2016 Colorado Revised Statutes
Title 38 - Property - Real and Personal
Real Property
Article 33.3 - Colorado Common Interest Ownership Act
Part 3 - Management of the Common Interest Community
§ 38-33.3-303. Executive board members and officers - powers and duties - reserve funds - reserve study - audit

CO Rev Stat ยง 38-33.3-303 (2016) What's This?

(1) (a) Except as provided in the declaration, the bylaws, or subsection (3) of this section or any other provisions of this article, the executive board may act in all instances on behalf of the association.

(b) Notwithstanding any provision of the declaration or bylaws to the contrary, all members of the executive board shall have available to them all information related to the responsibilities and operation of the association obtained by any other member of the executive board. This information shall include, but is not necessarily limited to, reports of detailed monthly expenditures, contracts to which the association is a party, and copies of communications, reports, and opinions to and from any member of the executive board or any managing agent, attorney, or accountant employed or engaged by the executive board to whom the executive board delegates responsibilities under this article.

(2) Except as otherwise provided in subsection (2.5) of this section:

(a) If appointed by the declarant, in the performance of their duties, the officers and members of the executive board are required to exercise the care required of fiduciaries of the unit owners.

(b) If not appointed by the declarant, no member of the executive board and no officer shall be liable for actions taken or omissions made in the performance of such member's duties except for wanton and willful acts or omissions.

(2.5) With regard to the investment of reserve funds of the association, the officers and members of the executive board shall be subject to the standards set forth in section 7-128-401, C.R.S.; except that, as used in that section:

(a) "Corporation" or "nonprofit corporation" means the association.

(b) "Director" means a member of the association's executive board.

(c) "Officer" means any person designated as an officer of the association and any person to whom the executive board delegates responsibilities under this article, including, without limitation, a managing agent, attorney, or accountant employed by the executive board.

(3) (a) The executive board may not act on behalf of the association to amend the declaration, to terminate the common interest community, or to elect members of the executive board or determine the qualifications, powers and duties, or terms of office of executive board members, but the executive board may fill vacancies in its membership for the unexpired portion of any term.

(b) Committees of the association shall be appointed pursuant to the governing documents of the association or, if the governing documents contain no applicable provisions, pursuant to section 7-128-206, C.R.S. The person appointed after August 15, 2009, to preside over any such committee shall meet the same qualifications as are required by the governing documents of the association for election or appointment to the executive board of the association.

(4) (a) Within ninety days after adoption of any proposed budget for the common interest community, the executive board shall mail, by ordinary first-class mail, or otherwise deliver a summary of the budget to all the unit owners and shall set a date for a meeting of the unit owners to consider the budget. Such meeting shall occur within a reasonable time after mailing or other delivery of the summary, or as allowed for in the bylaws. The executive board shall give notice to the unit owners of the meeting as allowed for in the bylaws. Unless the declaration requires otherwise, the budget proposed by the executive board does not require approval from the unit owners and it will be deemed approved by the unit owners in the absence of a veto at the noticed meeting by a majority of all unit owners, or if permitted in the declaration, a majority of a class of unit owners, or any larger percentage specified in the declaration, whether or not a quorum is present. In the event that the proposed budget is vetoed, the periodic budget last proposed by the executive board and not vetoed by the unit owners must be continued until a subsequent budget proposed by the executive board is not vetoed by the unit owners.

(4) (a) (I) Within ninety days after adoption of a proposed budget for the common interest community, the executive board shall mail, by first-class mail, or otherwise deliver, including posting the proposed budget on the association's website, a summary of the budget to all the unit owners and shall set a date for a meeting of the unit owners to consider the budget. The meeting must occur within a reasonable time after mailing or other delivery of the summary, or as allowed for in the bylaws. The executive board shall give notice to the unit owners of the meeting as allowed for in the bylaws.

(II) Unless the declaration requires otherwise, the budget proposed by the executive board does not require approval from the unit owners and it will be deemed approved by the unit owners in the absence of a veto at the noticed meeting by a majority of all unit owners, or if permitted in the declaration, a majority of a class of unit owners, or any larger percentage specified in the declaration, whether or not a quorum is present. If the proposed budget is vetoed, the periodic budget last proposed by the executive board and not vetoed by the unit owners must be continued until a subsequent budget proposed by the executive board is not vetoed by the unit owners.

(b) (I) At the discretion of the executive board or upon request pursuant to subparagraph (II) or (III) of this paragraph (b) as applicable, the books and records of the association shall be subject to an audit, using generally accepted auditing standards, or a review, using statements on standards for accounting and review services, by an independent and qualified person selected by the board. Such person need not be a certified public accountant except in the case of an audit. A person selected to conduct a review shall have at least a basic understanding of the principles of accounting as a result of prior business experience, education above the high school level, or bona fide home study. The audit or review report shall cover the association's financial statements, which shall be prepared using generally accepted accounting principles or the cash or tax basis of accounting.

(II) An audit shall be required under this paragraph (b) only when both of the following conditions are met:

(A) The association has annual revenues or expenditures of at least two hundred fifty thousand dollars; and

(B) An audit is requested by the owners of at least one-third of the units represented by the association.

(III) A review shall be required under this paragraph (b) only when requested by the owners of at least one-third of the units represented by the association.

(IV) Copies of an audit or review under this paragraph (b) shall be made available upon request to any unit owner beginning no later than thirty days after its completion.

(V) Notwithstanding section 38-33.3-117 (1.5) (h), this paragraph (b) shall not apply to an association that includes time-share units, as defined in section 38-33-110 (7).

(5) (a) Subject to subsection (6) of this section:

(I) The declaration, except a declaration for a large planned community, may provide for a period of declarant control of the association, during which period a declarant, or persons designated by such declarant, may appoint and remove the officers and members of the executive board. Regardless of the period of declarant control provided in the declaration, a period of declarant control terminates no later than the earlier of sixty days after conveyance of seventy-five percent of the units that may be created to unit owners other than a declarant, two years after the last conveyance of a unit by the declarant in the ordinary course of business, or two years after any right to add new units was last exercised.

(II) The declaration for a large planned community may provide for a period of declarant control of the association during which period a declarant, or persons designated by such declarant, may appoint and remove the officers and members of the executive board. Regardless of the period of declarant control provided in the declaration, a period of declarant control terminates in a large planned community no later than the earlier of sixty days after conveyance of seventy-five percent of the maximum number of units that may be created under zoning or other governmental development approvals in effect for the large planned community at any given time to unit owners other than a declarant, six years after the last conveyance of a unit by the declarant in the ordinary course of business, or twenty years after recordation of the declaration.

(b) A declarant may voluntarily surrender the right to appoint and remove officers and members of the executive board before termination of the period of declarant control, but, in that event, the declarant may require, for the duration of the period of declarant control, that specified actions of the association or executive board, as described in a recorded instrument executed by the declarant, be approved by the declarant before they become effective.

(c) If a period of declarant control is to terminate in a large planned community pursuant to subparagraph (II) of paragraph (a) of this subsection (5), the declarant, or persons designated by the declarant, shall no longer have the right to appoint and remove the officers and members of the executive board unless, prior to the termination date, the association approves an extension of the declarant's ability to appoint and remove no more than a majority of the executive board by vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast in person or by proxy, other than by the declarant, at a meeting duly convened as required by law. Any such approval by the association may contain conditions and limitations. Such extension of declarant's appointment and removal power, together with any conditions and limitations approved as provided in this paragraph (c), shall be included in an amendment to the declaration previously executed by the declarant.

(6) Not later than sixty days after conveyance of twenty-five percent of the units that may be created to unit owners other than a declarant, at least one member and not less than twenty-five percent of the members of the executive board must be elected by unit owners other than the declarant. Not later than sixty days after conveyance of fifty percent of the units that may be created to unit owners other than a declarant, not less than thirty-three and one-third percent of the members of the executive board must be elected by unit owners other than the declarant.

(7) Except as otherwise provided in section 38-33.3-220 (5), not later than the termination of any period of declarant control, the unit owners shall elect an executive board of at least three members, at least a majority of whom must be unit owners other than the declarant or designated representatives of unit owners other than the declarant. The executive board shall elect the officers. The executive board members and officers shall take office upon election.

(8) Notwithstanding any provision of the declaration or bylaws to the contrary, the unit owners, by a vote of sixty-seven percent of all persons present and entitled to vote at any meeting of the unit owners at which a quorum is present, may remove any member of the executive board with or without cause, other than a member appointed by the declarant or a member elected pursuant to a class vote under section 38-33.3-207 (4).

(9) Within sixty days after the unit owners other than the declarant elect a majority of the members of the executive board, the declarant shall deliver to the association all property of the unit owners and of the association held by or controlled by the declarant, including without limitation the following items:

(a) The original or a certified copy of the recorded declaration as amended, the association's articles of incorporation, if the association is incorporated, bylaws, minute books, other books and records, and any rules and regulations which may have been promulgated;

(b) An accounting for association funds and financial statements, from the date the association received funds and ending on the date the period of declarant control ends. The financial statements shall be audited by an independent certified public accountant and shall be accompanied by the accountant's letter, expressing either the opinion that the financial statements present fairly the financial position of the association in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles or a disclaimer of the accountant's ability to attest to the fairness of the presentation of the financial information in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and the reasons therefor. The expense of the audit shall not be paid for or charged to the association.

(c) The association funds or control thereof;

(d) All of the declarant's tangible personal property that has been represented by the declarant to be the property of the association or all of the declarant's tangible personal property that is necessary for, and has been used exclusively in, the operation and enjoyment of the common elements, and inventories of these properties;

(e) A copy, for the nonexclusive use by the association, of any plans and specifications used in the construction of the improvements in the common interest community;

(f) All insurance policies then in force, in which the unit owners, the association, or its directors and officers are named as insured persons;

(g) Copies of any certificates of occupancy that may have been issued with respect to any improvements comprising the common interest community;

(h) Any other permits issued by governmental bodies applicable to the common interest community and which are currently in force or which were issued within one year prior to the date on which unit owners other than the declarant took control of the association;

(i) Written warranties of the contractor, subcontractors, suppliers, and manufacturers that are still effective;

(j) A roster of unit owners and mortgagees and their addresses and telephone numbers, if known, as shown on the declarant's records;

(k) Employment contracts in which the association is a contracting party;

(l) Any service contract in which the association is a contracting party or in which the association or the unit owners have any obligation to pay a fee to the persons performing the services; and

(m) For large planned communities, copies of all recorded deeds and all recorded and unrecorded leases evidencing ownership or leasehold rights of the large planned community unit owners' association in all common elements within the large planned community.

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