2017 Colorado Revised Statutes
Title 19 - Children's Code
Article 5 - Relinquishment and Adoption
Part 1 - Relinquishment
§ 19-5-105. Proceeding to terminate parent-child legal relationship
(1) If one parent relinquishes or proposes to relinquish or consents to the adoption of a child, the agency or person having custody of the child shall file a petition in the juvenile court to terminate the parent-child legal relationship of the other parent, unless the other parent's relationship to the child has been previously terminated or determined by a court not to exist. This section applies whether or not the other parent is a presumed parent pursuant to section 19-4-105 (1).
(2) In an effort to identify the other birth parent, the court shall cause inquiry to be made of the known parent and any other appropriate person. The inquiry shall include the following: Whether the mother was married at the time of conception of the child or at any time thereafter; whether the mother was cohabiting with a man at the time of conception or birth of the child; whether the mother has received support payments or promises of support with respect to the child or in connection with her pregnancy; or whether any man has formally or informally acknowledged or declared his possible paternity of the child.
(3) If, after the inquiry, the other birth parent is identified to the satisfaction of the court or if more than one person is identified as a possible parent, each shall be given notice of the proceeding in accordance with subsection (5) of this section, including notice of the person's right to waive his or her right to appear and contest. If any of them waives his or her right to appear and contest or fails to appear or, if appearing, cannot personally assume legal and physical custody, taking into account the child's age, needs, and individual circumstances, such person's parent-child legal relationship with reference to the child shall be terminated. If the other birth parent or a person representing himself or herself to be the other birth parent appears and demonstrates the desire and ability to personally assume legal and physical custody of the child, taking into account the child's age, needs, and individual circumstances, the court shall proceed to determine parentage under article 4 of this title. If the court determines that the person is the other birth parent, the court shall set a hearing, as expeditiously as possible, to determine whether the interests of the child or of the community require that the other parent's rights be terminated or, if they are not terminated, to determine whether:
(a) To award custody to the other birth parent or to the physical custodian of the child; or
(b) To direct that a dependency and neglect action be filed pursuant to part 5 of article 3 of this title with appropriate orders for the protection of the child during the pendency of the action.
(3.1) The court may order the termination of the other birth parent's parental rights upon a finding that termination is in the best interests of the child and that there is clear and convincing evidence of one or more of the following:
(a) That the parent is unfit. In considering the fitness of the child's parent, the court shall consider the following:
(I) An emotional illness, a behavioral or mental health disorder, or an intellectual and developmental disability of the parent of such duration or nature as to render the parent unlikely, within a reasonable period of time, to care for the ongoing physical, mental, and emotional needs of the child;
(II) A single incident of life-threatening or serious bodily injury or disfigurement of the child or other children;
(III) Conduct toward the child or other children of a physically or sexually abusive nature;
(IV) A history of violent behavior that demonstrates that the individual is unfit to maintain a parent-child relationship with the minor, which may include an incidence of sexual assault, as defined in section 19-1-103 (96.5), that resulted in the conception of the child;
(V) Excessive use of intoxicating liquors or use of controlled substances, as defined in section 18-18-102 (5), C.R.S., that affects the ability of the individual to care and provide for the child;
(VI) Neglect of the child or other children;
(VII) Injury or death of a sibling or other children due to proven abuse or neglect by such parent;
(VIII) Whether, on two or more occasions, a child in the physical custody of the parent has been adjudicated dependent or neglected in a proceeding under article 3 of this title or comparable proceedings under the laws of another state or the federal government;
(IX) Whether, on one or more prior occasions, a parent has had his or her parent-child legal relationship terminated pursuant to this section or article 3 of this title or comparable proceedings under the laws of another state or the federal government.
(b) That the parent has not established a substantial, positive relationship with the child. The court shall consider, but shall not be limited to, the following in determining whether the parent has established a substantial, positive relationship with the child:
(I) Whether the parent has maintained regular and meaningful contact with the child;
(II) Whether the parent has openly lived with the child for at least one hundred eighty days within the year preceding the filing of the relinquishment petition or, if the child is less than one year old at the time of the filing of the relinquishment petition, for at least one-half of the child's life; and
(III) Whether the parent has openly held out the child as his or her own child.
(c) That the parent has not promptly taken substantial parental responsibility for the child. In making this determination the court shall consider, but shall not be limited to, the following:
(I) Whether the parent who is the subject of the petition is served with notice and fails to file an answer within thirty-five days after service of the notice and petition to terminate the parent-child legal relationship, or within twenty-one days if the petition for termination was filed pursuant to section 19-5-103.5, or fails to file a paternity action, pursuant to article 4 of this title, within thirty-five days after the birth of the child or within thirty-five days after receiving notice that he is the father or likely father of the child, or, for those petitions filed pursuant to section 19-5-103.5, within twenty-one days after the birth of the child or after receiving notice that he is the father or likely father of the child;
(II) Whether the parent has failed to pay regular and reasonable support for the care of the child, according to that parent's means; and
(III) Whether the birth father has failed to substantially assist the mother in the payment of the medical, hospital, and nursing expenses, according to that parent's means, incurred in connection with the pregnancy and birth of the child.
(3.2) In considering the termination of a parent's parental rights, the court shall give paramount consideration to the physical, mental, and emotional conditions and needs of the child. Such consideration shall specifically include whether the child has formed a strong, positive bond with the child's physical custodian, the time period that the bond has existed, and whether removal of the child from the physical custodian would likely cause significant psychological harm to the child.
(3.3) If the child is under one year of age at the time that the relinquishment petition is filed, there is an affirmative defense to any allegations under subparagraph (VI) of paragraph (a), paragraph (b), and paragraph (c) of subsection (3.1) of this section that the parent's neglect, failure to establish a substantial relationship, or failure to take substantial responsibility for the child was due to impediments created by the other parent or person having custody. A parent shall demonstrate such impediments created by the other parent or person having custody by a preponderance of the evidence.
(3.4) (a) If the court determines not to terminate the nonrelinquishing parent's parental rights nor to direct that a dependency and neglect action be filed, the court shall proceed to determine custody of the child, parenting time with the child, duty of support, and recovery of child support debt.
(b) The court shall determine custody based upon the best interests of the child giving paramount consideration to the physical, mental, and emotional conditions and needs of the child.
(c) If the child has been out of his or her birth parents' care for more than one year, irrespective of incidental communications or visits from the relinquishing or nonrelinquishing parent, there is a rebuttable presumption that the best interests of the child will be served by granting custody to the person in whose care the child has been for that period. Such presumption may be overcome by a preponderance of the evidence.
(3.5) Notwithstanding subsection (3.4) of this section, the court shall grant custody of the child to the nonrelinquishing birth parent if the court finds that the birth parent has the ability and the desire to assume personally legal and physical custody of the child promptly and that all of the following exists:
(a) The nonrelinquishing parent has established a substantial, positive relationship with the child;
(b) The nonrelinquishing parent has promptly taken substantial parental responsibility for the child; and
(c) The award of custody to the nonrelinquishing parent is in the best interests of the child.
(3.6) Except for a parent whose parental rights have been relinquished pursuant to section 19-5-104, a person who has or did have the child in his or her care has the right to intervene as an interested party and to present evidence to the court regarding the nonrelinquishing parent's contact, communication, and relationship with the child. If custody is at issue pursuant to subsection (3.4) of this section, such person also has the right to present evidence regarding the best interests of the child and his or her own suitability as a placement for the child.
(4) If, after the inquiry, the court is unable to identify the other birth parent or any other possible birth parent and no person has appeared claiming to be the other birth parent and claiming custodial rights, the court shall enter an order terminating the unknown birth parent's parent-child legal relationship with reference to the child. Subject to the disposition of an appeal upon the expiration of thirty-five days after an order terminating a parent-child legal relationship is issued under subsection (3) of this section or this subsection (4), the order cannot be questioned by any person, in any manner, or upon any ground, except fraud upon the court or fraud upon a party. Upon an allegation of fraud, the termination order cannot be questioned by any person, in any manner or upon any ground, after the expiration of ninety-one days from the date that the order was entered.
(5) Notice of the proceeding shall be given to every person identified as the other birth parent or a possible birth parent in the manner appropriate under the Colorado rules of juvenile procedure for the service of process or in any manner the court directs. The notice shall inform the parent or alleged parent whose rights are to be determined that failure to file an answer or to appear within thirty-five days after service and, in the case of an alleged father, failure to file a claim of paternity under article 4 of this title within thirty-five days after service, if a claim has not previously been filed, may likely result in termination of the parent's or the alleged parent's parental rights to the minor. The notice also shall inform the parent or alleged parent whose rights are to be determined that such person has the right to waive his or her right to appear and contest and that failure to appear and contest may likely result in termination of the parent's or the alleged parent's parental rights to the minor. Proof of giving the notice shall be filed with the court before the petition is heard. If no person has been identified as the birth parent, the court shall order that notice be provided to all possible parents by publication or public posting of the notice at times and in places and manner the court deems appropriate.
(6) In those cases in which a parent proposes to relinquish his or her parent-child legal relationship with a child who is under one year of age, pursuant to the expedited procedures set forth in section 19-5-103.5, the licensed child placement agency or the county department of social services assisting the relinquishing parent shall proceed with filing the petition for termination of the other birth parent's or possible birth parents' parent-child legal relationship and notify the other birth parent or possible birth parents as provided in section 19-5-103.5 (2).