2005 Connecticut Code - Sec. 53a-12. Defenses; burden of proof.

      Sec. 53a-12. Defenses; burden of proof. (a) When a defense other than an affirmative defense, is raised at a trial, the state shall have the burden of disproving such defense beyond a reasonable doubt.

      (b) When a defense declared to be an affirmative defense is raised at a trial, the defendant shall have the burden of establishing such defense by a preponderance of the evidence.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 12.)

      Cited. 186 C. 414, 420. Cited. 191 C. 659, 663. Cited. 196 C. 519, 528. Instructing the jury that it was the state's burden to prove intent beyond a reasonable doubt did not adequately inform the jury that it was the state's burden to disprove duress beyond a reasonable doubt. 199 C. 273, 277, 280. Cited. 204 C. 240, 249. Cited. 209 C. 75, 93, 94. Cited. Id., 733, 740. Cited. 218 C. 349, 380. Cited. 219 C. 314, 331. Cited. 225 C. 450, 457. Cited. 227 C. 456, 475. Cited. 228 C. 281, 302. Cited. 230 C. 183, 184, 222. Cited. 236 C. 342, 351.

      Cited. 6 CA 701, 702. Cited. 8 CA 667, 670, 671. Cited. 10 CA 697, 708. Cited. 11 CA 665, 669, 670. Cited. 14 CA 511, 514. Cited. 17 CA 200, 203, 204. Cited. Id., 502, 515; judgment reversed, see 213 C. 579 et seq.

      Cited. 34 CS 612, 617. Statute does not become constitutionally vulnerable by reason of imposing on defendants the burden of establishing affirmative defenses. 35 CS 555, 563.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 186 C. 414, 423; Id., 654, 661. Cited. 188 C. 237, 241, 244; Id., 653, 660. Cited. 194 C. 376, 384, 388, 390. Cited. 203 C. 212, 231. Cited. 204 C. 240, 249, 250. Cited. 209 C. 322, 335. Cited. 210 C. 110, 128. Cited. 220 C. 602, 619. Cited. 228 C. 335, 340. Cited. 231 C. 484, 493. Cited. 232 C. 537, 545. Cited. 233 C. 1, 9. Cited. 234 C. 381, 388. Cited. 236 C. 342, 352.

      Cited. 3 CA 289, 293. Cited. 5 CA 338, 340, 341. Cited. 10 CA 643, 647. Cited. Id., 697, 708. Cited. 11 CA 102, 111, 116. Cited. 17 CA 97, 99. Cited. Id., 502, 510; judgment reversed, see 213 C. 579 et seq. Cited. 20 CA 75, 82. Cited. 24 CA 556, 561. Cited. Id., 624, 633. Cited. 29 CA 262, 271. Cited. 31 CA 140, 144. Cited. 33 CA 782, 788. Cited. 34 CA 368, 383; see also 233 C. 517 et seq. Cited. 46 CA 216.

      Cited. 38 CS 619, 623.

      Subsec. (b):

      Cited. 182 C. 388, 390. Cited. 193 C. 695, 731. Cited. 207 C. 374, 385. Cited. 209 C. 733, 740, 752. Cited. 214 C. 540, 547. Cited. 217 C. 648, 670. Cited. 227 C. 456, 475. Cited. 228 C. 281, 302. Cited. 229 C. 328, 334. Cited. 230 C. 351, 362. Cited. 233 C. 403, 415. Cited. 236 C. 189, 198, 201. Cited. Id., 342, 353. Cited. 242 C. 93. Legislature not required to expressly declare an exception to culpability to be an affirmative defense for it to operate as an affirmative defense; statute does not prohibit judicially recognized affirmative defenses. 254 C. 107.

      Cited. 11 CA 102, 116. Cited. 12 CA 32, 36. Cited. 14 CA 511, 514. Cited. 20 CA 342, 344. Cited. 24 CA 678, 680. Cited. Id., 670, 676. Cited. 28 CA 91, 96.

      Held unconstitutional insofar as it places a burden of proof on the defense. 33 CS 28, 31.

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