2021 Georgia Code
Title 51 - Torts
Chapter 1 - General Provisions
§ 51-1-11. When Privity Required to Support Action; Product Liability Action and Time Limitation Therefore; Industry-Wide Liability Theories Rejected

Universal Citation: GA Code § 51-1-11 (2021)
  1. Except as otherwise provided in this Code section, no privity is necessary to support a tort action; but, if the tort results from the violation of a duty which is itself the consequence of a contract, the right of action is confined to the parties and those in privity to that contract, except in cases where the party would have a right of action for the injury done independently of the contract and except as provided in Code Section 11-2-318.
    1. The manufacturer of any personal property sold as new property directly or through a dealer or any other person shall be liable in tort, irrespective of privity, to any natural person who may use, consume, or reasonably be affected by the property and who suffers injury to his person or property because the property when sold by the manufacturer was not merchantable and reasonably suited to the use intended, and its condition when sold is the proximate cause of the injury sustained.
    2. No action shall be commenced pursuant to this subsection with respect to an injury after ten years from the date of the first sale for use or consumption of the personal property causing or otherwise bringing about the injury.
    3. A manufacturer may not exclude or limit the operation of this subsection.
  2. The limitation of paragraph (2) of subsection (b) of this Code section regarding bringing an action within ten years from the date of the first sale for use or consumption of personal property shall also apply to the commencement of an action claiming negligence of a manufacturer as the basis of liability, except an action seeking to recover from a manufacturer for injuries or damages arising out of the negligence of such manufacturer in manufacturing products which cause a disease or birth defect, or arising out of conduct which manifests a willful, reckless, or wanton disregard for life or property. Nothing contained in this subsection shall relieve a manufacturer from the duty to warn of a danger arising from use of a product once that danger becomes known to the manufacturer.
  3. Irrespective of privity, a manufacturer shall not be held liable for the manufacture of a product alleged to be defective based on theories of market share or enterprise, or other theories of industry-wide liability.
  4. Irrespective of privity, a manufacturer of a product alleged to be defective shall not be held liable for a public nuisance based on theories of market share or enterprise, or other theories of industry-wide liability.

(Orig. Code 1863, § 2899; Code 1868, § 2905; Code 1873, § 2956; Code 1882, § 2956; Civil Code 1895, § 3812; Civil Code 1910, § 4408; Code 1933, § 105-106; Ga. L. 1968, p. 1166, § 1; Ga. L. 1978, p. 2202, § 1; Ga. L. 1978, p. 2218, § 1; Ga. L. 1978, p. 2267, § 1; Ga. L. 1987, p. 613, § 1; Ga. L. 2009, p. 625, § 1/SB 213.)

Cross references.

- Reports of insurers authorized to transact product liability insurance, § 33-3-22.

Editor's notes.

- Ga. L. 2009, p. 625, § 2/SB 213, not codified by the General Assembly, provides that subsections (d) and (e) shall apply to causes of action arising on or after May 4, 2009.

Law reviews.

- For article, "Georgia's New Statutory Liability for Manufacturers: An Inadequate Legislative Response," see 2 Ga. L. Rev. 538 (1968). For article, "Products Liability Law in Georgia: Is Change Coming?," see 10 Ga. St. B. J. 353 (1974). For article discussing strict liability for defective products in Georgia, see 13 Ga. St. B. J. 142 (1977). For article discussing products liability and plaintiff's fault under the Uniform Comparative Fault Act, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 373 (1978). For article discussing plaintiff conduct and the emerging doctrine of comparative causation of torts, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 403 (1978). For article discussing the defenses to strict liability in tort, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 447 (1978). For article advocating imposition of strict liability for defective products in accordance with reasonable human expectations, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 465 (1978). For article critically analyzing the distinction in theories of recovery of damages caused by defective products between personal injuries cases and economic losses and suggesting a policy basis for deciding the latter, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 493 (1978). For article analyzing the roles of court decisions and public regulation in preventing and redressing product defect injuries to children, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 523 (1978). For article discussing comment K of § 402A Restatement of Torts (Second) pertaining to unavoidably unsafe products of societal benefit specifically in the drug and cosmetic field, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 545 (1978). For article advocating repudiation of the patent danger rule as a manufacturer's defense to personal injury suits resulting from product defects, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 583 (1978). For article discussing architect liability for product design and supervision of construction, and the statute of limitations, see 14 Ga. St. B. J. 164 (1978). For article discussing strict liability, see 17 Ga. St. B. J. 56 (1980). For article on the duty to warn users of products of product danger under § 51-1-11, see 18 Ga. St. B. J. 69 (1981). For article surveying torts law, see 34 Mercer L. Rev. 271 (1982). For article, "Statutes of Limitation: Counterproductive Complexities," see 37 Mercer L. Rev. 1 (1985). For article, "Federal Automotive Safety Standards and Georgia Products Liability Law: Conflict or Coexistence?," see 26 Ga. St. B. J. 107 (1990). For article, "Products Liability Law in Georgia Including Recent Developments," see 43 Mercer L. Rev. 27 (1991). For annual survey article on tort law, see 50 Mercer L. Rev. 335 (1998). For annual survey article on tort law, see 52 Mercer L. Rev. 421 (2000). For survey article on tort law for the period from June 1, 2002 to May 31, 2003, see 55 Mercer L. Rev. 425 (2003). For annual survey of trial practice and procedure, see 57 Mercer L. Rev. 381 (2005). For annual survey of product liability law, see 58 Mercer L. Rev. 313 (2006). For survey article on product liability law, see 59 Mercer L. Rev. 331 (2007). For survey article on product liability law, see 60 Mercer L. Rev. 303 (2008). For annual survey on product liability, see 61 Mercer L. Rev. 267 (2009). For annual survey on trial practice and procedure, see 61 Mercer L. Rev. 363 (2009). For annual survey of law on product liability, see 62 Mercer L. Rev. 243 (2010). For annual survey on product liability, see 64 Mercer L. Rev. 231 (2012). For annual survey article on product liability, see 67 Mercer L. Rev. 177 (2015). For annual survey on product liability, see 69 Mercer L. Rev. 231 (2017). For article, "Do's and Don'ts When Handling a Product Liability Matter in Georgia," see 25 Ga. St. B.J. 17 (Aug. 2019). For note, "Products Liability in Georgia," see 12 Ga. L. Rev. 83 (1977). For note discussing admissibility of automobile recall letters as proof of defect in products liability case, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 611 (1978). For note discussing various state legislature's enactments restricting manufacturer's liability for injury resulting from product defects, see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 619 (1978). For note, "Subsequent Remedial Measures in a Product Liability Case: The Fastest Spinning Wheel in Litigation," see 19 Ga. St. B. J. 89 (1982). For note, "Ogletree v. Navistar International Transportation Corp.: The Demise of the 'Open and Obvious Danger' Defense," see 50 Mercer L. Rev. 643 (1999). For note, "Does the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Act Really Prohibit Design Defect Claims?: Examining Federal Preemption in Light of American Home Products Corp. v. Ferrari," see 26 Ga. St. U.L. Rev. 617 (2010). For note, "The Plaintiffs Keep Getting Richer, the Manufacturers Just Stay Poor: Design Defect Litigation in Georgia Post-Banks," see 49 Ga. L. Rev. 281 (2014). For note, "Amazon's Invincibility: The Effect of Defective Third-Party Vendors' Products on Amazon," see 53 Ga. L. Rev. 1215 (2019). For comment on Eades v. Spencer-Adams Paint Co., 82 Ga. App. 123, 60 S.E.2d 543 (1950), see 13 Ga. B. J. 343 (1951). For comment criticizing former privity restrictions in product liability suits in light of Revlon, Inc. v. Murdock, 103 Ga. App. 842, 120 S.E.2d 912 (1961), see 13 Mercer L. Rev. 425 (1962) (decided under former Code 1933 § 96-301). For comment on Capital Auto. Co. v. Shinall, 103 Ga. App. 695, 120 S.E.2d 351 (1961), see 14 Mercer L. Rev. 454 (1963). For comment on Putnam v. Erie City Mfg. Co., 338 F.2d 911 (5th Cir. 1964), as to privity requirement in implied warranty actions, see 17 Mercer L. Rev. 318 (1965). For comment on Fender v. Colonial Stores, Inc., 138 Ga. App. 31, 225 S.E.2d 691 (1976), see 28 Mercer L. Rev. 751 (1977). For comment discussing the prohibition of wrongful death suits under Georgia's strict liability in Ford Motor Co. v. Carter, 239 Ga. 657, 238 S.E.2d 361 (1977), see 29 Mercer L. Rev. 649 (1978). For comment, "Strict Liability Actions - Which Statute of Limitations?," see 31 Mercer L. Rev. 773 (1980). For comment, "Proposed Solutions to an 'Obvious' Problem in Georgia Products Liability Law," see 35 Mercer L. Rev. 915 (1984). For comment discussing the applicability of Federal Rule of Evidence 407 to exclude evidence of subsequent remedial measures in products liability actions, see 35 Mercer L. Rev. 1389 (1984). For comment, "Medical Expert Systems and Publisher Liability: A Cross-Contextual Analysis," see 43 Emory L.J. 731 (1994).

JUDICIAL DECISIONS

ANALYSIS

  • General Consideration
  • Privity as Element of Action
  • Products Liability

RESEARCH REFERENCES

Am. Jur. 2d.

- 74 Am. Jur. 2d, Torts, § 56.

Defective Mobile Home, 17 POF2d 213.

Formaldehyde Fumes Emitted by Building Materials, 3 POF3d 225.

Defective Design of an All-Terrain Vehicle, 6 POF3d 93.

Defective Design of Golf Cart, 7 POF3d 225.

Defective Forklift Truck, 8 POF3d 615.

Defective Automobile Child Safety Restraint, 21 POF3d 115.

Proof of Automobile Design Defect, 59 POF3d 73.

C.J.S.

- 86 C.J.S., Torts, §§ 11, 39.

ALR.

- Liability for injuries by breaking or bursting of container in which goods are sold, 4 A.L.R. 1094.

Automobiles: effect of defective brakes on liability for injury, 14 A.L.R. 1339; 63 A.L.R. 398; 170 A.L.R. 611.

Liability of manufacturer or packer of defective article for injury to person or property of ultimate consumer, who purchased from a middleman, 17 A.L.R. 672; 39 A.L.R. 992; 63 A.L.R. 340; 88 A.L.R. 527; 105 A.L.R. 1502; 111 A.L.R. 1239; 140 A.L.R. 191; 142 A.L.R. 1490.

Res ipsa loquitur in case of electric shock from electrical household appliance, 34 A.L.R. 31.

Liability of seller of article not inherently dangerous to third person for injury or death due to dangerous condition of article sold, 42 A.L.R. 1243; 60 A.L.R. 1054.

Liability of one undertaking to repair automobile for injury to third person, 52 A.L.R. 857.

Reliance on dealer's or manufacturer's assurance that article is not dangerous as affecting question of contributory negligence, 55 A.L.R. 1047.

Liability of seller of article not inherently dangerous for personal injuries due to the defective or dangerous condition of the article, 74 A.L.R. 343; 168 A.L.R. 1054.

Duty of manufacturer or seller to warn of latent dangers incident to article as a class, as distinguished from duty with respect to defects in particular article, 86 A.L.R. 947.

Liability for injury or death from refrigerating machinery or apparatus, 117 A.L.R. 1425.

Joinder of manufacturer or packer and retailer or other middleman as defendants in action for injury to person or damaged property of purchaser or consumer of defective article, 119 A.L.R. 1356.

Mistake as to chemical or product furnished or misdescription thereof by label or otherwise as basis of liability for personal injury or death resulting from combination with other chemical, 123 A.L.R. 939.

Implied warranty of reasonable fitness of food for human consumption as breached by substance natural to the original product and not removed in processing, 143 A.L.R. 1421.

Negligence and contributory negligence in respect of delivery of petroleum products, 151 A.L.R. 1261.

Manufacturer's liability for injury or damage as affected by his test, or by his failure to test, for defects, 156 A.L.R. 479.

Intervening purchaser's knowledge of defects in or danger of article, or failure to inspect therefor, as affecting liability of manufacturer or dealer for personal injury or property damage to subsequent purchaser or other third person, 164 A.L.R. 371.

Manufacturer's liability for negligence causing injury to person or damage to property, of ultimate consumer or user, 164 A.L.R. 569.

Liability of person furnishing, installing, or maintaining burglar alarm for loss from burglary, 165 A.L.R. 1254.

Presumption of negligence from foreign substance in food, 171 A.L.R. 1209.

Breach of assumed duty to inspect property as ground of liability for damage or injury to third person, 6 A.L.R.2d 284.

Liability of manufacturer or wholesaler for injury caused by third person's use of explosives or other dangerous article sold to retailer in violation of law, 11 A.L.R.2d 1028.

Seller's or manufacturer's liability for injuries as affected by buyer's or user's allergy or unusual susceptibility to injury from article, 26 A.L.R.2d 963.

Recovery by contractor or artisan, suing for breach of warranty, of damages for loss of good will occasioned by use in his business of unfit materials, 28 A.L.R.2d 591.

Presumption or prima facie case of negligence based on presence of foreign substance in bottled or canned beverage, 52 A.L.R.2d 117.

Liability of landlord to tenant or member of tenant's family, for injury by animal or insect, 67 A.L.R.2d 1005.

Privity of contract as essential to recovery in negligence action against manufacturer or seller of product alleged to have caused injury, 74 A.L.R.2d 1111.

Privity of contract as essential to recovery in action based on theory other than negligence, against manufacturer or seller of product alleged to have caused injury, 75 A.L.R.2d 39.

Statements in advertisements as affecting manufacturer's or seller's liability for injury caused by product sold, 75 A.L.R.2d 112.

Manufacturer's or seller's duty to give warning regarding product as affecting his liability for product-caused injury, 76 A.L.R.2d 9, 53 A.L.R.3d 239.

What law governs liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by product sold, 76 A.L.R.2d 130.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by food or food product sold, 77 A.L.R.2d 7.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by beverage sold, 77 A.L.R.2d 215.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by automobile or other vehicle, aircraft, boat, or their parts, supplies, or equipment, 78 A.L.R.2d 460; 5 A.L.R.4th 483.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by industrial, business, or farm machinery, tools, equipment, or materials, 78 A.L.R.2d 594; 8 A.L.R.4th 70.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by paint, cement, lumber, building supplies, ladders, small tools, and like products, 78 A.L.R.2d 696.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by toys, games, athletic or sports equipment, or like products, 78 A.L.R.2d 738.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by drug or medicine sold, 79 A.L.R.2d 301.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by medical and health supplies, appliances, and equipment, 79 A.L.R.2d 401.

Liability of manufacturer or seller of hair preparations, cosmetics, soaps and other personal cleansers, and the like, for injury caused by the product, 79 A.L.R.2d 431.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by domestic or industrial soaps, detergents, cleansers, polishes, and the like, 79 A.L.R.2d 482.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by firearms, explosives, and flammables, 80 A.L.R.2d 488; 94 A.L.R.3d 291; 15 A.L.R.4th 909; 18 A.L.R.4th 206.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by household and domestic machinery, appliances, furnishings, and equipment, 80 A.L.R.2d 598.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury caused by clothing, shoes, combs, and similar products, 80 A.L.R.2d 702.

Liability of manufacturer or seller of product sold in container or package for injury caused by container or packaging, 81 A.L.R.2d 229; 36 A.L.R.4th 419.

Liability of manufacturer or seller of container (bottle, barrel, drum, tank, etc.) or other packaging material for injury caused thereby, 81 A.L.R.2d 350; 36 A.L.R.4th 419.

Liability for injury from defective condition or improper operation of lift bridge or drawbridge, 90 A.L.R.2d 105.

Products liability: manufacturer and dealer or distributor as joint or concurrent tortfeasors, 97 A.L.R.2d 806.

Products liability: manufacturer's responsibility for defective component supplied by another and incorporated in product, 3 A.L.R.3d 1016.

Contributory negligence or assumption of risk as defense to action for personal injury, death, or property damage resulting from alleged breach of implied warranty, 4 A.L.R.3d 501.

Statute of limitations: when cause of action arises on action against manufacturer or seller of product causing injury or death, 4 A.L.R.3d 821.

Seller's duty to test or inspect as affecting his liability for product-caused injury, 6 A.L.R.3d 12.

Manufacturer's duty to test or inspect as affecting his liability for product-caused injury, 6 A.L.R.3d 91.

Liability of corporation for torts of subsidiary, 7 A.L.R.3d 1343.

Products liability: strict liability in tort, 13 A.L.R.3d 1057; 46 A.L.R.3d 240; 52 A.L.R.3d 121.

Liability for warranties and representations in connection with the sale of air-conditioning equipment, 15 A.L.R.3d 1207.

Privity of contract as essential in action against remote manufacturer or distributor for defects in goods not causing injury to person or to other property, 16 A.L.R.3d 683.

Products liability: in personam jurisdiction over nonresident manufacturer or seller under "long-arm" statutes, 19 A.L.R.3d 13.

Liability of builder-vendor or other vendor of new dwelling for loss, injury, or damage occasioned by defective condition thereof, 25 A.L.R.3d 383.

Products liability: right of manufacturer or seller to contribution or indemnity from user of product causing injury or damage to third person, and vice versa, 28 A.L.R.3d 943.

Application of rule of strict liability in tort to person rendering services, 29 A.L.R.3d 1425; 100 A.L.R.3d 1205.

Products liability: extension of strict liability in tort to permit recovery by a third person who was neither a purchaser nor user of product, 33 A.L.R.3d 415.

Surveyor's liability for mistake in, or misrepresentation as to accuracy of, survey of real property, 35 A.L.R.3d 504.

Aviation: helicopter accidents, 35 A.L.R.3d 707.

Malpractice: attending physician's liability for injury caused by equipment furnished by hospital, 35 A.L.R.3d 1068.

Liability in connection with fire or explosion of explosives while being stored or transported, 35 A.L.R.3d 1177.

Liability for injury caused by spraying or dusting of crops, 37 A.L.R.3d 833.

Right of member of armed forces to recover from manufacturer or seller for injury caused by defective military material, equipment, supplies, or components thereof, 38 A.L.R.3d 1247.

Liability of product endorser or certifier for product-caused injury, 39 A.L.R.3d 181.

Liability of one selling or distributing liquid or bottled fuel gas, for personal injury, death, or property damage, 41 A.L.R.3d 782.

Liability of manufacturer or seller of power lawn mower for injuries to user, 41 A.L.R.3d 986.

Products liability: alteration of product after it leaves hands of manufacturer or seller as affecting liability for product-caused harm, 41 A.L.R.3d 1251.

Liability of manufacturer, seller, or distributor of motor vehicle for defect which merely enhances injury from accident otherwise caused, 42 A.L.R.3d 560.

Products liability: admissibility of evidence of other accidents to prove hazardous nature of product, 42 A.L.R.3d 780.

Rescue doctrine: applicability to situation created by breach of warranty, 44 A.L.R.3d 473.

Attorney's liability, to one other than his immediate client, for consequences of negligence in carrying out legal duties, 45 A.L.R.3d 1181; 61 A.L.R.4th 464; 61 A.L.R.4th 615.

Products liability: contributory negligence or assumption of risk as defense under doctrine of strict liability in tort, 46 A.L.R.3d 240.

Liability of public accountant to third parties, 46 A.L.R.3d 979.

Liability for injury or death of pallbearer, 48 A.L.R.3d 1280.

Products liability: proof of defect under doctrine of strict liability in tort, 51 A.L.R.3d 8.

Products liability: necessity and sufficiency of identification of defendant as manufacturer or seller of product alleged to have caused injury, 51 A.L.R.3d 1344.

Necessity and propriety of instructing on alternative theories of negligence or breach of warranty, where instruction on strict liability in tort is given in products liability case, 52 A.L.R.3d 101.

Failure to warn as basis of liability under doctrine of strict liability in tort, 53 A.L.R.3d 239.

Products liability; strict liability in tort where injury results from allergenic (side-effect) reaction to product, 53 A.L.R.3d 298.

Strict liability in tort: liability of seller of used product, 53 A.L.R.3d 337.

Liability of hospital or medical practitioner under doctrine of strict liability in tort, or breach of warranty, for harm caused by drug, medical instrument, or similar device used in treating patient, 54 A.L.R.3d 258.

Products liability: product as unreasonably dangerous or unsafe under doctrine of strict liability in tort, 54 A.L.R.3d 352.

Liability of water supplier for damages resulting from furnishing impure water, 54 A.L.R.3d 936.

Products liability: proof, under strict tort liability doctrine, that defect was present when product left hands of defendant, 54 A.L.R.3d 1079.

Premises liability insurance: coverage as extending to liability for injuries or damage caused by product sold or rented by the insured and occurring away from the insured premises, 62 A.L.R.3d 889.

Liability of installer or maintenance company for injury caused by failure of automatic elevator to level at floor, 63 A.L.R.3d 996.

Liability for injury caused by fall of person into shaft, or by abrupt drop, sudden movement, or stopping between floors, of automatic passenger elevator, 64 A.L.R.3d 950.

Liability of installer or maintenance company for injury caused by door of automatic passenger elevator, 64 A.L.R.3d 1005.

Tort liability of project architect for economic damages suffered by contractor, 65 A.L.R.3d 249.

Promises or attempts by seller to repair goods as tolling statute of limitations for breach of warranty, 68 A.L.R.3d 1277.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury or death allegedly caused by use of contraceptive, 70 A.L.R.3d 315.

Admissibility of evidence of subsequent repairs or other remedial measures in products liability cases, 74 A.L.R.3d 1001; 38 A.L.R.4th 583.

Statements on container that enclosed toy, game, sports equipment, or the like, is safe as affecting manufacturer's liability for injury caused by product sold, 74 A.L.R.3d 1298.

Products liability: liability for injury or death allegedly caused by defective tire, 81 A.L.R.3d 318.

Products liability: liability for injury or death allegedly caused by defect in snowmobile or other recreational-purpose vehicle, 81 A.L.R.3d 394; 66 A.L.R.4th 622.

Products liability: liability for injury or death allegedly caused by defect in mobile home or trailer, 81 A.L.R.3d 421.

Liability of manufacturer, seller, or installer for personal injury caused by door glass, 84 A.L.R.3d 877.

Products liability: admissibility, against manufacturer, of product recall letter, 84 A.L.R.3d 1220.

Products liability: drain cleaners, 85 A.L.R.3d 727.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for personal injury or property damage caused by television set, 89 A.L.R.3d 210.

Products liability: what statute of limitations governs actions based on strict liability in tort, 91 A.L.R.3d 455.

Products liability insurance coverage as extending only to product-caused injury to person or other property, as distinguished from mere product failure, 91 A.L.R.3d 921.

Statute of limitations: running of statute of limitations on products liability claim against manufacturer as affected by plaintiff's lack of knowledge of defect allegedly causing personal injury or disease, 91 A.L.R.3d 991.

Products liability: stoves, 93 A.L.R.3d 99.

Prospective buyer's release of prospective seller from liability for injuries resulting from trial use or inspection of product for sale, 93 A.L.R.3d 1296.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury or death allegedly caused by failure to warn regarding danger in use of vaccine or prescription drug, 94 A.L.R.3d 748.

Promotional efforts directed toward prescribing physician as affecting prescription drug manufacturer's liability for product-caused injury, 94 A.L.R.3d 1080.

Products liability: toys and games, 95 A.L.R.3d 390.

Products liability: defective vehicular gasoline tanks, 96 A.L.R.3d 265.

Products liability: forklift trucks, 95 A.L.R.3d 541.

Products liability: duty of manufacturer to equip product with safety device to protect against patent or obvious danger, 95 A.L.R.3d 1066.

Products liability: modern cases determining whether product is defectively designed, 96 A.L.R.3d 22.

Products liability: defective vehicular gasoline tanks, 96 A.L.R.3d 265.

Liability of packer, foodstore, or restaurant for causing trichinosis, 96 A.L.R.3d 451.

Architect's liability for personal injury or death allegedly caused by improper or defective plans or design, 97 A.L.R.3d 455.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in aircraft or its parts, supplies, or equipment, 97 A.L.R.3d 627.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in motorcycle or its parts, supplies, or equipment, 98 A.L.R.3d 317.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in braking system in motor vehicle, 99 A.L.R.3d 179.

Liability of telephone company for injury by noise or electric charge transmitted over line, 99 A.L.R.3d 628.

When is person "engaged in the business" for purposes of doctrine of strict tort liability, 99 A.L.R.3d 671.

Products liability: manufacturer's or seller's obligation to supply or recommend available safety accessories in connection with industrial machinery or equipment, 99 A.L.R.3d 693.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in steering system in motor vehicle, 100 A.L.R.3d 158.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in drive train system in motor vehicle, 100 A.L.R.3d 471.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in suspension system in motor vehicle, 100 A.L.R.3d 912.

Products liability: flammable clothing, 1 A.L.R.4th 251.

Products liability: liability of manufacturer or seller for injury or death caused by defect in boat or its parts, supplies, or equipment, 1 A.L.R.4th 411.

Products liability: defective heating equipment, 1 A.L.R.4th 748.

Products liability in connection with prosthesis or other product designed to be surgically implanted in patient's body, 1 A.L.R.4th 921.

Products liability: industrial accidents involving conveyor belts or systems, 2 A.L.R.4th 262.

Products liability: diethylstibestrol (DES), 2 A.L.R.4th 1091.

Liability of manufacturer or seller of snowthrower for injuries to user, 2 A.L.R.4th 1284.

Products liability: defective vehicular windows, 3 A.L.R.4th 489.

Products liability: farm machinery, 4 A.L.R.4th 13.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in electrical system in motor vehicle, 5 A.L.R.4th 662.

Products liability: swimming pools and accessories, 6 A.L.R.4th 492.

Products liability: clothes dryers, 6 A.L.R.4th 1262.

Products liability: glue and other adhesive products, 7 A.L.R.4th 155.

Products liability: elevators, 7 A.L.R.4th 852.

Products liability: industrial presses, 8 A.L.R.4th 70.

Applicability of comparative negligence doctrine to actions based on strict liability in tort, 9 A.L.R.4th 633.

Products liability: transformer and other electrical equipment, 10 A.L.R.4th 854.

Products liability: fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fungicides, weedkillers, and the like, or articles used in application thereof, 12 A.L.R.4th 462.

Allowance of punitive damages in products liability case, 13 A.L.R.4th 52.

Products liability: cranes and other lifting apparatuses, 13 A.L.R.4th 476.

Preemption of strict liability in tort by provisions of U.C.C. Article 2, 15 A.L.R.4th 791.

Products liability: cement and concrete, 15 A.L.R.4th 1186; 60 A.L.R.5th 413.

Products liability; tire rims and wheels, 16 A.L.R.4th 137.

Products liability: firefighting equipment, 19 A.L.R.4th 326.

What statute of limitations applies to actions for personal injuries based on breach of implied warranty under UCC provisions governing sales (UCC sec. 2-725(1)), 20 A.L.R.4th 915.

"Concert of activity," "alternative liability," "enterprise liability," or similar theory as basis for imposing liability upon one or more manufacturers of defective uniform product, in absence of identification of manufacturer of precise unit or batch causing injury, 22 A.L.R.4th 183; 63 A.L.R.5th 195.

Products liability: mechanical or chain saw or components thereof, 22 A.L.R.4th 206.

Recovery, under strict liability in tort, for injury or damage caused by defects in building or land, 25 A.L.R.4th 351.

Products liability: application of strict liability in tort doctrine to agency merely financing sale or lease-purchase of personal property, 28 A.L.R.4th 326.

Products liability: animal feed or medicines, 29 A.L.R.4th 1045.

Bystander recovery for emotional distress at witnessing another's injury under strict products liability or breach of warranty, 31 A.L.R.4th 162.

Successor products liability: form of business organization of successor or predecessor as affecting successor liability, 32 A.L.R.4th 196.

Validity and construction of "sistership" clause of products liability insurance policy excepting from coverage cost of product recall or withdrawal of product from market, 32 A.L.R.4th 630.

Strict products liability: liability for failure to warn as dependent on defendant's knowledge of danger, 33 A.L.R.4th 368.

Products liability: stud guns, staple guns, or parts thereof, 33 A.L.R.4th 1189.

Products liability: household appliances relating to cleaning, washing, personal care, and water supply, quality and disposal, 34 A.L.R.4th 95.

Products liability: household equipment relating to storage, preparation, cooking, and disposal of food, 35 A.L.R.4th 663, superseding §§ 31, 37, 39 [b, g, i, m] of, 80 A.L.R.2d 598.

Products liability: modern status of rule that there is no liability for patent or obvious dangers, 35 A.L.R.4th 861.

Products liability: equipment and devices directly relating to passengers' standing or seating safety in land carriers, 35 A.L.R.4th 1050.

Products liability: home and office furnishings, 36 A.L.R.4th 170.

Products liability: modern cases on explosion or breakage of beverage bottles, 36 A.L.R.4th 419.

Products liability: Admissibility of evidence of postinjury warning measures undertaken by defendant, 38 A.L.R.4th 583.

Products liability: duty of manufacturer or seller of component part incorporated in another product to warn of dangers, 39 A.L.R.4th 6.

Products liability: inhalation of asbestos, 39 A.L.R.4th 399.

Products liability: automobile manufacturer's liability for injuries caused by repairs made under manufacturer's warranty, 40 A.L.R.4th 1218.

Products liability: inconsistency of verdicts on separate theories of negligence, breach of warranty, or strict liability, 41 A.L.R.4th 9.

Validity and construction of products liability statute precluding or limiting recovery where product has been altered or modified after leaving hands of manufacturer or seller, 41 A.L.R.4th 47.

Products liability: alcoholic beverages, 42 A.L.R.4th 253.

Products liability: construction materials or insulation containing formaldehyde, 45 A.L.R.4th 751.

Products liability: liability of manufacturer or seller as affected by failure of subsequent party in distribution chain to remedy or warn against defect of which he knew, 45 A.L.R.4th 777.

Products liability: perfumes, colognes, or deodorants, 46 A.L.R.4th 1185.

Products liability: perfumes, colognes, or deodorants, 46 A.L.R.4th 1197.

Products liability: admissibility of defendant's evidence of industry custom or practice in strict liability action, 47 A.L.R.4th 621.

Future disease or condition, or anxiety relating thereto, as element of recovery, 50 A.L.R.4th 13.

Negligence in preparing abstract of title as ground of liability to one other than person ordering abstract, 50 A.L.R.4th 314.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning athletic, exercise, or recreational equipment, 50 A.L.R.4th 1226.

Products liability: admissibility of evidence of absence of other accidents, 51 A.L.R.4th 1186.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning wearing apparel, 52 A.L.R.4th 276.

Attorneys' fees in products liability suits, 53 A.L.R.4th 414.

Products liability: personal soap, 54 A.L.R.4th 574.

Duty and liability of subcontractor to employee of another contractor using equipment or apparatus of former, 55 A.L.R.4th 725.

Products liability: pertussis vaccine manufacturers, 57 A.L.R.4th 911.

Commercial renter's negligence liability for customer's personal injuries, 57 A.L.R.4th 1186.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning food, drugs, and other products intended for ingestion, 58 A.L.R.4th 7.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning cosmetics and other personal care products, 58 A.L.R.4th 40.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning paint, cleaners, or other chemicals, 58 A.L.R.4th 76.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning gas and electric appliances, 58 A.L.R.4th 131.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning bottles, cans, storage tanks, or other containers, 58 A.L.R.4th 160.

Products liability: toxic shock syndrome, 59 A.L.R.4th 50.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning ladders and scaffolds, 59 A.L.R.4th 73.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning weapons and ammunition, 59 A.L.R.4th 102.

Products liability: polyvinyl chloride, 59 A.L.R.4th 129.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning agricultural implements and equipment, 60 A.L.R.4th 678.

Products liability: electricity, 60 A.L.R.4th 732.

Products liability: overhead garage doors and openers, 61 A.L.R.4th 94.

Products liability: building and construction lumber, 61 A.L.R.4th 121.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning building components and materials, 61 A.L.R.4th 156.

Products liability: "fireman's rule" as defense, 62 A.L.R.4th 727.

Products liability: sufficiency of evidence to support product misuse defense in actions concerning automobiles, boats, aircraft, and other vehicles, 63 A.L.R.4th 18.

Products liability: mascara and other eye cosmetics, 63 A.L.R.4th 105.

Live animal as "product" for purposes of strict products liability, 63 A.L.R.4th 127.

Products liability: product misuse defense, 65 A.L.R.4th 263.

Strict products liability: product malfunction or occurrence of accident as evidence of defect, 65 A.L.R.4th 346.

Products liability: sudden or unexpected acceleration of motor vehicle, 66 A.L.R.4th 20.

Liability of manufacturer of oral live polio (Sabin) vaccine for injury or death from its administration, 66 A.L.R.4th 83.

Liability for injury incurred in operation of power golf cart, 66 A.L.R.4th 622.

Products liability: injury caused by product as a result of being tampered with, 67 A.L.R.4th 964.

Products liability: personal jurisdiction over nonresident manufacturer of component incorporated in another product, 69 A.L.R.4th 14.

Products liability: what is an "unavoidably unsafe" product, 70 A.L.R.4th 16.

Strict products liability: recovery for damage to product alone, 72 A.L.R.4th 12.

Products liability: motor vehicle exhaust systems, 72 A.L.R.4th 62.

Products liability: industrial refrigeration equipment, 72 A.L.R.4th 90.

Products liability: scaffolds and scaffolding equipment, 74 A.L.R.4th 904.

Products liability: tractors, 75 A.L.R.4th 312.

Products liability: contributory negligence or assumption of risk as defense in negligence action based on failure to provide safety device for product causing injury, 75 A.L.R.4th 443.

Products liability: contributory negligence or assumption of risk as defense in action for strict liability or breach of warranty based on failure to provide safety device for product causing injury, 75 A.L.R.4th 538.

Forum non conveniens in products liability cases, 76 A.L.R.4th 22.

Products liability: bicycles and accessories, 76 A.L.R.4th 117.

Products liability: exercise and related equipment, 76 A.L.R.4th 145.

Products liability: trampolines and similar devices, 76 A.L.R.4th 171.

Products liability: competitive sports equipment, 76 A.L.R.4th 201.

Products liability: skiing equipment, 76 A.L.R.4th 256.

Products liability: general recreational equipment, 77 A.L.R.4th 1121.

Products liability: mechanical amusement rides and devices, 77 A.L.R.4th 1152.

Burden of proving feasibility of alternative safe design in products liability action based on defective design, 78 A.L.R.4th 154.

Products liability: lubricating products and systems, 80 A.L.R.4th 972.

Products liability: all-terrain vehicles (ATV's), 83 A.L.R.4th 70.

Liability of auctioneer under doctrine of strict products liability, 83 A.L.R.4th 1188.

Products liability: hair straighteners and relaxants, 84 A.L.R.4th 1090.

Products liability: cutting or heating torches, 84 A.L.R.4th 1123.

Liability for injury or death allegedly caused by spoilage or contamination of beverage, 87 A.L.R.4th 804.

Consequential loss of profits from injury to property as element of damages in products liability, 89 A.L.R.4th 11.

Liability for injury or death allegedly caused by foreign substance in beverage, 90 A.L.R.4th 12.

Liability for injury or death allegedly caused by foreign object in food or food product, 1 A.L.R.5th 1.

Products liability of endorser, trade association, certifier, or similar party who expresses approval of product, 1 A.L.R.5th 431.

Liability for injury or death allegedly caused by spoilage, contamination, or other deleterious condition of food or food product, 2 A.L.R.5th 1.

Liability for injury or death allegedly caused by food product containing object related to, but not intended to be present in, product, 2 A.L.R.5th 189.

Product liability: roofs and roofing materials, 3 A.L.R.5th 851.

Product liability: prefabricated buildings, 4 A.L.R.5th 667.

Products liability: application of strict liability doctrine to seller of used product, 9 A.L.R.5th 1.

Breach of assumed duty to inspect property as ground for liability to third party, 13 A.L.R.5th 289.

Products liability: failure to provide product warning or instruction in foreign language or to use universally accepted pictographs or symbols, 27 A.L.R.5th 697.

Validity and construction of statute terminating right of action for product-caused injury at fixed period after manufacture, sale, or delivery of product, 30 A.L.R.5th 1.

Products liability: cigarettes and other tobacco products, 36 A.L.R.5th 541.

Presumption or inference, in products liability action based on failure to warn, that user of product would have heeded an adequate warning had one been given, 38 A.L.R.5th 683.

Products liability: defective motor vehicle air bag systems, 39 A.L.R.5th 267.

Liability under state law for injuries resulting from defective automobile seatbelt, shoulder harness, or restraint system, 48 A.L.R.5th 1.

Causes of action governed by limitations period in UCC § 2-725, 49 A.L.R.5th 1.

Products liability: recovery for injury or death resulting from intentional inhalation of product's fumes or vapors to produce intoxicating or similar effect, 50 A.L.R.5th 275.

Third-party beneficiaries of warranties under UCC § 2-318, 50 A.L.R.5th 327.

Liability of manufacturer or seller for injury or death allegedly caused by use of contraceptive, 54 A.L.R.5th 1.

Modern status of rules regarding tort liability of building or construction contractor for injury or damage to third person occurring after completion and acceptance of work; "foreseeability" or "modern" rule, 75 A.L.R.5th 413.

Products liability: ladders, 81 A.L.R.5th 245.

Products liability: firearms, ammunition, and chemical weapons, 96 A.L.R.5th 239.

Products liability: Household equipment relating to storage, preparation, cooking, and disposal of food, 122 A.L.R.5th 515.

Federal pre-emption of state common-law products liability claims pertaining to motor vehicles, 97 A.L.R. Fed. 853.

Federal pre-emption of state common-law products liability claims pertaining to tobacco products, 97 A.L.R. Fed. 890.

Federal pre-emption of state common-law products liability claims pertaining to drugs, medical devices, and other health-related items, 98 A.L.R. Fed. 124.

Federal pre-emption of state common-law products liability claims pertaining to pesticides, 101 A.L.R. Fed. 887.

Products liability: personal injury or death allegedly caused by defect in motorcycle or its parts or equipment, 14 A.L.R.7th 7.

Products liability and negligence claims arising from use of stud guns, staple guns, nail guns, or parts thereof, 12 A.L.R.7th 5.

Products liability: clothes dryers, 1 A.L.R.7th 4.

Products liability: exercise, fitness, and related equipment, 76 A.L.R.6th 395.

Products liability: sudden or unexpected acceleration of motor vehicle, 76 A.L.R.6th 465.

Products Liability: Necessity and Admissibility of Expert or Opinion Evidence as to Causation of Injury to Users of Asbestos and Tobacco Products, 50 A.L.R.7th 3.

Products Liability: Necessity and Admissibility of Expert or Opinion Evidence as to Causation of Injury to User of Construction Products and Equipment, 53 A.L.R.7th 8.

Products Liability: Duty of Manufacturer or Seller of Component Part Incorporated in Another Product to Warn of Dangers, 58 A.L.R.7th Art. 4.

Disclaimer: These codes may not be the most recent version. Georgia may have more current or accurate information. We make no warranties or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the information contained on this site or the information linked to on the state site. Please check official sources.
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