners and Occupiers," see 20 Ga. St. B. J. 41 (1983). For article, "Construction Law," see 53 Mercer L. Rev. 173 (2001). For article, "Premises Liability for Criminal Attacks: Same Crimes, New Law," see 5 Ga. St. B. J. 54 (1999). For survey article on construction law, see 60 Mercer L. Rev. 59 (2008). For annual survey on law of torts, see 61 Mercer L. Rev. 335 (2009). For annual survey on torts, see 64 Mercer L. Rev. 287 (2012). For annual survey of tort law, see 68 Mercer L. Rev. 279 (2016). For article, "Premises Liability and Apportionment Following Martin v. Six Flags Over Georgia II, L.P.," see 69 Mercer L. Rev. 1 (2017). For annual survey on construction law, see 69 Mercer L. Rev. 63 (2017). For annual survey on torts law, see 69 Mercer L. Rev. 299 (2017). For note contrasting attractive nuisance doctrine in Georgia with that in California, see 22 Ga. B. J. 563 (1960). For note discussing Georgia's approach to social guests injured on the land of another, and advocating elevation of the expressly invited social guest to the status of invitee, see 6 Ga. St. B. J. 130 (1969). For note discussing landlord liability for crime in apartments, see 5 Ga. L. Rev. 349 (1971). For note, "Tort Liability in Georgia for the Criminal Acts of Another," see 18 Ga. L. Rev. 361 (1984). For note, "Robinson v. Kroger: A Leveling of the Field or Fatal Fall for Summary Judgment?," see 50 Mercer L. Rev. 655 (1999). For note, "Don't Let the Bed Bugs Bill: Landlord Liability for Bed Bug Infestations," see 34 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 479 (2018). For note, "Between Bystander and Insurer: Locating the Duty of the Georgia Landowner to Safeguard Against Third-Party Criminal Attacks on the Premises," see 15 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 1099 (1999). For comment on Macon Tel. Publishing Co. v. Graden, 79 Ga. App. 230, 53 S.E.2d 371 (1949), see 1 Mercer L. Rev. 130 (1949). For comment criticizing Plante v. Lorraine Mfg. Co., 78 R.I. 505, 82 A.2d 893 (1951), holding no implied invitation to youths despite defendant's excavation and exposed sand bank, see 14 Ga. B. J. 248 (1951). For comment on Stanolind Oil & Gas Co. v. Franklin, 193 F.2d 561 (5th Cir. 1951), see 14 Ga. B. J. 498 (1952). For comment on Cooper v. Anderson, 96 Ga. App. 800, 101 S.E.2d 770 (1957) wherein child accompanying customer parent into store had status of invitee, see 9 Mercer L. Rev. 375 (1958). For comment on Austin v. Smith, 96 Ga. App. 659, 101 S.E.2d 169 (1958), concerning gross negligence in relation to gratuitous automobile guest, see 20 Ga. B. J. 552 (1958). For comment on Baynes v. McElrath, 106 Ga. App. 805, 128 S.E.2d 348 (1962), finding passenger under car-pool arrangement as an invitee and not a guest, to whom driver owed ordinary care, see 14 Mercer L. Rev. 477 (1963). For comment on Findley v. Lipsitz, 106 Ga. App. 24, 126 S.E.2d 299 (1962), see 25 Ga. B. J. 457 (1963). For comment on Kriess v. Allatoona Landing, Inc., 108 Ga. App. 427, 133 S.E.2d 602 (1963), see 26 Ga. B. J. 450 (1964). For comment discussing motel owner's duty of care to infants, in light of Waught v. Duke Corp., 248 F. Supp. 626 (M.D.N.C. 1966), see 18 Mercer L. Rev. 480 (1967). For comment on Hanson v. Town & Country Shopping Center, 259 Iowa 542, 144 N.W.2d 870 (1966), as to business owners' duty to anticipate injury to customer due to ice on parking lot, see 1 Ga. L. Rev. 548 (1967). For comment on Cargill, Inc. v. Zimmer, 374 F.2d 924 (8th Cir. 1967), highlighting Georgia's narrow application of the "attractive nuisance" doctrine, see 19 Mercer L. Rev. 472 (1968). For comment on Nesmith v. Starr, 115 Ga. App. 473, 155 S.E.2d 24 (1967), see 4 Ga. St. B. J. 518 (1968). For comment on Rowland v. Christian, 69 Cal. 2d 108, 70 Cal. Rep. 97, 443 P.2d 561, 32 A.L.R.3d 496 (Sup. Ct. 1968), applying a reasonable man test to the host in a personal injury suit brought by a social guest, rather than classifying plaintiff's status, see 20 Mercer L. Rev. 338 (1969). For comment on Ryckeley v. Georgia Power Co., 122 Ga. App. 107, 176 S.E.2d 493 (1970), see 23 Mercer L. Rev. 431 (1972). For comment, "A New Beginning for the Attractive Nuisance Doctrine in Georgia," see 34 Mercer L. Rev. 433 (1982).

JUDICIAL DECISIONS

ANALYSIS

  • General Consideration
  • Duty Owed to Children
  • Carriers
  • Commercial Sales Establishments
  • Home, Apartment, and Landowners
  • Independent Contractors
  • Landlord Liability
  • Master's Liability to Servant
  • Public Accommodation Facilities
  • Spectator Events and Facilities
  • Miscellaneous

RESEARCH REFERENCES

Am. Jur. 2d.

- 62 Am. Jur. 2d, Premises Liability, §§ 6, 7, 13 et seq., 24.

Liability of an Owner or Operator of a Self-Service Filling Station for Injury or Death of a Business Invitee on the Premises, 46 POF3d 161.

C.J.S.

- 65 C.J.S., Negligence, § 63 et seq.

ALR.

- Liability for injury to person in street by fall of part of structure of completed building, 7 A.L.R. 204; 138 A.L.R. 1078.

Right to eject customer from store, 9 A.L.R. 379; 33 A.L.R. 421.

Liability of owner to licensee or invitee for conditions on premises recently vacated by tenant, 10 A.L.R. 244.

Effect of verbal abuse to change one's status from licensee or invitee to trespasser, 12 A.L.R. 254.

Liability of owner of premises for injury to person or property from debris in street due to fire, 14 A.L.R. 224.

Duty of owner to licensee as to changing condition of premises, 20 A.L.R. 202.

Duty and liability of owner or keeper of place of amusement respecting injuries to patrons, 22 A.L.R. 610; 29 A.L.R. 29; 38 A.L.R. 357; 44 A.L.R. 203; 53 A.L.R. 855; 61 A.L.R. 1289; 98 A.L.R. 557.

Right of one injured while stopping or loitering in street, 24 A.L.R. 766.

Liability of municipal corporations for injuries due to conditions in parks, 29 A.L.R. 863; 42 A.L.R. 263; 99 A.L.R. 686; 142 A.L.R. 1340.

Liability of abutting owner for injury from electrically charged object near sidewalk or highway, 30 A.L.R. 1240.

Landlord's liability to one injured while using, for a purpose for which it was not intended, property remaining in the former's control, 30 A.L.R. 1390; 49 A.L.R. 564; 12 A.L.R.2d 217.

Duty and liability respecting condition of store or shop, 33 A.L.R. 181; 43 A.L.R. 866; 46 A.L.R. 1111; 58 A.L.R. 136; 100 A.L.R. 710; 162 A.L.R. 949.

Liability for personal injury by barbed wire, 36 A.L.R. 545.

Responsibility of owner or occupant of abutting property for injury due to ice or snow on sidewalk as affected by his practice of removing it, 41 A.L.R. 266.

Special injury to property interest as condition of right to enjoin diversion of dedicated property, 41 A.L.R. 1410.

Liability for injury to person on business premises, in consequence of passing through wrong doorway, 42 A.L.R. 1098.

Liability of owner of office building or tenement house for loss of or damage to property of tenant due to dishonesty or negligence of owner's employee, 42 A.L.R. 1335.

Liability of operator of logging road or other private railroad for injury to person on track, 46 A.L.R. 1076.

Landlord's responsibility for injury to stranger due to tenant's negligence as to doors, guards, etc., provided by former, but in tenant's possession and control, 47 A.L.R. 846.

Liability to trespasser or bare licensee as affected by distinction between active and passive negligence, 49 A.L.R. 778; 156 A.L.R. 1226.

Liability for conditions in space between lot lines and sidewalk actually within limits of street, but apparently part of the abutting property, 56 A.L.R. 220.

Liability for injury to elevator passenger as affected by the fact that sides of car are open and unprotected, 57 A.L.R. 259.

Use of space within lot lines, as part of public sidewalk as affecting owner's responsibility for its condition, 58 A.L.R. 1042.

Duty toward invitee as regards explosives, 60 A.L.R. 1069.

Liability for injury by stepping or falling into opening in sidewalk while doors were open or cover off, 70 A.L.R. 1358.

Landlord's liability for injuries to strangers outside premises as affected by covenant to repair or reservation of right to enter to make repairs, 89 A.L.R. 480.

Duty and liability of carrier toward one accompanying departing passenger or present to meet incoming one, with respect to conditions at or about station, 92 A.L.R. 614.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises for injury to person thereon by dog not owned or harbored by former, 92 A.L.R. 732.

Liability of one exercising the rights of an owner of realty for injuries due to its condition, as affected by want of legal title, 96 A.L.R. 1068; 130 A.L.R. 1525.

Effect of notice on ticket for amusement device to limit liability of proprietor for injury to patron, 97 A.L.R. 582.

Duty to guard against danger to children by electric wires, 100 A.L.R. 621.

"Safe place" statutes as applicable to municipalities or other public bodies when engaged in performing a governmental function, 114 A.L.R. 428.

Duty to guard against operation of elevator by unauthorized person, 117 A.L.R. 989.

Liability of owner or occupier of premises other than store or shop for personal injury to another due to slippery condition of floor, 118 A.L.R. 425.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises for injury to one who falls over obstructions placed to protect lawn, 129 A.L.R. 740.

Violation of statute or ordinance regarding safety of building or premises as creating or affecting liability for injuries or death, 132 A.L.R. 863.

Liability for death or injury on or near golf course, 138 A.L.R. 541; 82 A.L.R.2d 1183.

Duty and liability as regards lighting conditions in theater, 143 A.L.R. 61.

Responsibility of operator of place of amusement for negligence of concessionaire or the latter's employees, 145 A.L.R. 962.

Duty of owner or occupier of premises to persons thereon upon invitation of, or otherwise in connection with, licensee, 146 A.L.R. 651.

Standing railroad car or streetcar and appliances as attractive nuisance, 152 A.L.R. 1263.

Innkeeper's liability for injury to or death of child guest, or child who accompanies guest, 153 A.L.R. 577.

Breach of lessor's agreement to repair as ground of liability for personal injury to tenant or one in privity with latter, 163 A.L.R. 300; 78 A.L.R.2d 1238.

Liability for injury in connection with automatic elevator, 6 A.L.R.2d 391.

Liability of carrier for injuries to person boarding vehicle or ship for social or other purposes in connection with a passenger, 11 A.L.R.2d 1075.

Liability of landlord to one using fire escape for other than intended purpose, 12 A.L.R.2d 217.

Liability of barber, beauty shop or specialist, barber college, or school of beauty culture, for injury to patron, 14 A.L.R.2d 860; 93 A.L.R.3d 897.

Liability to patron of public amusement for accidental injury from cause other than assault, hazards of game or amusement, or condition of premises, 16 A.L.R.2d 912.

Liability for injury resulting from swinging door, 16 A.L.R.2d 1161.

Liability of owner or operator of park or other premises on which baseball or other game is played, for injuries by ball to person on nearby street, sidewalk, or premises, 16 A.L.R.2d 1458.

Liability of proprietor for injury to customer or patron caused by pushing, crowding, etc., of other patrons, 20 A.L.R.2d 8.

Liability for injury to customer or patron from defect in or fall of seat, 21 A.L.R.2d 420.

Storekeeper's duty and liability to one passing through store to another destination, 23 A.L.R.2d 1135.

Oil and gas tanks, pipes and pipelines, and apparatus and accessories thereof as constituting attractive nuisance, 23 A.L.R.2d 1157.

Applicability of res ipsa loquitur doctrine to fall of object or substance from ceiling of place of public resort, 24 A.L.R.2d 643.

Landlord's liability for injury or death due to defects in exterior stairs, passageways, areas, or structures used in common by tenants, 26 A.L.R.2d 468; 65 A.L.R.3d 14; 68 A.L.R.3d 382.

Seller's or manufacturer's liability for injuries as affected by buyer's or user's allergy or unusual susceptibility to injury from article, 26 A.L.R.2d 963.

Admissibility of evidence of absence of other accidents or injuries at place where injury or damage occurred, 31 A.L.R.2d 190.

Liability of owner or occupant for condition of covering over opening or vault in sidewalk, 31 A.L.R.2d 1334.

Liability of motor carrier to passenger for injuries assertedly caused by failure to heat conveyance adequately, 33 A.L.R.2d 1358.

Liability of owner or operator of auto race track for injury to patron, 37 A.L.R.2d 391.

Liability for injury to or death of child from burns caused by hot ashes, cinders, or other hot waste material, 42 A.L.R.2d 930.

Liability of storekeeper for injury of customer by another customer's use or handling of stock or equipment, 42 A.L.R.2d 1103.

Liability of builder or owner of building under construction for injuries received on premises by infant, 44 A.L.R.2d 1253.

Child accompanying business visitor to store, shop, or the like as invitee or licensee, 44 A.L.R.2d 1319.

Liability of landowner for injury or death of child caused by cut or puncture from broken glass or other sharp object, 47 A.L.R.2d 1048.

Liability of private owner or operator of bathing resort or swimming pool for injury or death of patron, 48 A.L.R.2d 104.

Liability of owner or operator of theater or other place of amusement for injury to patron using stairway or steps, 55 A.L.R.2d 866.

Liability of innkeeper to guest injured while using ramp or similar inclined surface, 58 A.L.R.2d 1173.

Liability of innkeeper for injury to guest using steps or stairs, 58 A.L.R.2d 1178.

Duty and liability of an innkeeper to visitor or caller of registered guest, 58 A.L.R.2d 1201.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall due to presence of litter or debris on floor, 61 A.L.R.2d 6.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall due to presence of obstacle placed or dropped on floor, 61 A.L.R.2d 110.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall due to presence of litter or debris on stairway, 61 A.L.R.2d 174.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall due to presence of obstacle placed or dropped on steps, 61 A.L.R.2d 205.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall on floor made slippery by tracked-in or spilled water, oil, mud, snow, and the like, 62 A.L.R.2d 6.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall on steps made slippery by tracked-in or spilled water, oil, mud, snow, and the like, 62 A.L.R.2d 131.

Independent contractor's or subcontractor's liability for injury or death of third person occurring during excavation work not in street or highway, 62 A.L.R.2d 1052.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for fall on floor made slippery by waxing or oiling, 63 A.L.R.2d 591.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for fall on floor made slippery by washing or cleaning, 63 A.L.R.2d 694.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall due to defect in floor or floor covering, 64 A.L.R.2d 335.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall due to defect in stairway, 64 A.L.R.2d 398.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for fall on steps slippery by nature or through wear, 64 A.L.R.2d 471.

Liability of contractor or owner of building being demolished for injuries to infant on premises, 64 A.L.R.2d 972.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall on ramp or inclined floor, 65 A.L.R.2d 420.

Liability of proprietor of store, office or similar business premises for injury from fall on stepdown or other one-step change in floor level, 65 A.L.R.2d 471.

Liability of owner or operator to adult trespasser in or on motor vehicle or equipment, 65 A.L.R.2d 798.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury from fall down open stairway, or into trap door or similar floor-level opening, 66 A.L.R.2d 331.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for fall due to improper lighting of steps or stairway, 66 A.L.R.2d 443.

Liability of municipality for torts in connection with airport, 66 A.L.R.2d 634.

Liability to patron of scenic railway, roller coaster, or miniature railway, 66 A.L.R.2d 689.

Liability of private owner or operator of picnic ground for injury or death of patron, 67 A.L.R.2d 965.

Liability of owner, occupant, or operator of premises or machinery or equipment for injury or death resulting from contact of crane, derrick, or other movable machine with electric line, 69 A.L.R.2d 160, 14 A.L.R.4th 913.

Amusements: liability for injury from slide or chute, 69 A.L.R.2d 1067.

Innkeeper's liability for injury to guest using exterior passageways or walks, 69 A.L.R.2d 1107.

Liability of innkeeper, restauranteur, or tavern keeper or injury occurring on or about premises to guest or patron by person other than proprietor or his servant, 70 A.L.R.2d 628.

Hospital's liability to visitor injured as result of condition of exterior walks, steps, or grounds, 71 A.L.R.2d 427.

Hospital's liability to visitor injured by slippery, obstructed, or defective interior floors or steps, 71 A.L.R.2d 436.

Liability of innkeeper for injury by object thrown or falling because of conduct of guest, 74 A.L.R.2d 1241.

Liability for injury to one on or near merry-go-round, 75 A.L.R.2d 792.

Duty owed to, and status of, social guest of employee on employer's business premises, 78 A.L.R.2d 107.

Liability for injury or death due to physical condition of church premises, 80 A.L.R.2d 806.

Liability of proprietor of business premises for injury from fall on exterior walk, ramp, or passageway connected with the building in which the business is conducted, 81 A.L.R.2d 750.

Liability for injury to person in street by glass falling from window, door, or wall, 81 A.L.R.2d 897.

Liability of private promoter or operator of public fireworks exhibition or display for personal injury, death, or property damage, 81 A.L.R.2d 1207.

Liability for injury or death on or near golf course, 82 A.L.R.2d 1183.

Liability for injury from overhead door, 83 A.L.R.2d 743.

Liability of strip or other surface mine or quarry operator to person, other than employee, injured or killed during mining operations, 84 A.L.R.2d 733.

Liability of owner, lessee, or operator for injury or death on or near loop-o-plane, Ferris wheel, miniature car, or similar rides, 86 A.L.R.2d 350.

Landlord's liability for personal injury or death of tenant or his privies from heating system or equipment, 86 A.L.R.2d 791.

Landlord's liability for personal injury or death of tenant or privies from electrical system or equipment, 86 A.L.R.2d 838.

Liability of consignee for personal injury or death of one other than his employee in connection with carrier unloading operations, 86 A.L.R.2d 1399.

Liability of abutting owner or occupant for condition of sidewalk, 88 A.L.R.2d 331.

Liability of owner or operator of theater or other place of amusement to patron injured by condition of or defect in lavatory, restroom, or toilet facilities, 88 A.L.R.2d 1090.

Liability to spectator at basketball game injured as result of hazards of game, 89 A.L.R.2d 1163.

Liability of proprietor of store, office, or similar business premises for injury sustained when customer or patron strikes head (or other portion of body) on overhead beam or similar overhead structure or projection, 90 A.L.R.2d 329.

Liability of proprietor of bowling alley for injury to patron, 92 A.L.R.2d 1074.

Duty of proprietor toward visitor upon premises on private business with or errand or work for employee, 94 A.L.R.2d 6.

Liability of operator of skiing, tobogganing, or bobsledding facilities for injury to patron or participant, 94 A.L.R.2d 1431; 95 A.L.R.3d 203.

"Economic benefit" or "public invitation" as test of licensee-invitee status, 95 A.L.R.2d 992.

Liability of owner or operator of shopping center to patrons for injuries from defects or conditions in sidewalks, walks, or pedestrian passageways, 95 A.L.R.2d 1341.

Liability of owner or occupant of building for personal injury or death of person in street resulting from objects falling or thrown from building interior, 97 A.L.R.2d 1431.

Railroad's liability for injury or death of one other than employee because of alleged unsafe or defective condition of its own freight car which he was loading or unloading, 99 A.L.R.2d 176.

Liability of hotel, motel, summer resort, or private membership club or association operating swimming pool, for injury or death of guest or member, or of member's guest, 1 A.L.R.3d 963.

Liability to prospective tenant or purchaser for injury resulting from condition of premises, 3 A.L.R.3d 976.

Liability of owner or operator of interior parking facility for bodily injury to nonemployees on premises, 4 A.L.R.3d 938.

Liability of owner or operator of garage or gasoline filling station for bodily injury to nonemployees on premises, 8 A.L.R.3d 6.

Validity, construction, and effect of agreement exempting operator of amusement facility from liability for personal injury or death of patron, 8 A.L.R.3d 1393.

Liability of owner or operator of trampoline center for injury to or death of spectator or patron, 8 A.L.R.3d 1427.

Private person's duty and liability for failure to protect another against criminal attack by third person, 10 A.L.R.3d 619.

Liability of owner or operator of funeral home for injury sustained by patron or invitee due to condition of premises, 14 A.L.R.3d 629.

Liability for injury to one attending wrestling or boxing match or exhibition, 14 A.L.R.3d 993.

Liability for injury to one attending hockey game or exhibition, 14 A.L.R.3d 1018.

Liability of social club for injury to or death of nonmember, 15 A.L.R.3d 1013.

Liability for injury to patron of billiard or poolroom, 15 A.L.R.3d 1420.

Hospital's liability to patient or prospective patient injured as result of physical condition of premises, 16 A.L.R.3d 1237.

Landlord's liability to tenant's business patron injured as a result of defective condition of premises, 17 A.L.R.3d 422.

What constitutes "public" use affecting landlord's liability to tenant's invitees for defects in leased premises, 17 A.L.R.3d 873.

Abutting owner's liability for injury from ice formed on sidewalk by discharge of precipitation due to artificial conditions on premises, 18 A.L.R.3d 428.

Liability, for injury to patron, of owner or operator of retail store failing to provide carryout service, 21 A.L.R.3d 931.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises for injuries sustained by mail carrier, 21 A.L.R.3d 1099.

Premises liability: proceeding in the dark as contributory negligence, 22 A.L.R.3d 286.

Premises liability: proceeding in the dark along outside path or walkway as contributory negligence, 22 A.L.R.3d 599.

Premises liability: proceeding in the dark on outside steps or stairs as contributory negligence, 23 A.L.R.3d 365.

Premises liability: proceeding in the dark across exterior premises as contributory negligence, 23 A.L.R.3d 441.

Premises liability insurance: coverage of injury sustained on or in connection with sidewalks or ways adjacent to certain named property, 23 A.L.R.3d 1230.

Liability of owner or operator of self-service laundry for personal injury or damages to patron or frequenter of premises from defect in premises or appliances, 23 A.L.R.3d 1246.

Liability of owner or operator for injury to patron of fair, carnival, or the like, from operation of sideshows, games, or similar concessions, 24 A.L.R.3d 945.

Premises liability: proceeding in the dark on inside steps or stairs as contributory negligence, 25 A.L.R.3d 446.

Liability of owner or operator of power lawnmower for injuries resulting to third person from its operation, 25 A.L.R.3d 1314.

Telephone company's liability for injuries sustained by user of public telephone or telegraph as a result of condition of premises on which instrument was installed, 25 A.L.R.3d 1432.

Liability of owner or operator of drive-in movie theater for injury or death to patron or frequenter, 26 A.L.R.3d 1314.

Premises liability: proceeding in the dark across interior premises as contributory negligence, 28 A.L.R.3d 605.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises to building or construction inspector coming upon premises in discharge of duty, 28 A.L.R.3d 891.

Liability of owner or operator of premises for injury to meter reader or similar employee of public service corporation coming to premises in course of duties, 28 A.L.R.3d 1344.

Status of injured adult as trespasser on land not owned by electricity supplier, as affecting its liability for injuries inflicted upon him by electric wires it maintains thereon, 30 A.L.R.3d 777.

Liability of owner or operator of premises for injury to person coming to premises in course of delivery or pickup of merchandise or similar products, 32 A.L.R.3d 9.

Tort liability of public schools and institutions of higher learning for accidents due to condition of buildings or equipment, 34 A.L.R.3d 1166.

Modern status of the rule absolving a possessor of land of liability to those coming thereon for harm caused by dangerous physical conditions of which the injured party knew and realized the risk, 35 A.L.R.3d 230.

Tort liability of private schools and institutions of higher learning for accidents due to condition of buildings, equipment, or outside premises, 35 A.L.R.3d 975.

Premises liability: liability of owner or occupant to garbage or trash man coming on premises in course of duty, 36 A.L.R.3d 610.

Hospital's liability to patient injured going to or using bathroom or toilet facilities, 36 A.L.R.3d 1235.

Liability of physician or dentist for injury to patient from physical condition of office premises, 36 A.L.R.3d 1341.

Liability of owner or operator of parking lot for personal injuries allegedly resulting from condition of premises, 38 A.L.R.3d 10.

Liability of owner or operator of parking lot for personal injuries caused by movement of vehicles, 38 A.L.R.3d 138.

Liability of dance hall proprietor or operator for injury to patron resulting from conditions of premises, 38 A.L.R.3d 419.

Tort liability of private schools and institutions of higher learning for negligence of, or lack of supervision by, teachers and other employees or agents, 38 A.L.R.3d 908.

Liability of operator of business premises to patron injured by condition of adjacent property, 39 A.L.R.3d 579.

Liability of landlord for injury or death occasioned by swimming pool maintained for tenants, 39 A.L.R.3d 824.

Liability of owner or operator of park for mobile homes or trailers for injuries caused by appliances or other instruments on premises, 41 A.L.R.3d 324.

Liability of owner or operator of trailer camp or park for injury or death from condition of premises, 41 A.L.R.3d 546.

Liability of owner or operator of automatic carwash facility for personal injury or property damage to nonemployees on premises, 41 A.L.R.3d 690.

Liability of business establishments, places of accommodation or recreation, and the like, for injury or damage occurring on the premises caused by the accidental starting up of parked motor vehicle, 43 A.L.R.3d 952.

Liability in connection with injury allegedly caused by defective condition of private road or driveway, 44 A.L.R.3d 355.

Liability of owner or operator of drive-in restaurant for injury or death to patron, 45 A.L.R.3d 1428.

Liability of vendor or grantor of real estate for personal injury to purchaser or third person due to defective condition of premises, 48 A.L.R.3d 1027.

Liability of lessee of particular premises in shopping center for injury to patron from condition on portion of premises not included in his leasehold, 48 A.L.R.3d 1163.

Liability of owner or operator of business premises for injuries to patron caused by insect or small animal, 48 A.L.R.3d 1257.

Landlord's liability to tenant or tenant's invitees for injury or death due to ice or snow in areas or passageways used in common by tenants, 49 A.L.R.3d 382.

Liability of owner or operator of store or similar place of business for injury to child climbing or playing on furniture, fixtures, displays, or the like, 50 A.L.R.3d 1227.

Liability of bank for injuries sustained by customer in course of bank robbery, 51 A.L.R.3d 711.

Liability for injuries from ice or snow on residential premises, 54 A.L.R.3d 558.

Liability of abutting landowner for injury to municipal employee engaged in constructing or repairing sewers or drains, 58 A.L.R.3d 1085.

Liability of innkeeper to guest for injury due to fire, 60 A.L.R.3d 1217.

Liability of owner or operator for injury caused by door of automatic passenger elevator, 63 A.L.R.3d 893.

Liability in action based upon negligence, for injury to or death of, person going upon cemetery premises, 63 A.L.R.3d 1252.

Liability of landlord for personal injury or death due to inadequacy or lack of lighting on portion of premises used in common by tenants, 66 A.L.R.3d 202.

Landlord's liability for personal injury or death due to defects in appliances supplied for use of different tenants, 66 A.L.R.3d 374.

Landlord's liability for injury or death due to defects in exterior steps or stairs used in common by tenants, 67 A.L.R.3d 490.

Landlord's liability for injury or death due to defects in interior steps or stairs used in common by tenants, 67 A.L.R.3d 587.

Liability of storekeeper for death of or injury to customer in course of robbery, 72 A.L.R.3d 1269.

Liability of owner or operator of theatre or other amusement to patron assaulted by another patron, 75 A.L.R.3d 441.

Liability of swimming facility operator for injury to or death of diver allegedly resulting from hazardous condition in water, 85 A.L.R.3d 750.

Liability of swimming facility operator for injury or death allegedly resulting from defects of diving board, slide, or other swimming pool equipment, 85 A.L.R.3d 849.

Store or business premises slip-and-fall: modern status of rules requiring showing of notice of proprietor of transitory interior condition allegedly causing plaintiff's fall, 85 A.L.R.3d 1000.

Liability of swimming facility operator for injury or death allegedly resulting from condition of deck, bathhouse, or other area in vicinity of water, 86 A.L.R.3d 388.

Liability of swimming facility operator for injury to or death of swimmer allegedly resulting from hazardous condition in water, 86 A.L.R.3d 1021.

Liability of operator of swimming facility for injury or death allegedly resulting from absence of or inadequacy of rescue equipment, 87 A.L.R.3d 380.

Liability of swimming facility operator for injury or death allegedly caused by failure to adequately fence facility, 87 A.L.R.3d 886.

Liability of operator or nonresidential swimming facility for injury or death allegedly resulting from failure to provide or exercise proper supervision, 87 A.L.R.3d 1032.

Liability of swimming facility operator for injury or death inflicted by third person, 90 A.L.R.3d 533.

Liability to spectator at baseball game who is hit by ball or injured as a result of other hazards of game, 91 A.L.R.3d 24.

Liability of hotel or motel operator for injury or death resulting to guest from defects in furniture in room or suite, 91 A.L.R.3d 483.

Liability for injuries in connection with revolving door on nonresidential premises, 93 A.L.R.3d 132.

Liability of hotel or motel operator for injury or death of guest or privy resulting from condition in plumbing or bathroom of room or suite, 93 A.L.R.3d 253.

Applicability of res ipsa loquitur doctrine in action for injury to patron of beauty salon, 93 A.L.R.3d 897.

Liability for injuries in connection with allegedly dangerous or defective doormat on nonresidential premises, 94 A.L.R.3d 389.

Liability of storekeeper to customer injured by shopping cart, baby stroller, or similar vehicle handled or controlled by another customer, 94 A.L.R.3d 439.

Liability of owner or operator of boat livery for injury to patron, 94 A.L.R.3d 876.

Liability for injuries in connection with ice or snow on nonresidential premises, 95 A.L.R.3d 15.

Liability for injury on, or in connection with, escalator, 1 A.L.R.4th 144.

Liability of urban redevelopment authority or other state or municipal agency or entity for injuries occurring in vacant or abandoned property owned by governmental entity, 7 A.L.R.4th 1129.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises to fireman coming thereon in discharge of his duty, 11 A.L.R.4th 597.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises for injury or death resulting from contact of crane, derrick, or other movable machine with electric line, 14 A.L.R.4th 913.

Liability of theater owner or operator for injury to or death of patron resulting from lighting conditions on premises, 19 A.L.R.4th 1110.

Liability of owner of store, office, or similar place of business to invitee falling on tracked-in water or snow, 20 A.L.R.4th 438.

Modern status of rules conditioning landowner's liability upon status of injured party as invitee, licensee, or trespasser, 22 A.L.R.4th 294.

Liability of operator of grocery store to invitee slipping on spilled liquid or semiliquid substance, 24 A.L.R.4th 696.

Liability of hotel or motel operator for injury to guest resulting from assault by third party, 28 A.L.R.4th 80.

Liability of hotel or motel for guest's loss of money from room by theft or robbery committed by person other than defendant's servant, 28 A.L.R.4th 120.

Liability of owner or occupant of premises to police officer coming thereon in discharge of officer's duty, 30 A.L.R.4th 81.

Liability of dog owner for injuries sustained by person frightened by dog, 30 A.L.R.4th 986.

Tavernkeeper's liability to patron for third person's assault, 43 A.L.R.4th 281.

Parking facility proprietor's liability for criminal attack on patron, 49 A.L.R.4th 1257.

Tennis club's liability for tennis player's injuries, 52 A.L.R.4th 1253.

Liability to one struck by golf ball, 53 A.L.R.4th 282.

Tree or limb falls onto adjoining private property: personal injury and property damage liability, 54 A.L.R.4th 530.

Ski resort's liability for skier's injuries resulting from condition of ski run or slope, 55 A.L.R.4th 632.

Baseball player's right to recover for baseball-related personal injuries from nonplayer, 55 A.L.R.4th 664.

Duty and liability of subcontractor to employee of another contractor using equipment or apparatus of former, 55 A.L.R.4th 725.

Liability for injury to customer or other invitee of retail store by falling of displayed, stored, or piled objects, 61 A.L.R.4th 27.

Liability to one struck by golf club, 63 A.L.R.4th 221.

Liability of proprietor of private gymnasium, reducing salon, or similar health club for injury to patron, 79 A.L.R.4th 127.

Liability of cosmetology school for injury to patron, 81 A.L.R.4th 444.

Landlord's liability to third person for injury resulting from attack off leased premises by dangerous or vicious animal kept by tenant, 89 A.L.R.4th 374.

Duty of retail establishment, or its employees, to assist patron choking on food, 2 A.L.R.5th 966.

Liability for personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in church premises, 8 A.L.R.5th 1.

Liability for injury or death from collision with guy wire, 8 A.L.R.5th 177.

Admissibility of evidence of absence of other accidents or injuries at place where injury or damage occurred, 10 A.L.R.5th 371.

Air carrier's liability for injury from condition of airport premises, 14 A.L.R.5th 662.

Liability of owner or operator of shopping center, or business housed therein, for injury to patron on premises from criminal attack by third party, 31 A.L.R.5th 550.

Liability of owner or operator of skating rink for injury to patron, 38 A.L.R.5th 107.

Liability for injury to customer from object projecting into aisle or passageway in store, 40 A.L.R.5th 135.

Liability for injury to customer or patron from amusement device maintained by store or shopping center for use of customers, 40 A.L.R.5th 807.

Liability of proprietor of store, business, or place of amusement, for injury to one using baby stroller, shopping cart, or the like, furnished by defendant, 42 A.L.R.5th 159.

Landlord's liability for failure to protect tenant from criminal acts of third person, 43 A.L.R.5th 207.

Liability of owner or operator of business premises for injuries from electrically operated door, 44 A.L.R.5th 525.

Apportionment of liability between landowners and assailants for injuries to crime victims, 54 A.L.R.5th 379.

Validity, construction, and effect of agreement exempting operator of amusement facility from liability for personal injury or death of patron, 54 A.L.R.5th 513.

Liability of hotel, motel, resort, or private membership club or association operating swimming pool, for injury or death of member, 55 A.L.R.5th 463.

Liability of owner or operator of self-service filling station for injury or death of patron, 60 A.L.R.5th 379.

Liability of owner of private residential swimming pool for injury or death occasioned thereby, 64 A.L.R.5th 1.

Liability of owner, operator, or other parties, for personal injuries allegedly resulting from snow or ice on premises of parking lot, 74 A.L.R.5th 49.

Comparative negligence, contributory negligence, and assumption of risk in action against owner of store, office, or similar place of business by invitee falling on tracked-in water or snow, 83 A.L.R.5th 589.

Liability of owner of store, office, or similar place of business to invitee falling on tracked-in water or snow, 123 A.L.R.5th 1.

Liability of owner or operator of store or similar place of business for injury resulting from defective or dangerous shelves, displays, racks, counters, or the like, 1 A.L.R.6th 297.

Liability for injury on or in connection with escalator, 63 A.L.R. 6th 495.

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